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A Dictionary of Food

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doria

doria France Containing cooked cucumber doria, fish Fish meunière, dressed with small

turned pieces of cucumber sweated in butter or blanched

doria, sauce England, France A béchamel sauce enriched with cream and flavoured with cooked, chopped cucumber and grated nutmeg. Served with fish.

dormeur France Common crab dorogobuski, dogorobouski Russia A strong-

flavoured cows’ milk cheese matured for 6 weeks with an orange red rind. Sold in small squares.

doro wat East Africa A dish of chicken pieces and hard-boiled eggs simmered in a thick sauce made from onions caramelized in ghee or butter, tomato paste, garlic, cardamom and berbere or finely chopped chillies. Served with rice or injera. Considered to be the best of the Ethiopian wat dishes.

Dorsch Germany Cod

Dorset apple cake England Flour, chopped apples, sugar and lard (2:2:1:1) plus 3 dsp of baking powder per kg of flour, the lard rubbed into the flour and all the rest brought together to a firm dough with milk. Made into a flat cake 2 cm thick, baked at 190°C for about 1 hour, cut in half, well buttered and eaten hot.

Dorset blue See blue Dorset

dorso Italy Back, of a rabbit, hare, etc. dorure France Beaten egg for egg-washing

and glazing

dory A seawater fish, Zeus taber, from the Mediterranean and the Bay of Biscay, famous for St Peter’s thumbprint (a large black spot ringed with yellow) behind both gill covers. The head takes up nearly half its length (up to 60 cm female, 45 cm male). The fish is a sandy colour tinged with yellow and blue and has a very fine-flavoured white flesh. Also called John Dory

dosa South Asia A dish of fried pancakes for which the partially fermented thick pouring batter is made from ground rice and ground urad dal in water. Often stuffed with cooked vegetables e.g. mashed potato.

dot, to To put small pieces of butter, etc. over the surface of food so that when grilled or heated it will cover it

Dotterkäse Germany A cheese made from skimmed cows’ milk and egg yolks

dou China Pulse

douara North Africa A casserole of marinated lambs’ tripe, liver and heart

double-acting baking powder A chemical raising agent which releases carbon dioxide

firstly on being moistened and secondly on being heated

double boiler Two saucepans which fit together one on the other. The top one contains the food to be cooked and the lower one which is directly on the heat contains boiling or hot water. Used to limit the temperature of the food being cooked and to prevent burning especially when melting chocolate, thickening with egg yolk, etc. Also called double saucepan

double cream 1. A thick cream with a minimum butterfat content of 55%. Sometimes used for whipping but should be diluted with 10% milk. 2. United States Soft cream cheese made from milk enriched with extra cream

double cream cheese A cream cheese with a high fat content made from cream. Generally used for spreading on bread or as a constituent of desserts.

double-crème France Soft cream cheese double-crust Describes a pie or food dish with

a pastry crust below and above the filling, usually in one continuous sheet

double-crust pie A pie with both a pastry base and top

double-decker sandwich United States A sandwich made with 3 slices of bread and 2 fillings

double Gloucester England A hard orangecoloured cows’ milk cheese with a rich mellow flavour suitable for cooking and as a dessert. Double refers to its size.

double grid A wire mesh with handle which opens to enclose fish, beef burgers, patties or the like, allowing them to be turned over on the grill or barbecue without damage

doubles Caribbean A popular fast food consisting of curried chickpeas between two small, fried and seasoned batter pancakes

double saucepan See double boiler

douce France Sweet or mild, used before feminine words

douce-amère France Sweet-and-sour dou fu China Bean curd

dou fu nao China Bean curd brains dou fu pok China Fried bean curd

dough A mixture of flour, liquid and possibly yeast and other ingredients which after kneading has a firm, pliable and sometimes elastic consistency rather like putty. Used for making bread, buns, scones, etc.

doughboy United States Dumpling

dough cake England A white bread dough enriched with eggs and butter containing sugar, spices and dried vine fruits and baked in a cake or loaf tin

182

dough hook A hook-shaped heavy metal arm used in mixing machines for mixing and kneading bread doughs etc.

doughnut A ball of slightly sweetened yeasted or chemically raised dough, deep-fried, drained and coated with caster sugar often with jam in the middle. The ring doughnut was the original form made by wrapping the dough around a stick which was suspended in hot oil, the ball form followed but was in turn generally superseded by a ring formed by extrusion because of the difficulty of cooking the centre of the ball without overcooking the surface.

