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A Dictionary of Food

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Ipomoea batatas Botanical name The sweet potato plant

Ipomoea reptans Botanical name Swamp cabbage

ippoglosso Italy Flounder

Iraty France A strong cheese from the Basque county made from a mixture of cows’ and ewes’ milk. The flavour depends on the proportions of each milk which in turn depends on the season.

Iraty brebis pyrénées France A semi-hard ewes’ milk cheese from the Basque region, made in 4 to 5 kg cylinders. It is matured for 3 months and has a golden mellow tasting paste with small holes. Farm produced cheeses have AOC status.

iri dori Japan A chicken casserole made from pieces of skinned chicken breast, reconstituted shiitake mushroom caps, carrot and bamboo shoot, browned in oil then simmered in dashi, mirin and sugar for 10 minutes. Soya sauce is added and the cooking liquor reduced to a quarter. Peas, sliced onions, cauliflower or any other quickly cooked vegetables are added and cooked a further 3 minutes.

irio East Africa A Kenyan dish of beans or peas soaked and cooked then boiled with plantains or greens, potatoes and maize kernels, mashed with butter, seasoned and flavoured with herbs and/or spices. Also called kienyegi

Irish moss Carragheen

Irish potato cake Ireland A paste of mashed potatoes, flour, butter and salt rolled out to 8

– 10 mm, cut into triangles and fried until brown on both sides. Also called fadge

Irish soda bread See soda bread

Irish stew Ireland, England A stew or casserole of cheap cuts of lamb on the bone with waxy potatoes, onions and seasoning, once popular in the North of England and Northern Ireland

Irish Swiss cheese Blarney

irlandaise, à l’ France In the Irish style, i.e. with potatoes

irlandisches Moos Germany Carragheen iron A trace element vital for many body

processes especially formation of haemoglobin in the blood. Available in meat, offal, fish, cereals, pulses and vegetables. Vitamin C ingested at the same time as ironcontaining foods facilitates absorption in the gut.

iron hydroxide Various hydrated iron oxides of which ordinary rust is the common example. When finely ground they can be used as a brown food colouring. See also


iron oxide Various combinations of iron and oxygen which when finely ground have colours ranging from yellow through brown to black and are used as a food colouring and source of iron. See also E172

iron rations Emergency food of high calorific value for a given weight, especially high-fat, high protein, chocolate, etc. Often dehydrated or tinned so that they will keep for years for use in emergencies

irradiate, to To treat food with ionizing radiation in order to kill all microorganisms and insects in fruits, cereals, pulses, dried fruits and the like. It also prevents sprouting of roots and tubers. It does not destroy toxins or viruses and may cause chemical changes in the food. Often used to preserve sealed packs of food and to increase the shelf life of perishables. Since no laws govern the labelling of irradiated food it is impossible to know whether it has been treated in this way. Some authorities consider it a dangerous practice.

is Denmark, Norway, Sweden Ice

iscas Portugal Casserole, a typical one might be tripe with white beans and sausages in a cream sauce

iscas de figado Portugal Thinly sliced calves’ liver marinated in oil, wine, chopped onion and garlic overnight, drained, dried and fried in small batches in oil for 2 minutes, reserved, then served with the pan residues deglazed with the marinade and reduced by half

ischiana, all’ Italy In the style of Ischia, i.e. stewed in oil and white wine with tomatoes and herbs

Ischler biscuits Ischlertörtchen Ischlertörtchen Austria, Germany Rich round

buttery biscuits made with a mixture of ground almonds and flour sandwiched in pairs with red jam and covered with chocolate icing

ise ebi Japan Lobster

isinglass 1. An extract from the buoyancy bladders of fish used to clarify liquids especially wine. Can be used as a gelling agent. 2. A solution of sodium silicate in water used to preserve eggs by its reaction with the shell which makes it impervious to air

iskembe çorbasi Turkey Tripe soup flavoured with lemon juice, garlic and vinegar and thickened with a liaison of egg yolks and cream

Islay Scotland A miniature Dunlop cheese suitable for melting. When mature eaten for dessert.


