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Belarus Economy

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.acid soil (n)

кислая почва

2.combustible slates (n)

горючий сланец

3.arable land (n)

пахотная земля

4.peat (n)

торф

5.loam (n)

жирная глина

6.fire-resistant and refractory clay (n)

огнеупорная глина

7.amalgamation (n)

объединение

8.potassium salts (n)

калийные соли

9.backbone (n)

основа

The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of Europe, on the crossroads of trade ways between West and East, North and South, in the East European Plain. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create favorable conditions for habitation of population, building industrial enterprises.

The territory of the Republic of Belarus covers 207.6 thousand square kilometers. Minsk is the capital of the Republic of Belarus.

The total population of the republic reached about 10 million people. The Republic of Belarus consists of six regions with centers in the cities of Minsk, Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Mogilyov, which are further divided into 118 rural districts, 102 towns and over 24 thousand townships and villages.

Most of Belarus territory is farming land and in the past Belarus was mainly an agricultural country. The lands here are not very rich. Four-fifth of its arable land is constituted by acid soil which needs constant improvement. Today agriculture specializes in meat and milk production. The main crops grown here are potatoes, grain, flax and vegetables.

Belarus is not rich in mineral resources. There are some deposits of petroleum, combustible slates, brown coal, ferrous and non-ferrous ore, dolomites, potassium salts on the lands of the republic. The reserves of peat, fire-resistant and refractory clay, loam and sand for the manufacture of glass, various construction materials are great.

The backbone of Belarus economy is constituted by industry. The industry produces nearly 70% of GNP. The main branches are motor industry, manufacture of tractors, and agricultural engineering, machine-tool industry, and manufacture of bearings, electronics and electrical industry, manufacture and refining of petroleum, mining, manufacture of synthetic fibers, mineral fertilizers, radio engineering products, pharmaceutical industry, manufacture of construction materials, light industry and food-processing industry.

Over 100 large enterprises are the basis of Belarus economy. These are such large plants as Minsk Tractor Plant, the Refrigerator Producing Amalgamation Atlant, the TV sets Producing Amalgamation Gorizont, Belarus Amalgamation of Heavy-load Trucks Production BelavtoMAZ, Novopolotsk and Mozyr oil-processing plants, Zhlobin metallurgy plant, artificial fibers plants and many others.

The main trading partners are Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Italy, Latvia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Brasil, China, Argentina. Development of export potential, improvement of the structure of export and import, rational use of external financing are the main perspectives for the republic.

Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. habitation

a) фармацевтическая промышленность

2. improvement

b) зерно, хлебные злаки

3. crops

c) проживание

4. synthetic fiber

d) нефтеперерабатывающий завод

5. mineral fertilizers

e) сельскохозяйственная культура

6. pharmaceutical industry

f) агротехника

7. grain

g) минеральные удобрения

8. deposit

h) улучшение

9. agricultural engineering

i) искусственное волокно

10.oil-processing plant

j) залежь

Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Умеренно континентальный климат, лён, доломиты, благоприятные условия, мясное и молочное производство, создавать, промышленные предприятия, производство и очистка нефти, производство подшипников, внешнее финансирование, минеральные удобрения, производство строительных материалов, лёгкая и пищевая промышленность, нефтеперерабатывающий завод, торф, калийные соли, железная и цветная руда, производственное объединение.

Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

  1. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create unfavorable conditions for habitation of population, building industrial enterprises.

  2. The total population of the republic reached over 10 million people.

  3. Most of Belarus territory is farming land and in the past Belarus was mainly an agricultural country.

  4. One-third of its arable land is constituted by acid soil which needs constant improvement.

  5. Today agriculture specializes in meat and milk production.

  6. The main crops grown here are potatoes, grain, flax and vegetables.

  7. The reserves of peat, fire-resistant and refractory clay, loam and sand for the manufacture of glass, various construction materials are not great.

  8. The backbone of Belarus economy is constituted by agriculture.

  9. The industry produces nearly 63% of GNP.

10. Over 100 large enterprises are the basis of Belarus economy.

Ex.4. Answer the questions:

  1. What is location of the Republic of Belarus?

  2. What is its population?

  3. Is Belarus rich in mineral resources?

  4. In what production does Belarus agriculture specialize today?

  5. What deposits comprise our mineral wealth?

  6. What are the main branches of Belarus economy?

  7. Can you name large enterprises which form the basis of Belarus economy?

  8. What are the basic trading and economic partners of the Republic of Belarus?

Ex.5. Complete the sentences:

  1. The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of Europe, …

  2. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create …

  3. Four-fifth of its arable land is constituted by …

  4. The main crops grown here are …

  5. There are some deposits of …

  6. The main branches are motor industry, manufacture of tractors, and …

  7. These are such large plants as …

  8. The main trading partners are …

Ex.6. Make up a plan of the text and retell it.