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100

Учебное пособие

Ирина Владимировна Эделева

BRITISH STATE SYSTEM

Редактор Л.П. Десяткина

____________________________________________________

Лицензия РБ на издательскую деятельность № 0261 от 10 апреля 1998 года.

Подписано в печать _____ 200 ___ г. Формат _____. Бумага типографская. Гарнитура Таймс. Уст.печ.л. ______ Уст.изд.л.

_______. Тираж _____ экз. Заказ № _______.

Издательство Башкирского государственного аграрного университета. Типография Башкирского государственного аграрного университета. Адрес издательства в типографии: 450001, г. Уфа, ул. 50 лет Октября, 34

Министерство сельского хозяйства Российской Федерации

ФГОУ ВПО «БАШКИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ АГРАРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

И.В. Эделева

BRITISH STATE SYSTEM

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ «ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ И МУНИЦИПАЛЬНОЕ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ»

УФА Издательство БГАУ

2007

УДК 811.111(07)

ББК 81.2 Англ (Я7)

Э 19

Рекомендуется к изданию Редакционно-издательским советом БГАУ

Автор: И.В. Эделева

Рецензенты: зав. кафедрой ГМУ Башгосагроуниверситета, кандидат юридических наук, профессор Ханнанова Т.Р.; кандидат филологических наук, старший преподаватель кафедры английского языка Башгоспедуниверситета им. М. Акмуллы Амирова О.Г.

Э 19 British state system: Учебное пособие. – Уфа:

Башгосагроуниверситет, 2007. – 100 с.

ISBN 5-7456-0094-2

Цель пособия – развитие и совершенствование навыков чтения англоязычной специализированной литературы у студентов, изучающих государственное и муниципальное управление

 

УДК 811.111(07)

 

ББК 81.2 Англ (Я7)

ISBN 5-7456-0094-2

© Эделева И.В., 2007

 

© Башкирский государственный

 

аграрный университет, 2007

99

Part II

Supplementary reading

1.The concept and history of constitution…………….. 73

2.Characteristics of constitutions……………………... 74

3.From the history of monarchy………………………. 76

4.The Queen’s role in the Commonwealth……………. 77

5.The future of the British monarchy?.……………….. 78

6.Lord Chancellor – why is the post being scrapped?.... 80

7.Types of bills………………………………………... 81

8.Who governs Britain?.………………………………. 82

9. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet………………… 83

10.The principles of government……………………….. 85

11.Government Departments…………………………… 86

12.The Privy Council…………………………………... 88

13.Standing as a candidate at an election………………. 89

14. Ways to vote………………………………………… 90

15.Polling day………………………………………….. 91

16.By-elections…………………………………………. 91 Appendix ………………………………………………… 93

Sources of information………………………………... 97

98

CONTENTS

От автора………………………………………………….

3

Part I

4

Unit 1. General……………………………………………

Unit 2. Monarchy……………………………………........

6

Ancient institution…………………………………

6

Functions and powers……………………………...

9

The Queen and the Prime Minister………………...

11

Monarchy and democracy…………………….........

13

Expensive institution……………………………….

15

Unit 3. British Parliament………………………………..

17

History and structure……………………………….

17

The House of Commons……………………………

20

The House of Lords………………………………...

23

The work of Parliament…………………………….

27

Unit 4. Government………………………………………

32

Unit 5. Civil Service……………………………………....

37

Unit 6. Westminster Palace and traditions in

41

Parliament………………………………………..

Westminster Palace………………………………...

41

State Opening of Parliament………………….........

44

Traditions in Parliament………………………........

47

Unit 7. British Constitution……………………………....

52

Unit 8. Electoral System……………………………….....

58

Electoral results…………………………………….

61

Unit 9. Political Parties……………………………….......

64

Conservative Party……………………………........

64

Labour Party………………………………………..

67

Liberal Party………………………………………..

70

Liberal Democratic Party…………………………..

71

3

От автора

Предлагаемое учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, специализирующихся в области государственного и муниципального управления. Его цель – сформировать навыки чтения и работы с литературой по специальности на современных аутентичных текстах, обработанных и адаптированных для студентов данного профиля.

Пособие состоит из двух частей и приложения. Первая часть включает тексты для изучающего чтения с упражнениями

итематически строится из 9 уроков. Тематика текстов разнообразна и охватывает государственный строй Великобритании, историю и структуру британского парламента, систему правительства, государственную службу, британскую конституцию, основные политические партии, избирательную систему. Для облегчения работы после каждого текста приводится список наиболее сложных слов и выражений из текста с переводом на русский язык и, если необходимо, с пояснением. Вторая часть пособия содержит тексты для внеаудиторного чтения, предназначенные для самостоятельной работы, и по содержанию дополняют изучаемые в первой части пособия тексты, способствуя дальнейшему закреплению и овладению специальной лексикой.