Islay scollops Scotland Scallops, cut in half if very thick, dipped in seasoned flour and fried in butter for 2 to 3 minutes per side then served with browned butter and lemon juice

isleta bread United States A bread shaped like a bear’s paw, made by Pueblo Indians is longus Italy A Sardinian dish of the grilled

or spit-roasted intestines of cattle

isomalt A modified malt sugar used in sugarfree confectionery and as an extender in some foods

isopropyl alcohol A solvent used for food colours and flavourings and in glass cleaners

issopo Italy Hyssop

isterband Sweden A skinless sausage made with minced beef and pork mixed with parboiled barley and possibly mashed potato, salt-cured and air-dried. May be hot smoked. Split and fried or grilled and served with fried onion and pickled beetroot.

ita-kamaboko Japan A Japanese fish cake formed on a small rectangle of wood and often grilled or coloured brown. See also kamaboko

Italian bread sticks See grissini

Italian brine A sausage curing solution consisting of equal parts of water and white wine, fully saturated with salt and with 17 g of saltpetre and 8 g of bicarbonate of soda per litre

Italian broccoli Calabrese

Italian meringue mixture Sugar syrup boiled to the soft ball stage (115°C) then beaten into egg whites until soft and peaky

Italian millet Foxtail millet Italian parsley Flat parsley

Italian red onion An oval-shaped onion somewhat smaller then the globe with a red tinge to the flesh and a mild, almost sweet flavour. It makes an attractive garnish when cut in rings. Whitens on cooking. Also called red onion

Italian sandwich United States Hoagie

Italian sauce See italienne, sauce

Italian sausage United States A type of pork sausage which may be spicy or sweet

Italian white truffle A smooth beige-pink truffle, Tuber magnatum, with a stronger aroma than the French black truffle. Best left uncooked.

Italico A generic term for a variety of quick ripening cheeses started with Streptococcus thermophilus and ripened for 20 to 30 days. Bel Paese is a well known example. Usually contain 51% water, 25% fat and 21% protein.

ivory sauce

italienne, à l’ France In the Italian style, i.e. with pasta, cheese, mushrooms, tomatoes and sometimes artichokes

italienne, sauce France 1. A mixture of demiglace, duxelles, chopped lean ham and tomato concassée simmered and finished with chopped parsley, chervil and tarragon. Served with fried lamb or veal. 2. A cold sauce of poached brains, puréed, strained and mixed with a lemon juice mayonnaise, seasoning and finely chopped parsley. Served with cold meats.

Ital nut soup Caribbean A typical Rastafarian dish made from shelled and roasted peanuts blended with vegetable stock and coconut milk and flavoured with allspice, chilli pepper and garlic

Ital restaurant Caribbean A Rastafarian restaurant in which the food is completely meat free and theoretically salt free in accordance with Rastafarian teaching

Ital stew Caribbean A vegetarian stew made with pumpkin, yams, breadfruit, sweet potato and cassava, cut into chunks and boiled in vegetable stock and coconut milk flavoured with onion, garlic, chilli pepper, allspice, chives and thyme. Banana and plantain pieces are added just before service, and it is usually served with dumplings.

itami-udon Japan Soft-fried noodles. Udon noodles boiled in salted water until al dente, drained, refreshed, redrained and oiled, mixed in the frying pan with grated carrot, shredded Chinese cabbage and diced sweet pepper, which have all been fried in oil flavoured with chopped garlic and ginger, and all fried gently whilst being stirred. Seasoned and sprinkled with soya sauce before serving.

itik Malaysia Duck

ito Japan A prefix meaning ‘cut in fine strips’ ito-kezuri-katsuo Japan Fine pink threadlike shavings of dried Pacific bonito flesh

used as a garnish

ito-konnyaku Japan Thinly sliced konnyaku ito-zukuri Japan A type of cut for small fish used for sashimi rather like a julienne, 5 cm

by 3 mm square

ivoire, sauce France Suprême sauce with meat glaze added to give an ivory colour. Used with boiled chicken. Also called ivory sauce

ivory egg A rare variety of plum tomato with a pale golden yellow skin which contains no lycopene. This may make it suitable for those allergic to the red fruit. Available in the USA but rare in Europe due to EU regulations.

ivory sauce See ivoire, sauce


ivy gourd

ivy gourd Tindoori iwashi Japan Sardines

iwashi no tsumire jiru Japan Sardine balls made with fresh, skinned sardine fillets processed with miso, ginger and flour. These are poached in water until they rise then reserved, the cooking liquor strained, salted, flavoured with soya sauce, the cooked sardine balls and cooked turnip slices added and the soup served at once with a lemon peel garnish.

iyokan Japan A naturally occurring hybrid of Citrus spp. as yet relatively unknown outside Japan.