douille France Piping nozzle or tube dou jiang China Soya bean milk dou sha China Adzuki bean paste

dou sha bao China Sweet buns made from bean flour

doux France Sweet or mild, used before masculine words

dou zhi China Black soya beans

Dover sole One of the finest seawater flatfish,

Solea solea and S. vulgaris, up to 50 cm long and caught around North West Europe and in the Mediterranean. It is much prized for its lean white flesh. The upper surface is a mud colour and the lower is white. It is very slimy when fresh. Also called sole

dovi East Africa The Tanzanian name for peanut

dow foo China Bean curd

dow ghok China Asparagus bean

dow see China Fermented and salted black soya beans

drabantost Sweden A semi-hard scaldedcurd cows’ milk cheese. The paste has a bland flavour and is springy with occasional holes.

Drachenkopf Germany Bluemouth, the fish dragées France 1. Sugared almonds 2. Small silver-coloured sugar balls and small chocolate hemispheres used for cake

decoration

dragoncello Italy Tarragon dragon’s eye Longan

drain, to To allow liquid to fall away from a solid by holding it in a colander, chinois or similar item or by laying the solid on absorbent paper. The liquid is usually either water, fat or cooking liquor.

dranken Netherlands Drinks, beverages drappit eggs Scotland Poached eggs

draw, to To remove the innards (heart, lungs, intestines, etc.) of birds and poultry, and sometimes the leg sinews

drawn butter 1. United States Clarified butter 2. Melted butter used as a dressing for

dried fruit

vegetables, sometimes emulsified with water or vinegar

drawn butter sauce United Kingdom A sauce made from a white roux and flavoured water, traditionally served with vegetables or, with the addition of lemon juice, with steamed or poached fish

dredge, to To lightly sprinkle with flour or sugar or other fine powder using a dredger or sieve

dredger A cylindrical metal can with either a removable perforated top or a mesh base used for sprinkling flour, sugar or other fine powders on food items prior to or whilst cooking

Dresden dressing United States A condiment sauce made from hard-boiled egg, onions, mustard and other flavourings and seasonings. Used with meat.

Dresdener Stollen Germany A variety of

Stollen from Dresden

dress, to 1. To add a dressing, e.g. of oil and vinegar, to a salad prior to tossing the salad 2. To garnish a dish 3. To arrange a food item which has been cooked, as in to dress a crab 4. To prepare poultry or game for cooking by plucking, drawing and trussing

dressé(e) France Garnished

dressed crab Seasoned white and dark crab meat, the latter mixed with breadcrumbs, placed in the upturned cleaned crab shell and garnished or decorated with sieved egg yolk, chopped egg white and chopped parsley arranged in rows across the surface

dressed tripe Bleached and partially cooked tripe

dressieren Germany To truss

dressing 1. A mixture of oil and vinegar with various flavourings used to dress salads 2. United States Stuffing or forcemeat

dreux A soft surface-ripened cheese made in Normandy. See also feuille de Dreux

dried The adjective applied to any edible material from which all or most of the water has been removed so as to improve its keeping quality and inhibit bacterial, fungal and insect attack as e.g. applied to fruit, milk, mushrooms, pasta, yeast, egg, tomatoes, peas, pulses, etc.

dried beef United States Round beef cured with salt and sugar, sliced paper thin, then smoked and pressed. Also called smoked beef, sliced beef

dried duck See pressed duck

dried fruit Fruit that has had the water content reduced by solar or other drying methods to give a hard almost leathery texture and to reduce the water activity so that it is not degraded by microorganisms.

183

dried gourd strips

Apricots, peaches, apples, bananas, grapes, tomatoes, plums and similar can all be dried.

dried gourd strips See kampyo dried grapes See dried vine fruits

dried lychees The dried fruit which looks like a raisin and is eaten as a confection or added to desserts

dried mushrooms Completely dehydrated fungi of various types, used extensively in Chinese and Japanese cooking

dried shrimp Whole or ground dried shrimps used extensively in Southeast Asian cooking. Also called shrimp floss

dried vine fruits Dried grapes especially currants, sultanas and raisins

drikker Norway Drinks, beverages

drinde Dehydrated pork rind, ground and formed into granules for incorporation in cheap English sausages. Up to 10% of the required meat content of sausages may be drinde under UK law.

dripping The fat which is extracted from fatty animal tissue and bones by heating or boiling. Originally referred only to the fat from roast meat or bird which had a fine flavour. dripping cake England A spiced fruit cake

with beef dripping substituted for butter dripping pan A shallow rectangular metal

dish placed under roasting food to catch any dropping juices. A Yorkshire pudding used to fulfil this function.