Активная лексика урока закрепляется в ходе выполнения послетекстовых лексических упражнений. Это упражнения на нахождение эквивалентов, поиск синонимов и антонимов, работу с дефинициями. Имеются также упражнения на отдельные словообразовательные модели, что позволяет расширить потенциальный словарный запас студентов. Среди грамматических упражнений преобладают упражнения на идентификацию и объяснение отдельных грамматических форм

иявлений и перевод предложений с ними. Вопросно-ответная форма работы над текстами позволяет успешно развивать навыки устной ре

4

UNIT 1

GENERAL

Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Britain is a multiparty democracy (state system). It's complex and unique as it is the product of a long period of historical development which resulted in the Glorious Revolution and establishment of the Crowned Republic in 1688. The absence of a revolutionary upheaval since then, i.e. for more than 300 years, the lack of a document known as a written constitution, the tendency to preserve outward forms when the inner substance is changed — all this makes the English polity both complex and unique.

Officially Great Britain is a state of the constitutional monarchy. That means that at the head of the state is monarch (Queen or King). But the power of the Queen is not absolute, it is greatly limited by Parliament.

British polity comprises three main ruling bodies — monarchy, parliament and government. The oldest of the three institutions is monarchy. In many countries their constitution enforce a strict separation between the three branches of power — the executive, the legislative and the judiciary. Britain has some separation but not very much. The legal system is independent to a large degree: although the government of the day appoints judges, it cannot interfere with their work and it cannot get rid of those appointed by the previous government. But the executive and the legislature are not separate at all. In fact, the former is part of the latter, because government is formed within Parliament. Judiciary is also performed by Parliament.

97

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

1.Гуманова Ю.Л. и др. Just English. The State of Britain.

Английский для юристов и политологов: Углубленный курс. – М.: КНОРУС, 2006. – 200 с.

2.Нестерова Н.М. Страноведение: Великобритания. – Ростов н/Д.: Феникс, 2005. – 368 с.

3.Рум А.Р.У. Великобритания: Лингвострановедческий словарь. – М.: Рус. яз., 1999. – 560 с.

4.http://www.britannia.com/gov/primes/

5.http://www.conservatives.com

6.http://www.labour.org.uk

7. http://www.libdems.org.uk

96

 

Hanoverian

 

George I

28.05.1660

1.08.1714

11.06.1727

George II

30.10.1683

11.06.1727

25.10.1760

George III

24.05.1738

25.10.1760

regency

 

 

 

declared 5.02.

 

 

 

1811; died

 

 

 

29.01. 1820

George IV

12.08.1762

regent from

26.06.1830

 

 

5.02.1811;

 

 

 

acceded

 

 

 

9.01.1820

20.06.1837

William IV

21.08.1765

26.06.1830

 

Descendants of Victoria

 

Victoria

24.05.1819

20.06.1837

22.01.1901

Edward VII

9.11.1841

22.01.1901

6.05.1910

George V

3.06.1865

6.05.1910

20.01.1936

Edward VIII

23.06.1894

20.01.1936

abdicated

 

 

 

11.12.1936;

 

 

 

died

 

 

 

28.05.1972

George VI

14.12.1895

11.12.1936

6.02.1952

Elizabeth II

21.04.1926

6.02.1952

 

5

Notes to the text:

Glorious Revolution – «Славная революция» (1688-1689). upheaval – переворот

polity – государственное устройство, форма правления the former – первый (из двух названных)

the latter – последний (из двух названных)

Task 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations: многопартийный, учреждение

(основание), быть ограниченным, включать, органы правления, исполнительный, законодательный, судебный, законодательство (2 выражения), независимый, в большей степени, назначать, мешать чему-либо, выполнять.

Task 3. Find synonyms from the text to the following words: total, to include, to make obligatory, legislature, autonomous, to carry out, division.

Task 4. Answer the questions:

1.Why is the British state system considered complex and unique?

2.How is the British state system defined officially?

3.What are the main ruling bodies in Great Britain?

4.What are the three branches of power in Great Britain?

5.Are these branches strictly separated?

6

UNIT 2

MONARCHY

Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Ancient institution

The monarchy is the most ancient secular institution in the United Kingdom, going back at least to the 9th century. The Queen can trace her descent from the Saxon King Egbert, who united all England under his sovereignty in 829. The continuity of the monarchy has been broken only once by a republic that lasted only 11 years (1649-1660). Monarchy is founded on the hereditary principle and it has never been abandoned. The succession passed automatically to the oldest male child or, in the absence of males, to the oldest female offspring of the monarch. Quite recently the rules of descent have been changed. Now the succession passes to the oldest child irrespective of its sex.