izer cookie United States A biscuit baked in a mould with various figures and designs embossed in it

izmir köftesi Turkey A mixture of chopped raw mutton, soaked white breadcrumbs, eggs, onion juice, seasoning and nutmeg, shaped into long rolls, fried in butter then simmered in tomato purée and water



ja China Deep-frying

jääpalanen Finland (Piece of) ice jäätellö Finland Ice cream jabalí Spain Wild boar

jabuke u rumo Balkans Apples poached in syrup, chilled and topped with whipped cream, glacé cherries and a little rum (NOTE: From Slovenia)

jachtschotel Netherlands A casserole of meat, potatoes and onions, a hunter’s dish

jack 1. Crevalle jack 2. See Monterey Jack jack bean A perennial legume, Canavalia

ensiformis, from tropical America, also grown in the southern USA. It has edible white beans which require boiling to destroy toxins and the immature pods can be eaten as a vegetable. Also called horse bean

jack-by-the-hedge Garlic mustard

jacket potato Washed, cleaned and dried potatoes with skin on, pricked with a fork and baked in an oven, in hot ashes or on a barbecue with or without a covering of aluminium foil until the flesh is soft. Often served cut open with some kind of filling.

jackfish Pike

jackfruit The Malaysian fruit of a tree,

Artocarpus heterophyllus or A. integrifolia, which can take up to six months to ripen from picking. The fruit is large (up to 32 kg) with a yellow to brown spiky skin and yellow fibrous flesh. The juicy pulp surrounding the large white seeds is eaten and tastes like a mixture of banana and pineapple, the seeds may be dried and roasted or ground and the fibrous flesh is sometimes boiled or baked as a vegetable. The flowers and young leaf shoots are used in salads and as a vegetable. Also called jakfruit

Jacobean potatoes Potatoes roasted in their skins

Jacobsmuschel Germany Coquille SaintJacques. See also Pilgermuschel

Jaffa orange Shamouti

jagaimo Japan Potato

Jagdwurst Germany Hunter’s sausage. A large Brühwurst of diced pork fat and finely minced lean pork. Also called German garlic sausage, hunter’s sausage

Jägerart Germany In the hunter’s style, i.e. with mushrooms and wine

jägert Germany Sautéed with onions

jagger United States A sharp wheel attached to a handle, used to cut pastry or pizzas

jaggery 1. South Asia A crude brown sugar made from the sap of coconut or palmyra palm trees, sold in round cakes or lumps. Also called gur, palm sugar 2. Brown cane sugar, often sold in round sticky balls

jagri South Asia Jaggery

jagung Indonesia, Malaysia Miniature corn jahe Indonesia Ginger

jaiba Mexico A small crab with a hard shell jaiphal South Asia Mace and nutmeg jajka minsky Russia See iaika minsky jakfruit Jackfruit

jalapeño chile Mexico A variety of gently tapering hot green Mexican chilli about 6 cm long. Used fresh in curries or pickled for use as a snack food.

jalea Spain Jelly jalea, en Spain Jellied jalebi Jelabi

jalfrezi South Asia A South Indian style of dryfrying meat that is cut in cubes. The normal spices, cumin seeds, chopped ginger, turmeric and curry paste are fried in ghee, the meat added and coloured and fried until almost cooked, chopped green chillies, tomatoes and sweet pepper added and stirfried for 10 minutes followed by garam masala, coriander leaf and creamed coconut for the final stir-fry. Served with plain rice or bread and mango chutney. Also called jhal frazi

jälkiruokaa Finland Sweet, dessert



jalousie England, France A medieval tart consisting of a rectangular puff pastry sheet covered in a sweet filling held in by a thin strip of puff pastry around the sides, this covered with a further sheet of puff pastry cut horizontally to resemble a slatted blind

jam A fruit preserve made by mixing fruit or boiling it with sugar and water and adding extra gelling agent if required, usually pectin. The high sugar concentration inhibits but does not totally prevent proliferation of microorganisms, so jam is usually bottled hot in sterile jars with a seal, or sterilized after bottling.

Jamaica flower The red flower of a mallow bush, Hibiscus sabdariffa, which originated in Mexico and is now grown in the Caribbean and India, used as a flavouring, as a vegetable and as the basis of sauces. The fruit of the plant can be used to make jam and jelly. Also called Flor de Jamaica, Jamaica sorrel, red sorrel, rosella

Jamaican pepper Allspice Jamaica plum Hog plum

Jamaica sorrel See Jamaica flower Jamaika Pfeffer Germany Allspice

jambalaya United States A Creole rice dish similar to Spanish paella including any of chicken, ham, sausage, prawns and crayfish together with fried onions, celery, green pepper cooked with long-grain rice, mounded onto a plate and served with Tabasco sauce

jambalaya aux chaurices United States A jambalaya with chopped sausages as the principal meat

jamberry Tomate verde jambon France Ham

jambon blanc France An unsmoked or lightly smoked French cooking ham usually boiled. Also called jambon glacé, jambon de Paris

jambon cru France Raw, air-dried ham jambon cuit de Prague France Prague ham jambon de Bayonne France Bayonne ham jambon de campagne France A locally

produced ham for cooking, usually sweet cured and smoked

jambon de Paris France Jambon blanc jambon des Ardennes France Ardennes ham jambon de Toulouse France An unsmoked

ham that is salted and dried. Eaten raw or cooked.