drisheen Ireland A black pudding made with 2 parts blood to 1 part cream and 1 part breadcrumbs, seasoned and flavoured with tansy and other chopped herbs, filled into 4 cm casings, knotted and boiled for 20 or so minutes. The blood used depends on the supply. Sheep, pig, goose, turkey and hare blood have all been used. The original from Limerick uses sheep’s blood.

drizzle, to A vogue word for to sprinkle or perhaps with the connotation of a thin stream rather than individual droplets of a liquid

droëwors South Africa Dried sausage looking rather like a dog chew

dronningsuppe Norway Chicken broth finished with sherry and a liaison of egg yolks and cream and garnished with small forcemeat balls

drop flower tube United States A piping bag nozzle with a star-shaped opening, used to make flower shapes or swirls

drop lid A floating wooden pan lid. See also otoshibuta

dropped scone See drop scone

dropping consistency The consistency of a cake or pudding mixture such that a

spoonful of the mixture held upside down should drop off the spoon in more than 1 and less than 5 seconds

drop scone United Kingdom A flat cake made from a thick coating batter of flour, water, sugar, eggs and cream or butter and a raising agent, dropped on to a hot greased griddle and cooked on both sides. Served with butter and jam. Also called dropped scone, Scottish pancake, Scotch pancake, flapjack scone, griddle cake

druer Norway Grapes druif Netherlands Grape

druiven Netherlands Grapes

drum The general class of fish which make drumming noises using their air bladders. Similar to croaker.

Drumlanrig pudding Scotland A type of summer pudding made with alternate layers of white crustless bread and cooked rhubarb, sweetened to taste, in a pudding basin, put under a weight for 24 hours, turned out and served with sour cream and sugar (NOTE: Named after the castle in Dumfriesshire.)

drumstick The lower part of a chicken or other fowl’s leg below the thigh

drumstick bean See drumstick pod drumstick pod The green-skinned slightly

peppery tasting seed pod of a tree, Moringa oleifera, which is very thin and up to 40 cm long with small cream-coloured seeds. The young pods can be used as a vegetable or when older, boiled and the centre scooped out for use in soup. The mature beans only are used in Indian cooking. Originally from India it is now grown in the Caribbean, Africa and Southern USA. Also called drumstick bean, benoil tree, bentree, susumber

drumstick vegetable The pods of a relative of the drumstick tree, Moringa pterygosperma, which grows in India and has the taste and texture of a vegetable marrow. Cut in lengths and cooked like asparagus. The roots of the tree can be grated as a substitute for horseradish.

drunken chicken Boiled chicken pieces drained and marinated for 12 to 24 hours with a mixture of salt, sugar and yellow rice wine or dry sherry, drained and garnished with chopped coriander leaf

drupe The name for any fleshy or pulpy fruit enclosing a single stone

druvor Sweden Grapes

dry, to 1. To remove superficial or surface moisture from food 2. To remove superficial and bound water from edible products to produce e.g. dried fruit, dried beans, etc.

184

dry-fry, to To heat and cook food in a frying pan without oil or fat. Suitable for fatty foods or for non fatty foods using, with care, a nonstick frying pan. Often used to prepare spices.

dry goods Any dry foods that can be stored for long periods without deterioration

dry goose Scotland The southern name for fitless cock

dry ice Solid carbon dioxide which exists at – 79°C. Can be used for very rapid freezing or to produce a fine fog or mist.

dry jack United States A 6-month-old

Monterey Jack with a distinctive flavour. Suitable for grating.

dry measure Cup measure

dry mustard United Kingdom Ground dried yellow mustard seeds used as a spice and flavouring agent or when mixed with water as an English condiment

dry-roast, to A method of bringing out the flavours of spices and other flavouring agents by subjecting them to dry heat (180°C) in an oven for a few minutes. Pastes, etc. should be wrapped in foil prior to dry-roasting.

dry-salt, to To preserve food by covering with, immersing in or rubbing on a mixture of coarse dry salt, saltpetre and sugar and possibly spices in the absence of light and leaving it until the food is dehydrated and brine runs off; the first 3 usually in the proportions 50:2:1. Can be used for meat, fish, vegetables, nuts, etc.

dry shell bean United States Haricot bean

dua nao Vietnam Freshly grated young coconut (kelapa)

dua nao kho Vietnam Desiccated coconut

Dubarry, à la France Containing or garnished with cauliflower

Dubarry, crème France Creamed cauliflower soup garnished with small, cooked florets of cauliflower

dubbele boterham Netherlands An Englishtype sandwich with two pieces of buttered bread and a filling

dubbelsmörgås Sweden An English-type sandwich with two pieces of buttered bread and a filling

