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Final History

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Final exam questions





Discuss about Early Paleolithic period in Kazakhstan.

Early Paleolethic 2,5 mln-500 thousand years BC

Human was formed as a result of a long evolutionary development. Ancient people were Australopithecus (2.6 million. Years ago). The remains of its skeletons was found in southern and eastern Africa, in Australia. Scientists have named the first man, "Homo habilis", his remains were found in Africa, in Kenya. He lived 1 million. 750 thousand. Years ago. One of the most ancient people was Pithecanthropus (1 million years ago); his skeleton was first found on the island of Java in 1891. Next was the Sinanthropus - "Chinese people" because his remains were found in China. Synanthropes lived 200-500 thousand years ago. Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus received in science called "erectus humans." According to scientists, the first ancient people entered the territory of Kazakhstan from Europe, Asia and Siberia. This occurred about a million years ago. Working tools found in the valley Arystandy in Zhambyl region and in the Karatau Mountains in southern Kazakhstan. The first people who entered the territory of Kazakhstan, were contemporaries of Pithecanthropus. The first dwellings of ancient people were cave. People united in the human herd for the joint production of food and protection from animals. Engaged in gathering and driven hunt. Hunted mammoths, bison, red deer, wild horses. The first stone tools-ax. They studded stones with chipping away pieces from its one side. And they got a sharp serrated edge Archaeologists have called this tool chopper. Stone, which has handled with two sides - chopping. Hand ax -huge stone tool with length up to 20 centimeters and weigh more than 1 kg. In Southern Kazakhstan (Karatau Ridge near Zhambyl) archaeologist H.A Alpysbayev in 1958 found a prehistoric man of the Stone Age. The oldest of the sites of the Stone Age – Shakpakata on the peninsula Mangistau, Arystandy (Jambul.). Founded there tools are from the Lower Paleolithic. On the parking places were found choppers, chisels, bifaces, knives, scrapers, as well as many different tips. Bifaces – a common stone tools, crafted from both sides. Arrowheads made of flakes. Scrapers is a long rectangle, which were oblong, pointed. Archaeologists found large stones, which are processed on both sides-nucleuses. On parkings Borykazgan. Shabakty in Zhambyl region was found more than 5000 stone tools - axes and sharp points.




Discuss about Upper Paleolithic period in Kazakhstan. 

40-12 thousand years BC

In the Upper Paleolithic period, 40-12 million years ago, there is a new stage of human development. 35-40 thousand years ago there was a “intelligentperson”- homo sapiens, ie modern human species. For the first time his remains were found in a cave of Cro-Magnon in France. Therefore, scientists called him Cro-Magnon. "Homo sapiens" walked straight, owned articulate speech. During this period, early humans began to develop spiritually - there are cave paintings, religious ideas. Human herd has become a tribal communities - collective blood relatives. The main work carried out women: cooking, sewing clothes, gathering, etc. All have equal rights. Land, dwellings, tools were common for all. Questions of life and activities were solved at the general meeting. Elders solved disputed issues. They allocated space for hunting, grazing. Often several genera united among themselves. Tribal leaders led such associations. Found numerous parking - Shulbinka in East Kazakhstan, on the cost of the river Arystandy in southern Kazakhstan. Found a large number of scrapers, points, cutters, which made 25,000 years ago. On Semizbugu parking in Central Kazakhstan was found straight scapers and curved shape stone knives. The largest Stone Age monument in Central Kazakhstan is Batpak parking. Its cultural layer lies at a depth of 6 meters. The age of parking- 30-25 thousand years ago. Was found more than 300 ancient tools. Scrapers, cutters, needle made of stone flakes.




Discuss about Mesolithic, Neolithic and Eneolithic period in Kazakhstan.

Mesolithic 12-5 thousand years BC

13,000 years ago was the glacier melting. The plants and animals of modern type began to form under the influence of the sun. People learned to do microliths - small stone tools, thin plates of 1-2 centimeters in length.

A feature of Mesolithic period is invention of the bow and arrow. Hunting has become a major activity of the ancient people. In the Mesolithic period disappeared large animals - mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, as well as large herd animals. Bow allowed to hunt small wildfowl. People changed their habitat, following migrating animals. Mesolithic hunters lived on the costs of the rivers Irtysh, Yesil (Ishim), Tobol, Torgau Zhaiyk (Urals).

In Kazakhstan, more than 20 known Mesolithic sites. Housing constructed of poles dug into the ground, covering them with animal skins. Remains of such dwellings were discovered on the cost of the river Yesil (Ishim).

In the 8 th century BC. on the territory of Kazakhstan established a favorable climate. At the end of the Mesolithic period began the process of domestication of wild animals and cultivation of certain plants. There were domesticated sheep, goat, cow, pig, horse, dog. Births united in tribes There was a division of labor between men and women: men were hunters and women - gathering. About 10 thousand years ago people began to engage in agriculture. The development of gathering led to the beginning of primitive agriculture

Neolithic 5-3 thousand years BC

Stone processing reached the highest level in the Neolithic period, 5 thousand. BC. In the New Stone century ancient people began to engage in weaving, sewing clothes, cover ceramic ware by ornament. Invented loom. Another major achievement was the production of pottery ware (ceramics) dishes. That is why the Neolithic period is also called the "Age of clay pots."