jambon fumé France Smoked ham jambon glacé France Jambon blanc

jambonneau France 1. Pork hock or knuckle from either the front or hind leg 2. A small knuckle of ham

jambonnette France A saucisson sec from Vivarais shaped to look like a ham

jambon persillé France The raw, lean meat from cured shoulder and leg of pork, mixed with a wine-flavoured jelly and chopped parsley, cooked in a mould, cooled until set and turned out. Also called parsley ham

jambos Surinam cherry

jambu air Indonesia, Malaysia Water apple

James’ cakes Wales Berffro cakes jamón Spain Ham

jamón serrano Spain A high-quality salted and air-dried ham, matured for 18 months. Eaten raw. It should be made from freerange lean black Iberian pigs and weigh between 6 and 8 kg. Fakes weigh less. It is salted for 10 days, lightly brined and hung for a least a year. Also called mountain ham

jam puffs Puff pastry, cut into shapes, cooked, slit in half and filled with jam and whipped cream

jam roly-poly England Suet-crust pastry spread with jam, rolled up, wrapped in a cloth or placed in a mould and steamed, boiled or baked

jam sauce England Jam boiled with lemon juice and water, thickened with arrowroot or corn flour if required, cooked out and strained. Traditionally used with steamed or baked puddings.

jam sugar Granulated sugar mixed with citric acid and pectin, used for making jam with those fruits that need extra acid and pectin

Jamswurzel Germany Yam

jam tart A small or large open tart made with sweet pastry filled with jam let down with a little water

jam turnover A diamond-shaped piece of pastry, half covered with jam leaving the edges free, the other half folded over, sealed at the edges, pricked and glazed with milk and caster sugar prior to baking

jamu Japan Jam

jamur Indonesia, Malaysia Straw mushroom jamur hitam Indonesia Shiitake mushroom jamur tiram Indonesia, Malaysia Oyster


jan coude mai marge Caribbean A stew of salt beef, salt pork, red kidney beans, yellow yams and other vegetables flavoured with thyme and coconut oil (NOTE: From St Lucia)

jang yau see yau China Dark soya sauce jan hagel Netherlands Finger biscuits

flavoured with cinnamon and topped with flaked almonds and sugar

jan in de zak Netherlands A steamed pudding with currants and raisins

janis Finland Hare


Janssons frestelse Sweden Jansson’s temptation

Jansson’s temptation Sweden A traditional casserole of grated raw potatoes, chopped onions, butter, anchovy fillets or strips of matjes herring and cream baked to a golden crust. Reputed to have tempted a religious fanatic from his vow to give up earthly pleasures of the flesh. Often served at the end of a party when it is supposed to tempt guests to stay longer.

jantar Portugal Dinner

jao lei China A wire mesh strainer or spider used to manipulate food in water or oil

Japanese artichoke Chinese artichoke Japanese aubergine A small (up to 7 cm

long) cylindrical or pear-shaped aubergine often cooked as tempura

Japanese black mushroom Hoshi-shiitake Japanese broiled vegetables Vegetables such as leeks, courgettes, sweet peppers, aubergines and mushrooms, threaded on skewers, oiled, grilled until brown, brushed with a mixture of miso, sugar and mirin and reheated under the grill for a further 2

minutes. Served immediately.

Japanese bunching onion Oriental bunching onion

Japanese chestnut A large but inferior chestnut, Castanea crenata, which has replaced the native American chestnut which was lost to the blight

Japanese cucumber A small ridge cucumber with the characteristic skin. Most varieties are quite small (up to 5 cm) with very thin skin and small seeds. Slices are used as a garnish for sushi and sashimi.

Japanese fish balls Kamaboko Japanese fish sausage Kamaboko Japanese gelatine Agar-agar

Japanese ginger sauce Chicken glace de viande, soya sauce, grated ginger root, minced spring onions and soft brown sugar combined to give a thickish sauce adding water if necessary. Used with sukiyaki.

Japanese horse radish Wasabi

Japanese meatballs Finely minced or double minced beef, mixed with minced spring onions, grated ginger root, flour, soya sauce and egg to make a thick paste, formed into balls and normally deep-fried

Japanese medlar Loquat

Japanese millet An Asian coarse grass,

Echinocloa frumentacea, grown for its seeds which are eaten as porridge or with rice

Japanese omelette Eggs beaten with a little dashi and salt, cooked in a rectangular omelette pan (maki-yakinabe), rolled up, and


this repeated 2 more times each time rolling the omelette around the previous roll. It is then sliced. Often the egg is layered with some contrasting coloured ingredient before rolling.