Dublin bay prawn A type of lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, up to 25 cm long (excluding the claws) and rose grey to pink in colour, fished from the western Mediterranean through to Iceland. It is not a prawn. The shelled tail meat is known in the UK as scampi, although monkfish is a cheaper version often substituted for it. Also called scampi, Norway lobster

dudi

Dublin coddle Ireland A casserole of onions, bacon, potatoes and pork sausage traditionally served with soda bread

Dublin lawyer Ireland Diced lobster meat and its coral, lightly sautéed in garlic butter, flambéed with whisky and heated with cream. Served on the shell with the pan juices poured over.

ducana Caribbean A dish from Antigua similar to duckanoo but also containing grated sweet potatoes, raisins and vanilla essence duchesse, à la France 1. Garnished or served with duchesse potatoes 2. A dish of tongue and mushrooms in a béchamel sauce 3. (of

pastries) Containing an almond mixture duchesse, sauce England, France Tomato

and hollandaise sauces combined with chopped ham and white wine

duchesse potatoes Seasoned, riced or mashed potatoes mixed with butter and egg yolks and piped into assorted shapes then baked in the oven until browned. Often eggglazed after an initial drying period in the oven. Also called pommes duchesse

duck The general name for a family of swimming birds Anatidae with webbed feet and a broad flat beak, some wild, others domesticated, common in French and Chinese cuisines. See also canard, Peking duck

duckanoo Caribbean A Jamaican dessert of African origin made from corn flour, sugar and nutmeg wrapped in a banana leaf and steamed. Also called blue drawers

duck eggs The eggs of ducks, which are about twice the weight of a hen’s egg, and are usually pale blue in colour with an almost translucent white when set. See also salted duck eggs, Chinese preserved eggs, thousand year egg

duck feet A Chinese delicacy. They are deboned and softened by slow braising. Sometimes stuffed. Also called duck webs

duckling A young duck

duck press A press consisting of a perforated cylinder into which the duck is put. It is then squeezed with a screw-operated piston to extract the juices.

duck sauce 1. See hoisin sauce 2. The sauce used with Peking duck consisting of sweet bean paste, sugar and sesame seed oil processed together, let down with water and simmered until thick

duck skin When cooked to a crisp texture, the most prized part of a roast duck in Chinese cuisine

duck webs See duck feet dudhi Bottle gourd

dudi Bottle gourd

185

due

due Denmark 1. Pigeon 2. Squab

dug Central Asia A diluted yoghurt drink from Afghanistan

Dugléré, fish As for fish Bercy, with tomato concassée added to the cooking liquor. Cooking liquor strained, reduced, mixed with fish velouté and butter, consistency adjusted, seasoned and served over the fish with some of the strained shallots and tomatoes.

dügün çorbasi Turkey A beef broth thickened with flour and garnished with diced beef, Paprika butter is added just before serving dügün eti Turkey A dish of cubed mutton fried in mutton fat with quartered onions, then stewed in tomato purée and water flavoured

with lemon juice

duhay Philippines Pomfret, the fish

duja Italy A special pot for the preservation of a type of salami, salamin d’la duja

duke cherry A hybrid of sweet and acid cherries, originating in France where they are known as royale

dukka Egypt A ground spice mix used as a condiment especially to flavour bread dipped in olive oil. It is made from sesame seeds, skinned hazelnuts or chick peas, coriander seeds, cumin seeds, all dry-roasted, with salt, black pepper and dried thyme or mint.

dukkah Egypt A dry mixture of dry-roasted sesame seeds, coriander seeds, walnuts and cooked and dried chick peas. See also zahtar

2

dukkous al-badinjan Persian Gulf Baked aubergine flesh puréed with garlic, chilli pepper and paprika

dukkous al-tamat Persian Gulf A tomato sauce made from tomatoes, garlic and oil flavoured with baharat

dukuna Caribbean A variant of ducana from Antigua, made from cornmeal, grated or desiccated coconut, mashed sweet potatoes, raisins and sugar, wrapped in leaves or in a cloth and steamed. Also called paymi

dulce Mexico, Spain Sweet

dulce de leche Mexico, Spain A dessert made from a caramelized milk and sugar mixture. See also arequipe

dulces Spain Sweets, desserts

dulet East Africa An Ethiopian dish of minced tripe, liver and lean meat fried in butter with chopped onions, chillies, cardamom and pepper

dulse A purple-coloured seaweed, Palmaria palmata or Rhodymenia palmata, from the intertidal zone in Ireland and the coastal regions of the North Atlantic, eaten raw or

cooked and then dried for use as a snack food or health food. Also called dillisk

dum, to To steam in the Indian way, for meat usually on a trivet standing clear of the liquid in a pan with a tight-fitting lid, for vegetables by chopping them and browning in a little ghee then heating in a closed pan with a little water or akni

dummed Steamed Indian-fashion. See to dum.