The coronation of the sovereign follows some months or a year after the accession. The ceremony has remained much the same in substance for over 1000 years. It consists of recognition and acceptance of the new monarch by the people; the taking by the monarch of an oath of royal duties; the anointing and crowning (after communion); and the rendering of homage by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal.

The coronation service, conducted by the Archbishop of Canterbury, is held at Westminster Abbey in the presence of representatives of the Lords, the Commons and all the great public interests in the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister and leading members of the Commonwealth countries, representatives of foreign states.

95

English Monarchs since 15th century

Monarch

born

acceded

died

 

Tudor

 

Henry VII

28.01.1457

22.08. 1485

21.04.1509

Henry VIII

28.06.1491

22.04.1509

28.01.1547

Edward VI

12.10.1537

28.01.1547

6.07.1553

Mary I

18.02.1516

19.07.1553

17.11.1558

Elizabeth I

7.09.1533

17.11.1558

24.03.1603

Stuart

James I

19.06.1566

24.03.1603

27.03.1625

 

19.11.1600

27.03.1625

30.01.1649

 

 

 

beheaded

Charles II

29.05.1630

30.01.1649;

6.02.1685

 

 

restored

 

 

 

29.05.1660

declared to

James II

14.10.1633

6/02.1685

 

 

 

have abdicated

 

 

 

11.12.1688;

 

 

 

died 6.09.1701

Mary II

30.04.1662

13.02.1689

28.12.1694

William III

4.11.1650

28.12.1694

8.03.1702

Anne

6.02.1665

8.03.1702

1.08.1714

 

94

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

The Commonwealth of Nations

 

 

 

 

1.

Antigua and Barbuda

26.

Mauritius

 

 

 

 

2.

Australia

27.

Nauru

 

 

 

 

3.

Bahamas

28.

New Zealand

 

 

 

 

4.

Bangladesh

29.

Nigeria

 

 

 

 

5.

Barbados

30.

Pakistan

By the Act of Parliament, the monarch must be a

6.

Belize

31.

Papua New Guinea

7.

Botswana

32.

St. Christopher and

Protestant. The Queen's title in the United Kingdom is "Elizabeth

8.

Brunei

 

Nevis

the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great

9.

Canada

33.

St. Lucia

Britain and Northern Ireland, and of Her other Realms and

10.

Cyprus

34.

St. Vincent and the

Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the

11.

Dominica

 

Grenadines

Faith".

 

 

 

12.

Gambia

35.

Seychelles

For several centuries the monarch personally exercised

13.

Ghana

36.

Sierra Leone

supreme executive, legislative and judicial powers but with the

14.

Great Britain

37.

Singapore

growth of Parliament and the courts the direct exercise of these

15.

Grenada

38.

Solomon Islands

functions progressively decreased. The 17th-century struggle

16.

Guyana

39.

Sri Lanka

between the Crown and Parliament led to the establishment of a

17.

India

40.

Swaziland

constitutional monarchy.

 

18.

Jamaica

41.

Tanzania

 

 

Notes to the text:

19.

Kenya

42.

Tonga

 

 

20.

Kiribati

43.

Trinidad and Tobago

secular – вековой, вечный

 

21.

Lesotho

44.

Tuvalu

descent – происхождение; наследование

22.

Malawi

45.

Uganda

offspring – потомок

 

23.

Malaysia

46.

Vanuatu

accession – вступление на престол

 

24.

Maldives

47.

Western Samoa

anointing – помазание

 

25.

Malta

48.

Zambia

communion – причастие

 

 

 

49.

Zimbabwe

to render homage – свидетельствовать почтение

 

 

 

 

"Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United

 

 

 

 

Kingdom

of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of Her

 

 

 

 

other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the

 

 

 

 

Commonwealth,

Defender of the Faith" – «Ее Высочайшее

 

 

 

 

 

 

Величество

Елизавета Вторая, Божьей

8

милостью Королева Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии и других Ее Царств и Территорий, Глава Содружества, Защитница Веры»

exercise – 1) выполнять, осуществлять, пользоваться; 2) выполнение, осуществление

Task 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations: быть основанным,

наследственный, право наследования, официальное признание, принятие, дать клятву, королевские обязанности, коронование, духовные лорды, светские лорды, проводить, архиепископ, представитель, постановление парламента, пользоваться властью, непосредственное исполнение, уменьшаться, конституционная монархия.

Task 3. Find nouns with the suffix -ty in the text and say from what words they are formed. Form some more nouns with the help of the same suffix -(i)ty and translate them: royal, major, proper, cruel, safe, public, national, personal, minor, popular, formal, responsible, stable, real, active.