Japanese oyster Pacific oyster Japanese parsley See mitsuba Japanese pear Asian pear Japanese pepper Anise pepper

Japanese plum A small round yellow, orange or red plum from China, Prunus salicina or P. triflora. Also called salicine plum

Japanese quince Japonica Japanese radish See mooli, daikon

Japanese red prawn One of the famous large prawns, Penaeus nipponensis, of Japan, up to 20 cm long

Japanese rice United States A variety of hard short-grain rice which is greyish white and translucent with a dark mark in the centre

Japanese rice vinegar A mild clear rice vinegar which is not very strong. The aroma is pleasant but quickly disappears on exposure to the air. Used as a dressing for the salads sunomono and aemono.

Japanese rice wine Sake Japanese sherry Mirin

Japanese vegetable cuts The mundane and decorative cuts and garnishes of vegetables which have been brought to a high art by Japanese chefs. See e.g. hana giri, hangetsu giri, hyoshigi giri, icho giri, katsura muki, matsuba, matsuka nani, mijin giri, ogi giri, roppo muki, sainome giri and sen giri.

Japanese wineberry Wineberry

japonais Switzerland Small round almond macaroons filled with butter cream

japonaise, à la France Garnished with Japanese artichokes

japonica The fruit of the ornamental quince,

Chaenomeles speciosa, which sometimes ripen on the tree but can be ripened indoors. Must not be eaten raw. Used in pies or stewed or made into a jelly. Also called

Japanese quince

japonica rice A short-grained rice shorter and thicker than Carolina rice but with similar characteristics and uses

japuta Spain Pomfret, the fish

jardinière France A garnish of mixed spring vegetables

Jarlsberg Norway A hard scalded-curd cheese similar to but softer and sweeter than Emmental, shaped in a large round and coated with wax. Made from pasteurized cows’ milk.

jarret France Shin and shank of beef or knuckle of veal



jarrete Spain Knuckle

jasmine Various climbing shrubs, Jasminum sambac and other species of Jasminum, of the olive family whose leaves and flowers are used to flavour Chinese and Southeast Asian dishes. The unopened buds are used as table decoration and jasmine oil and essence are extracted from the flowers.

jasmine essence An alcoholic extract of jasmine flowers used to flavour desserts, rice and other dishes especially in Thailand

jasmine fragrant rice An aromatic long-grain rice with a more subtle flavour than basmati and slightly sticky when cooked. Best cooked for 10 minutes without salt. Used in Chinese and Southeast Asian cookery. Also called Thai fragrant rice, Thai jasmine rice

jasmine oil The essential oil from jasmine flowers

Jasminum sambac Botanical name Jasmine jätkän lohipotti Finland Laxgryta

jaune d’oeuf France Egg yolk

Jausenwurst Austria A snack sausage made with beef, lean pork and bacon fat, seasoned, flavoured and bound with fécule Javaanse sla Netherlands A salad based on

Indonesian ingredients

Java coffee A mature coffee from Indonesia with a subtle mellow flavour

javali Portugal Wild boar

Javanese winged cardamom A cheap cardamom substitute from a variety of Amomum, available in Southeast Asia

Java rice A short-grained variety of rice particularly suitable for rice pudding as 80 g will absorb a litre of milk

Java sugar Palm sugar

javitri South Asia Nutmeg and mace

jbane North Africa A Moroccan goats’ milk cheese eaten fresh or after maturing on straw

jean-doré France John dory jeera South Asia Cumin

jeera sali South Asia A delicate long-grain rice shaped in a crescent rather like cumin seeds. Sold in the west as basmati or pilau rice. Always cooked by the absorption method.

jelabi South Asia Spirals of batter formed and fried in a deep-frying pan by dribbling batter out of a funnel. Served as a dessert with rose water-flavoured sugar syrup.

jelita Czech Republic A small blood sausage which is boiled or fried

jellied eels England Portions of fresh skinned eel, simmered in water or flavoured fish stock with vinegar, allowed to cool and served as a snack

jellied mayonnaise See mayonnaise collée

Jello United States A proprietary jelly, i.e. the gelatine-based product as opposed to the clear jam

jelly 1. The name given to any sweet or savoury liquid which is converted to a solid with a small amount of a gelling agent such as gelatine or agar agar 2. United States Jam jelly bag A cloth bag used to strain fruit juice

prior to making jelly from it

jelly crystals Australia Flavoured gelatine used to make jelly

jelly cube A concentrated jelly made from gelatine, sugar and flavouring in water, set in a rectangular shape and partially divided into cubes to be used by adding to hot water to make fruit-flavoured jelly

jellyfish The salted and sun-dried skin of the jellyfish, Rhopilema esculenta, is used in Chinese cooking. It is rather tasteless and either shredded or sold in a piece. It should be reconstituted, shredded if necessary and marinated but not cooked and has a crunchy texture.