dummed bhoona South Asia Pot-roasting in Indian cuisine. See also bhoona

dumpling 1. A round ball of sweet or savoury dough or pastry sometimes made with suet or dripping or other fat, cooked in soups and stews to accompany them, or, if sweet, steamed, boiled or baked as a pudding. Sometimes used to coat a piece of fruit as in apple dumpling. 2. In Asia a dumpling is often a savoury or sweet filling surrounded with a thin dough sheet similar to ravioli and steamed or boiled

dumpling wrappers Southeast Asia Wrappers for filled dumplings consisting of a wheat flour dough made with egg yolks and warm water, salt and baking powder, kneaded until silky, rested and rolled out thinly and cut in squares or circles. They are normally filled and the edges brought together like a purse.

dun 1. China Braising of food in its own juices in a tightly sealed casserole. Also called wei 2. A brown mould which grows on salted fish Dundee biscuit Scotland A rich short biscuit made with plain flour, caster sugar and butter (4:2:1) bound with egg yolk, glazed with egg white and sprinkled with chopped

almonds

Dundee cake Scotland A fruit cake made by the creaming method from pound cake mixture containing about 25% more flour than normal and using soft brown sugar with an equal amount of dried vine fruits, candied peel and chopped almonds; flavoured with grated lemon and orange zest and topped with rings of split blanched almonds before baking

Dundee marmalade Scotland A dark, rich orange marmalade with coarsely cut peel

dundu See dun dun

dun dun Africa Slices of yam or sweet potato, floured, egged and deep-fried. Served hot with omelettes. Also called dundu

Dunesslin pudding Scotland A thick flour and egg custard made from milk, eggs, flour, butter and sugar (12:4:2:1:1), flavoured with vanilla or lemon juice and zest poured over jam or stewed fruit in the bottom of a pudding basin then browned in the oven at 180°C for 20 minutes

186

Dungeness crab United States The most popular crab, Cancer magister, caught off the shores of the North Pacific Ocean and weighing up to 1 kg. The legs are often as meaty as the claws. Also called market crab,

Alaska Dungeness crab

dunk, to To dip a solid cake or biscuit into a hot drink before eating it

Dunlop Scotland A mild, hard cows’ milk cheese made in the same way as Cheddar except that the curd is not cheddared and the cheese is consequently moister. Originally Irish but introduced to Scotland by religious refugees.

Dunmow flitch England The name given to the flitch which is awarded annually in Great Dunmow to any married couple who can prove that they have not quarrelled during the preceding year

dünsten Germany 1. To steam 2. To stew duo United States A pasteurized and

processed Emmental-type cheese filled with walnuts, herbs, spices, black pepper and a salami or smoked salmon forcemeat

duong cuc vang Vietnam Palm sugar

dur France Hard, as in oeuf dur, hard-boiled egg

durchgebraten Germany Well done

Durham lamb cutlets England Minced cold cooked lamb mixed with an equal amount of mashed potatoes and some minced onion and cooking apple, flavoured with chopped parsley and tomato purée then formed into cutlet shapes, panéed and shallow-fried

durian England, Indonesia, Malaysia The fruit of a Malaysian tree, Durio zibethinus, cultivated all over Southeast Asia, which has an offensive odour but pleasant taste. It has a green to yellow spiky thick rind, is shaped like a rugby ball and weighs up to 4.5 kg. The segmented flesh is a yellowy soft pulp containing brown inedible seeds. Eaten raw or in both sweet and savoury dishes. The flesh may be canned and the peel is used to smoke fish.

duro Italy Hard as in a hard crust durra Great millet

Dürrerund Austria A medium-sized brown skinned sausage similar to Brunswick sausage

durum wheat A hard, high-protein wheat, Triticum durum, used for the production of semolina and pasta. Grown in Italy, Spain and North and South America.

Durvillea antarctica Botanical name Alga mar

Duse, à la France Garnished with tomatoes, French beans and potatoes, particularly of joints of meat

dyrestek

dusky flathead Australia See flathead

dust, to To sprinkle lightly with finely ground powder such as icing sugar, cocoa, flour, ground nuts, etc.