Task 4. Answer the questions:

1.How old is the institution of monarchy?

2.How is it defined who is next to the British crown?

3.What does the ceremony of coronation consist of?

4.Who is usually present at the coronation service?

5.What is the Queen’s title?

93

APPENDIX

British Prime Ministers since 1940:

Winston Churchill

1945-1951

coalition

Clement Attlee

1940-1945

Liberal

Winston Churchill

1951-1955

Conservative

Anthony Eden

1955-1957

Conservative

Harold Macmillan

1957-1963

Conservative

Alec Douglas-Home

1963-1964

Conservative

Harold Wilson

1964-1970

Liberal

Edward Heath

1970-1974

Conservative

Harold Wilson

1974-1976

Liberal

James Callaghan

1976-1979

Liberal

Margaret Thatcher

1979-1991

Conservative

John Major

1991-1997

Conservative

Tony Blair

1997 - up to the

Liberal

 

present day

 

92

from the media, and they are regarded as a test of national opinion. The results are often very different from those of general elections and are much discussed by politicians and political commentators who are trying to use the voting figures to predict the result of the next general election.

(800)

9

Task 5. Read and translate the text.

Functions and powers

The monarch in law is the head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, the head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the temporal head of the established Church of England. But the Crown is only sovereign by the will of Parliament, and the Queen acts on the advice of her ministers which she cannot constitutionally ignore. And in most matters of state the refusal of the Queen to exercise her power according to the direction of her Prime Minister would risk a serious constitutional crisis. That's why it is often said that the monarch reigns but does not rule.

Nevertheless, the functions of the monarch are politically important. The powers of the monarch are to summon, prorogue and dissolve Parliament; to give royal assent to legislation passed by Parliament. The Queen is the "fountain of justice" and as such can, on the advice of the Home Secretary, pardon or show mercy to convicted criminals. As the "fountain of honour" the Queen confers peerages, knighthoods and other honours. She makes appointments to many important state offices. She appoints or dismisses government ministers, judges, governors, members of diplomatic corps. As the Commander-in-Chief of the armed services (the Royal Navy, the Army and the Royal Air Force) she appoints officers, and as temporal head of the established Church of England she makes appointments to the leading positions in the Church.

In international affairs as Head of the State the Queen has the power to conclude treaties, to declare war and to make peace, to recognize foreign states and governments, and to annexe and cede territories.

10

Notes to the text:

to prorogue – назначать перерыв в работе парламента the Royal Navy – ВМС Великобритании

the Royal Air Force – ВВС Великобритании to conclude treaties – заключать договора to annexe – присоединять

to cede – передавать, уступать

Task 6. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations: законодательство,

главнокомандующий вооруженным силами, монарх (2 слова),

действовать

по чьему-либо совету,

созывать,

распустить

(2 слова)

парламент, королевская

санкция,

миловать

(2 слова), присваивать (звания, титулы), звание пэра, рыцарское звание, почести, назначать, заключать договор, объявлять войну, заключить мир.

Task 7. Complete Table 1 with antonyms and Table 2 with

synonyms. Use the words from the text:

 

 

Table 1

 

 

Table 2

assent

 

a monarch

 

to dissolve

 

 

to reign

to convict

 

to dissolve

 

 

to appoint

 

 

matters

to make peace

 

to pardon

 

permanent

 

 

a chief

Task 8. Answer the questions:

1.Why is it said that the monarch reigns but does not rule?

2.What are the powers of a monarch?

91

15 Polling day

Every constituency is divided into a number of polling districts, each of them having a polling station. Voting is by secret ballot. The ballot paper lists the names of the candidates. Candidates of registered political parties may include their party name and emblem but other candidates can only be described as independent. Voting takes place in a booth, which is screened to maintain secrecy. The voter marks the ballot paper with a cross in the box opposite the name of the candidate of his or her choice, and folds the paper before placing it in the ballot box. Then the ballot boxes are sealed and delivered to the central point, usually a public building such as a town hall, where the count is to take place. Each ballot box is emptied and the votes are counted.

Polls close at 10 pm and the votes are, in most constituencies, counted immediately. The earliest results will be declared by about 11 pm, with most being declared by 3 am; some constituencies do not declare their results until the following day.

(1000)

16 By-elections

In between general elections, by-elections are held when it is necessary to elect a new Member of Parliament to an individual constituency.

A parliamentary by-election is held when a seat falls vacant in the House of Commons, because an MP dies, resigns or can no longer fulfil his duties for some other reason, such as being made a member of the House of Lords. By tradition, the Procedure for initiating a by-election is usually started by the political party which held the seat before the vacancy.

By-elections sometimes attract a great deal of attention

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