jelly mould A plastic or metal container with various shapes in which jelly is set then demoulded and turned out onto a plate or dish

jelly mushroom See straw mushroom jelly noodles Cellophane noodles jelly roll United States Swiss roll jemuju Malaysia Caraway seed jengibre Spain Ginger

jerked beef Charqui jerked meat Charqui

jerk pork Caribbean Pork steaks marinaded in a mixture of soya sauce, sesame-flavoured oil, brown sugar, jerk seasoning, thyme, chopped spring onions and chopped apple. The drained steaks are barbecued or baked in the oven, then served with a sauce made from the marinade, tomato purée and water and garnished with apple slices fried in butter.

jerk seasoning Caribbean A variable Jamaican spice mixture used for coating meat prior to frying or grilling consisting of some or all of ground cayenne and black pepper, allspice, cinnamon, oregano, bay leaf, nutmeg, onion and garlic and the like, presented as a paste or powder

jerky Charqui

Jerome Austria, Germany A semi-hard cows’ milk cheese with a mild to slightly sharp paste

Jersey milk See Channel Islands milk

Jersey royal One of the earliest well-flavoured new potatoes harvested in the UK on the


island of Jersey and commanding a premium price. Also called international kidney

Jersey wonder England A deep-fried twist or ring of a light dough mixture, dusted with sugar and eaten warm (NOTE: From the Channel Islands.)

jeruk asem Malaysia Citron jeruk bodong Indonesia Citron

jeruk nipis Indonesia Lime, the fruit jeruk purut Indonesia Makrut lime jeruk sekade Indonesia, Malaysia Citron

Jerusalem artichoke A knobbly brown root of a plant, Helianthus tuberosus, which is a relative of the sunflower with a flavour similar to the artichoke. Jerusalem is a corruption of the Italian girasole meaning sunflower. Also called winter artichoke

Jesuit’s cress Nasturtium Jesuit’s nut Caltrops

jésus France A large cured dry sausage (up to 3 kg) made with coarsely chopped pork meat and pork fat and matured for a long time

jets de houblon France Hop shoots jeung China Ginger

jewfish 1. United States Giant sea bream 2.

Australia Mulloway

Jewish chicken soup See gildeneh yoich

Jewish salami A kosher salami made from beef with garlic and seasonings

Jewish sausage Small sausages made of minced beef, onion and carrot extended with matzo meal and bound with egg. Served at Passover.

jew’s ear An edible fungus, Auricularia auriculajudae, similar to and related to cloud ear fungus and available dried. This is a mistranslation from the Latin for Judas’s ear and is so called because it grows on the elder tree on which he is reputed to have hanged himself. Also called Judas’s ear

jew’s mallow Middle East Meloukhia jhal frazi South Asia Jalfrezi

jhanna South Asia A perforated spoon with small holes used for producing small droplets of batter to be deep-fried or boiled

jhingli South Asia Angled loofah jhol Nepal Soup

ji China Shallow frying jian China Shallow frying jiang China Ginger root

jiang niu rou China Marinated beef jiang you China Soya sauce

jiao zi China Dumpling jibia Spain Cuttlefish

jicama The large turnip-like root (25 cm in diameter) of a leguminous plant,


Pachyrrhizus erosus, from Central and South America, with a brown inedible easily separated skin and juicy white flesh which can be eaten raw or cooked. The root contains little or no protein and may be lobed. The pods and seeds of the plant are edible when young but can be poisonous when mature. Popular in Mexico and California. Also called yam bean, jicana,

Mexican yam bean jicana See jicama

ji dan China Hen egg jiemo China Mustard

ji gan China Chicken liver

jigger United States A volume measure equal to 1 American ounce, 30 ml or 2 tbsp

jin dan China Meiwa kumquat jinga South Asia 1. Shrimp 2. Prawn

jing lung China The round bamboo nesting steamers used for dim sum and other steamed foods

jintan manis Malaysia 1. Aniseed 2. Fennel seed

jinten Indonesia Cumin jinten putih Malaysia Cumin jiraa Nepal Cumin seed

ji rou China Chicken meat ji tang China Chicken soup jit choh China Red vinegar jit gwa China Fuzzy melon

jitrnice Czech Republic A fresh offal (liver and lungs) sausage for boiling or frying

jiu la choy China One of the oriental mustards with thick white stems and pointed green leaves growing to 45 cm. It has a strong bitter flavour and is parboiled before stir-frying. Also called Chinese green cabbage, sow cabbage

ji you China Chicken fat

Job’s tears A warm climate plant, Coix lachryma-jobi, with large seeds, eaten mainly in Southeast Asia and the Phillipines as a source of protein. The fruits are used for necklaces and it is grown as a garden plant in southern Europe.