Dutch cabbage Savoy cabbage

Dutch cheese United States Cottage cheese dutch oven A heavy pot with a domed tightfitting lid used for slow cooking and pot

roasts etc.

Dutch sauce Béchamel sauce enriched with egg yolks and cream and flavoured with lemon juice. Served with fish, chicken and vegetables.

duva Sweden Pigeon

duvor i kompott Sweden Braised pigeons made by frying a little diced pork in pork fat, adding pigeons to brown followed by mushroom and covering with seasoned stock flavoured with parsley, chives and tarragon. This is then simmered with a lid on until the pigeons are tender and served with thickened cooking liquor and garnished with the pork and mushrooms.

duxelles Chopped shallots or onions and mushrooms, sautéed in butter until quite dry. Used in many other dishes for flavour and bulk.

duxelles, sauce England, France Equal volumes of white wine and mushroom cooking liquor with chopped shallots, reduced by two thirds then simmered with demi-glace sauce, tomato purée and duxelles for 5 minutes and finished with chopped parsley. Used for gratinated dishes.

D value The number of minutes of heat required to reduce the number of viable organisms in a sample of food by a factor of 10. This depends on the temperature and the microorganisms, e.g. 12D minutes of heat treatment are required for canning where D is determined by the treatment temperature and conditions for Clostridium botulinum.

dwaeji galbi kui Korea Marinated and grilled pork spare ribs

dwarf bean French bean

dwarf cape gooseberry A smaller version of the cape gooseberry, Physalis pruinosa, with a similar structure and found in the USA. It grows wild in Hawaii. Also called ground cherry, strawberry tomato, poha

dybfrossen Denmark Deep-frozen dynia, dynya Russia Melon dyrerya Denmark Saddle of venison

dyrerygg Norway Previously marinated venison cooked in sour cream

dyrestek Norway Roast venison

187

dyrlægens natmad

dyrlægens natmad Denmark A Danish open sandwich spread with spiced lard, liver pâté, veal and jellied consommé (NOTE: Literally ‘vet’s midnight snack’.)

dzhazh msharmal North Africa A chicken tagine from Morocco with olives and preserved lemons and flavoured with ginger, saffron and pepper

188

EFGHIJKL

E100 Curcumin, the natural colouring obtained from turmeric, used in cakes and margarine

E101 Riboflavin and riboflavin-5’phosphate, vitamin B2 used as a food colouring

E102 Tartrazine, a synthetic dye used as a food colouring in soft drinks but suspected of possibly causing allergies and hyperactivity in children

E104 Quinoline yellow, a synthetic food colouring

E110 Sunset yellow FCF or orange yellow S, synthetic food colourings used in biscuits

E120 Cochineal, the red food colouring extracted from an insect

E122 Carmoisine or azorubine, synthetic red food colourings

E123 Amaranth, a synthetic yellow food colouring banned in the USA, used in alcoholic drinks

E124 Ponceau 4R, a synthetic red food colouring used in dessert mixes

E127 Erythrosine BS, a synthetic red food colouring used in glacé cherries

E128 United Kingdom Red 2G, a synthetic dye. Used to colour sausages. (not licensed for use throughout the EU)

E131 Patent blue V, a synthetic food colouring

E132 Indigo carmine or indigotine, a synthetic blue food colouring

E133 United Kingdom Brilliant blue FCF, a synthetic food dye used in conjunction with yellows to colour canned vegetables (not licensed for use throughout the EU)

E140 Chlorophyll, the green food colour made from plants

E141 Copper complexes of chlorophyll used as food colourings

E142 Green S, acid brilliant green BS and lissamine green, synthetic green food colourings

E150 Caramel, the dark brown food colouring made from sugar. Used in beer, soft drinks, sauces and gravy browning.

E151 Black PN or brilliant black PN, synthetic black food colourings

E153 Carbon black or vegetable carbon, very finely divided carbon used as a food colouring in e.g. liquorice

E154 United Kingdom Brown FK, a synthetic food dye used on kippers (not licensed for use throughout the EU)

E155 United Kingdom Brown HT, a synthetic food dye used for chocolate cake (not licensed for use throughout the EU)

E160(a) Carotenes, orange food colourings from plants, also precursors of vitamin A E160(b) Annatto, bixin and norbixin, golden yellow food colourings obtained from the

seeds of achiote. Used on crisps.

E160(c) Capsanthin or capsorubin, pepperyflavoured and pink food colouring obtained from paprika

E160(d) Lycopene, a natural red food colour, one of the carotenoids extracted from ripe fruit especially tomatoes

E160(e) Beta-apo-8’-carotenal (C30), an orange carotene compound extracted from fruit and vegetables

E160(f) The ethyl ester of E160(e), an orange food colouring

E161(a) Flavoxanthin, a natural carotenoid yellow food colouring

E161(b) Lutein, a natural carotenoid yellow/red food colouring extracted from flower petals. Also called xanthophyll

E161(c) Cryptoxanthin, a natural yellow carotenoid food colouring with some vitamin A activity extracted from petals and berries of

Physalis spp

E161(d) Rubixanthin, a natural carotenoid yellow food colouring, isomeric with E161(c) extracted from rose hips

189

E161

E161(e) Violaxanthin, a natural carotenoid yellow/brown food colouring

E161(f) Rhodoxanthin, a natural carotenoid violet food colouring

E161(g) Canthaxanthin, a natural orange food colouring extracted from shellfish and used in fish food to give colour to farmed salmon

E162 Beetroot red or betanin, a red food colouring extracted from beetroot. Used for ice cream and liquorice.

E163 Anthocyanins, red, violet or blue vegetable food colours extracted from grape skins. Used in yoghurt.

E170 Calcium carbonate used as an acidity regulator, obtained from limestone. Used as a firming agent, release agent and diluent.

E171 Titanium dioxide, an inert white pigment, usually used in high-quality white paints, but also in sweets

E172 Iron oxide and hydroxides, natural red, brown, yellow and black food colourings and pigments

E173 Aluminium, a silvery metal sometimes used in very thin films as a food decoration

E174 Silver, sometimes used in very thin films or layers as a food decoration

E175 Gold, sometimes used as gold leaf, a very thin film for decoration of cakes and dragees

E180 Pigment rubine or lithol rubine BK, a synthetic red colour restricted to colouring the rind of hard cheeses

E200 Sorbic acid, used as a preservative in baked and fruit products, soft drinks and processed cheese slices

E201 Sodium sorbate, the sodium salt of sorbic acid used as a preservative in frozen pizzas and flour confectionery

E202 Potassium sorbate, the potassium salt of sorbic acid, used as E201

E203 Calcium sorbate, the calcium salt of sorbic acid, used as E201

E210 Benzoic acid, a naturally occurring organic acid also made synthetically, used as a preservative in beer, jam, salad cream, soft drinks, fruit products and marinated fish

E211 Sodium benzoate, the sodium salt of benzoic acid, used as E210

E212 Potassium benzoate, the potassium salt of benzoic acid, used as E210

E213 Calcium benzoate, the calcium salt of benzoic acid, used as E210

E214 Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, a synthetic derivative of benzoic acid used as a food preservative

E215 Sodium ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, the sodium salt of E214, used as E210

E216 Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, a synthetic derivative of benzoic acid, used as E210

E217 Sodium propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, the sodium salt of E216, used as E210

E218 Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, a synthetic derivative of benzoic acid, used as E210 E219 Sodium methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, the

sodium salt of E218, used as E210

E220 Sulphur dioxide, a pungent and irritating gas which is one of the most common preservatives used in food. Used in dried fruit, dehydrated vegetables, fruit products, juices and syrups, sausages, cider, beer and wine, to prevent the browning of peeled potatoes and to condition biscuit doughs.

E221 Sodium sulphite, a compound formed from caustic soda and sulphur dioxide, used as E220

E222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite, a similar food preservative to E221, but containing a higher proportion of sulphur dioxide

E223 Sodium metabisulphite, a compound which contains twice as much sulphur dioxide as E221

E224 Potassium metabisulphite, a similar compound to E223

E226 Calcium sulphite, a food preservative similar to E221

E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite, a food preservative similar to E222

E228 Potassium bisulphite, a food preservative used in wines

E230 Diphenyl, a fungicide which may be used on the wrappings of oranges and bananas or in their packing cases. Also called biphenyl, phenyl benzene

E231 2-hydroxy diphenol, a synthetic compound used in the same way as E230. Also called orthophenyl phenol

E232 Sodium diphenyl-2-yl oxide, a synthetic compound used in the same way as E230. Also called sodium orthophenylphenate

E233 2–(thiazol-4-yl) benzimidazole, a synthetic compound used in the same way as E230. Also called thiabendazole

E234 United Kingdom Nisin, a food preservative licensed for use in the UK but not generally in the EU. Used in cheese and clotted cream. (not licensed for use throughout the EU)