Jochburg Austria A Tyrolean cheese made from cows’ and goats’ milk with a distinctive flavour and shaped into large thin discs

jocoque Spain Sour cream

jodda Italy The local Sicilian name for yoghurt Joe Mazetti United States A split round bread bun (balm cake) with a filling of cooked minced beef, oregano, basil, tomato sauce

and seasoning

joetkal Korea Dried and salted fish similar to Bombay duck. Used for flavouring or as a snack food or side dish.

joghurt Hungary Yoghurt



Joghurt Germany Yoghurt Johannisbeere Germany Redcurrant

Johannisbeerkaltschale Germany

Redcurrants cooked in sugar syrup, sieved and mixed with white wine. Served cold garnished with whole redcurrants and crushed macaroons.

Johannisbeersosse Germany A jus roti or similar with added redcurrant jelly

Johannisbrot Germany Carob bean

John Dory A seawater flatfish, Zeus faber, with olive brown skin, two distinguishing black thumb marks (Saint Peter’s thumb) on each side below the head and very sharp spines, found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. It is similar to sole, has firm white fillets and the bones make excellent stock.

Johnny cake United States A cornmeal batter pancake similar to hoe cake made from the less starchy flint corn. Also called Rhode

Island johnny cake

joint A large thick portion of animal flesh often including some bone. Names of the same joint vary considerably from place to place even within one country.

joint, to To divide a carcass into manageable portions by severing a joint in the skeleton, by chopping, or by removing whole muscles or muscle groups

Joinville, sauce France Sauce normande finished with crayfish and shrimp butters instead of cream and butter. Used with fish.

jojutla rice A type of long-grain rice

Jókai bableves Hungary A fresh or dried butter bean soup with smoked pig knuckle and carrots, flavoured with garlic, paprika and parsley. Named after the author.

jollof West Africa A stew or casserole from Nigeria, Gambia and Senegal made of beef, chicken or mutton simmered with fried onions, tomatoes, rice and seasonings. Many other vegetables and garnishes are added according to availability.

jolly boy United States A fried flat cake made with cornmeal dough, split in half, buttered and served with maple syrup

Jonagold apple A hybrid of the Jonathan and Golden Delicious apples with a sweet, slightly tart, flavour used both for dessert and cooking

Jonah crab A close relative, Cancer borealis, of the rock crab but a little heavier (up to 500 g). It has a brick red shell and, like the rock crab, is not particularly well-flavoured although quite edible.

jonchée France 1. A fresh cream cheese from Poitou-Charentes 2. A type of junket

jonc odorant France Lemon grass jong eendje Netherlands Duckling

joojeh kabab Central Asia An Iranian kebab of chicken pieces marinated in lemon juice, grated onion and seasoning for about 4 hours, threaded onto skewers, brushed with paprika and molten butter and then grilled or barbecued

jook China A gruel of well-soaked rice boiled with salt and water, flavoured by sprinkling sweet or savoury ingredients over the surface. See also congee

Jordan almond See sugared almond jordärtskockor Sweden Jerusalem artichoke jordbær Denmark, Norway Strawberry jordgubbar Sweden Strawberries

jordnötter Sweden Peanuts joshinko Japan Rice flour

jota Italy A slowly cooked soup from the northeast of potatoes, beans or polenta, turnips, bacon and sauerkraut. Also called iota

joue France Cheek (of pork) jou kuei China Cinnamon

joule The scientific unit of energy, too small to be of use in nutrition. Hence the kilojoule equal to one thousand joules is used. (NOTE: Named after James Joule, the scientist from Manchester, UK, who investigated the equivalence of heat and other forms of energy.)

jour, du France Of the day as in soupe du jour, soup of the day

jowar South Asia Great millet, sorghum, usually the white grained seed ground for making unleavened bread

jowl The meat from the cheeks and face of a pig

ju China Blanching and quick-boiling for 5 minutes in plain water to release blood from meats

juan canary melon United States An oval melon with sweet white flesh tinged with pink near the seeds and a bright yellow skin

jubna Middle East Haloumi

Judas’s ear Jew’s ear

judd mat gaardebou’nen Luxembourg

Smoked collar of pork cooked with broad beans and flavoured with summer savory. The national dish of Luxembourg.