E236 Formic acid, a natural chemical found in some fruit but made synthetically for use as a flavour enhancer

E237 Sodium formate, the sodium salt of formic acid, used as a flavour enhancer

E238 Calcium formate, the calcium salt of formic acid, used as a flavour enhancer

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E239 Hexamine, a synthetic chemical used as a preservative, restricted to preserved fish and Provolone cheese

E249 Potassium nitrite, the potassium salt of nitrous acid, used to maintain the pink colour of cured meats and in some cheeses

E250 Sodium nitrite, the sodium salt of nitrous acid, used to maintain the pink colour of cured meat by reacting with the haemoglobin

E251 Sodium nitrate, the sodium salt of nitric acid, used for curing and preserving meat E252 Potassium nitrate the potassium salt of nitric acid, used for curing and preserving

meat. Also called saltpetre

E260 Acetic acid, the acid component of vinegar, used as an acidity regulator, as a flavouring and to prevent mould growth

E261 Potassium acetate, the potassium salt of acetic acid, used as a preservative and firming agent

E262 1. United Kingdom Sodium acetate used in the same way as potassium acetate, E261. Licensed for use in the UK but not generally in the EU. 2. Sodium hydrogen diacetate, a sodium salt similar in effect to E261, used as a preservative and firming agent (not licensed for use throughout the EU)

E263 Calcium acetate, the calcium salt of acetic acid used as a firming agent and as a calcium source in quick-setting jelly mixes E270 Lactic acid, one of the products of anaerobic metabolism of some microorganisms and animal muscle, widely used as an acidifying agent, flavouring and as a protection against mould growth in e.g.

salad dressings and soft margarine

E280 Proprionic acid, a simple fatty acid naturally occurring in dairy products but also synthesized for use as a flour improver and preservative

E281 Sodium proprionate, the sodium salt of proprionic acid, used as a flour improver and preservative

E282 Calcium proprionate, the calcium salt of proprionic acid, used as a flour improver and preservative

E283 Potassium proprionate, the potassium salt of proprionic acid, used as a flour improver and preservative

E290 Carbon dioxide, the gas produced when sugar and many other food items are metabolized in the body and by microorganisms. Provides the gas for raising yeasted goods, for use as a propellant, as the gas in sealed packs where oxygen must be excluded and in fizzy drinks.

E326

E296 United Kingdom Malic acid, an acid found in fruit and also produced synthetically, used as a flavouring in soft drinks, biscuits, dessert mixes and pie fillings (not licensed for use throughout the EU)

E297 United Kingdom Fumaric acid used as

E296 (not licensed for use throughout the EU)

E300 L-ascorbic acid, vitamin C, used to prevent oxidation and thus browning reactions and colour changes in food. Also used as a flour improver.

E301 Sodium L-ascorbate, the sodium salt of ascorbic acid, used for the same purposes as E300

E302 Calcium L-ascorbate, the calcium salt of L-ascorbic acid, used for the same purposes as E300

E304 6-o-palmitoyl L-ascorbic acid, an oil soluble ester of ascorbic acid, used for the same purposes as E300 and especially in Scotch eggs

E306 Extracts of natural substances rich in tocopherols, i.e. vitamin E, used as vitamin additive to foods and as an antioxidant especially in vegetable oils

E307 Synthetic alpha-tocopherol, one of the tocopherols, used an antioxidant in cerealbased baby foods

E308 Synthetic gamma-tocopherol, one of the tocopherols, used as E306

E309 Synthetic delta-tocopherol, one of the tocopherols, used as E306

E310 Propyl gallate, the propyl ester of gallic acid, allowed for use as an antioxidant in oils, fats and essential oils only

E311 Octyl gallate, the octyl ester of gallic acid, allowed for use as an antioxidant in oils, fats and essential oils only

E312 Dodecyl gallate, the dodecyl ester of gallic acid, allowed for use as an antioxidant in oils, fats and essential oils only

E320 BHA, butylated hydroxyanisole, a controversial antioxidant, allowed for used in fats, oils and essential oils only

E321 BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene, a controversial antioxidant, allowed for use in fats, oil, essential oils and chewing gum

E322 Lecithin, a natural substance found in egg yolk, used as an emulsifier and antioxidant, e.g. in low-fat spreads

E325 Sodium lactate, the sodium salt of lactic acid, used as a buffer i.e. to maintain near constant pH in foods and as a humectant in jams, preserves and flour confectionery

E326 Potassium lactate, the potassium salt of lactic acid, used as a buffer in foods such as jams, preserves and jellies

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