judía Spain Kidney bean

judías blancas Spain Haricot beans judías de Lima Spain Lima bean judías verdes Spain Runner beans

judías verdes a la andaluza Spain Boiled green beans sautéed with chopped tomatoes and julienne of ham

judic, à la France Garnished with stuffed tomatoes, braised lettuce, potatoes and sometimes truffles and kidney


judru France A type of salami from Beaune made with pork only

jug, to An old-fashioned term for cooking in a heavy earthenware casserole or jug

jugged hare United Kingdom A jointed hare tossed in seasoned flour, browned with bacon and butter, then beef stock, port, onion clouté, marjoram and redcurrant jelly added, boiled then casseroled for 3 hours or until tender, onions removed and cooking liquor thickened with the reserved blood of the hare. Garnished with chopped parsley.

jugged kippers Scotland A method of cooking kippers by removing their heads and tails, packing them into a jug, covering with boiling water, leaving 8 minutes after which they are removed, dried off and served with beurre maître d’hotel

jugjug Caribbean A Barbadian celebratory dish of salt beef and salt pork desalted and boiled with twice their weight of pigeon peas with a faggot of thyme, marjoram and chives and some chopped onions until the meat is tender. The meat and peas are separated from the cooking liquor, any bones removed, then all minced. A stiff porridge is made with some of the cooking liquor, butter and three fifths the meat’s weight of sorghum flour. The two mixtures are combined and served warm.

Juglans cinerea Botanical name Butternut tree

Juglans nigra Botanical name Walnut tree Juglans regia Botanical name Walnut tree jugo Spain 1. Juice 2. Gravy

jugo de naranja Spain Orange juice jugurttia Finland Yoghurt

juhla Finland A sharp-flavoured Cheddar-type cheese made from cows’ milk

juice The liquid expressed or released from fruits, vegetables or even meats by any of several methods, squeezing, pressing, liquidizing, freezing and thawing, heating, etc. Juice is usually strained to remove solids

juice extractor An implement for manually or mechanically extracting juice from fruits. For citrus fruits, it usually consists of a ribbed convex cone, on which half the citrus fruit is turned, above a slotted base. Other fruits are generally liquidized and strained.

jujube 1. The red, wrinkled fruit of a shrub, Zizyphus jujuba, of the buckthorn family which grows in the East and Provence and is partially dried, candied or made into a stiff jelly. It has the shape of an olive, is green when unripe and red to dark brown when ripe, and has a single stone and a sweet and sticky white flesh, rather like a small date. Other shrubs of the genus Zisyphus have


similar fruits. See also Mauritian jujube,

Argentinian jujube, lotus jujube. Also called Chinese red date, Indian jujube, red date, jujube nuts 2. Confectionery made from jellied and sweetened fruit juices

jujube nut See jujube

juk China A gruel of well-soaked rice boiled with salt and water, flavoured by sprinkling sweet or savoury ingredients over the surface. See also congee

julefrokest Denmark A Christmas cold table with a whole cooked gammon as centrepiece

julekake Norway Christmas cake

julienne England, France Cut pieces of vegetables, fruit or citrus rind measuring roughly 25 by 3 by 3 mm (smaller in the case of citrus rind). Usually used either raw, blanched or cooked as a garnish.

julskinka Sweden A hot or cold ham sometimes used as a centrepiece of a Christmas cold table. If cold, piped with Happy Christmas (‘God Jul’) in white chaudfroid sauce. The ham is prepared by simmering a whole gammon with a bouquet garni, nutmeg and an onion clouté until the internal temperature reaches 80°C. It is then cooled in the cooking liquor, removed, dried, skin stripped off, coated with a mixture of mustard and ginger followed by breadcrumbs, egg yolk and sugar and browned in the oven. Nowadays, often baked in the oven.

jumble 1. A small lemon or almond-flavoured biscuit baked in a tiny heap or an ‘S’, shape 2. United States A biscuit flavoured with rose water and containing chopped walnuts and desiccated coconut

jumbo Larger than normal or expected, e.g. jumbo oats, jumbo burger

jumeau France A cut of the forequarter of beef extending down from the end of the côtes couvertes including the leaner parts of the leg of mutton cut and the brisket immediately in front of the foreleg. Used for braising.

jump baarn China A chopping block usually made from soapwood cut across the grain so as not to take the edge off the cleaver

juneberry United States The fruit of a decorative shrub, Amelanchier canadensis, with a red to black fruit similar to a blackcurrant. Eaten raw or cooked. Also called serviceberry

junges Hammelfleisch Germany Lamb junges Huhn Germany Spring chicken

Jungeszwiebeln Germany Spring onions juniper The dried berries of a shrub,

Juniperus communis, from temperate Northern regions used to flavour gin, for