Neolithic hunters constantly were moving for animals, and therefore their settlements were temporary. Usually parking located on the costs of rivers and lakes. The oldest Neolithic parkings belong to the 5th millennium BC It is Ust-Narym in the East Kazakhstan region, Karaganda, Green Beam in Central Kazakhstan, Hemp in northern Kazakhstan. In hemp parking there are found stone ax, flat blades, scrapers of stone plates. In the Northern Balkhash there are found a lot of items made from silicon: cutters, plates, cores and arrowheads. Discovered a huge cluster of animal bones on parking in Central Kazakhstan Karaganda, Green. The main occupation was hunting.

In Kazakhstan there are found more than 500 Neolithic parkings of ancient people. In the Aral Sea were found spearheads, flat blades, arrowheads. In Zhezkazgan found more than 150 parks, cemeteries. Walls of the tombs are reinforced with stone plates. People were buried with head in the north-west, it speaks of faith in an afterlife. In the Neolithic people have moved to the producing economy - agriculture and animal husbandry. This event is called the Neolithic revolution.

Eneolithic 3-2.8 thousand years BC

the very first metal used by humans became copper.

5 thousand. Years ago, humans first learned to smelt.


1) People used stone and metal alike. Copper was not able to replace copper.

2) Anthropological type Europoid

3) in the Copper Age 2 was social change:

a) there was a division of labor

b) matriarchy gave way to patriarchy

parking eneolith

In northern Kazakhstan parking bot refers to 3-2 millennium BC and spans 15 hectares and found 158 homes.

Botay people tamed horse.

parking on Shebir Mangistau.




Kazakhstan Museum of Paleolithic at al-Farabi Kazakh National University: brief history and features of the museum.   

In Kazakh National University named by Al-Farabi there is one of the richest collections of stone tools. These tools are collected and located in Paleolithic museum. The fund of the Paleolithic museum recharges and sets with materials of expedition which study memorials of stone age annually. This museum was created in 2000 in December. The main reason to open it was approximately 500 thousand artifacts which were given to Kazakh National University by National Academy of science. Firstly these collections have been kept at basement of institute of archeology named by A.H.Margulan and university of geological sciences named by K.I.Satpaev for some years. Afterwards these artifacts were moved to permanent place -basement of faculty of biology of Kazakh National University with area of 200 m square. According to these assemblages , firstly there opened laboratory of the stone age, where the students of history faculty practiced. But then it changed to the Paleolithic museum. Official opening of the Paleolithic museum was confirmed by the order of rector of Kazakh National University K.N.Naribaev on 30th of January in 2001 on the basis of submissions of the professor M.K.Koigeldiev.

The basic missions of the Paleolithic museum are:

* to accept , initiate , account and to keep the artifacts, the stone tools;

*to collect materials relating to stone age of Kazakhstan, classification , typology of them , and to insert the artifacts to scientific revolution;

*to exhibit new materials;

*to make excursion for students, pupils of Kazakhstan, guests from foreign countries and for all people who are interested in history of ancient Kazakhstan.

Human evaluation contains information about basic stages of human development and the newest discoveries of paleoanthropologists in the territory of Africa. The oldest skeleton of the Australopithecus named by Lucy is the newest achievement of anthropology .She is 3,5 million years old. This skeleton was found in 1974 by American anthropologist in Ethiopia . There is shown the world of Australopithecus , their tools on show-windows.

The Lower Paleolithic contains information about the earliest Paleolithic monuments in territory of Kazakhstan - Kyzyltau, Shakpak-Ata, Semizbugy and others. Illustrative materials exhibit geo-geomorphological location of manufactories of raw materials. Borikazgan, Tanirkazgan, Akkol are the lower Paleolithic sites.

Mousterian period.On the show-window ,there are materials which are found in Hantau, Ogiz--tau, Semizbugu. Monuments of this period are studied by O.A.Artuhova. Ch.Ualikhanov's monument is also exhibited in the museum. It is located at 22 kilometer northeast of region Algabas .It is the part of the north Kazakhstan. Monument was explored by some scientists. For instance ,Zh.K.Taimaganbetov researched it from 1983 till 1992.It is still exploring by archeologists.

The materials of upper Paleolithic sites from Shulbinka (It is the eastern Kazakhstan),Kudaikol,Semizbugu(Central Kazakhstan)are exhibited. Stratified monument Shulbinka bring on great interest. There found traces of dwellings and stone tools. In addition, there we can see the technology of splitting the nucleus.

The main tools of Mesolithic ,Neolithic and Eneolithic periods are knife-like plates, arrowheads which are found in west regions of Kazakhstan . Kara Ungir is a cave of Neolithic period . It is located at the south of Kazakhstan . And materials of the Mangystau and Cis -Aral monuments -Sarykamys .Sultan-ape,Akespe and others are also exposed.

The last section is about Scientists that contributed to the Kazakhstan Paleolithic study.There are photos of scientists , such as H.A.Alpysbaev, A.G.Medoev. And there henged lists of their works related to history of Paleolithic period. In addition, there are photos of scientists from Institude of archeology and ethnography which is located in city Novosibirsk. There is a photo of A.P.Derevyanko,he was an academic and a photo of V.T.Petrin,he is a professor. They leave us invaluable information about Kazakhstan's Paleolithic history. Akira Sakia sponsored creation of the museum,for that reason her photo also included there.

All sections are explained very well. There are some pictures,maps, and models of paleolithic humans. There are also real stone tools. In addition, it is followed by explanation note in Kazakh, Russian and in English.

On the basis of familiarity with collections of stone tools of the museum of Paleolithic at Al-Farabi Kazakh National University , we can say that territory of Kazakhstan was one of the centers of intensive development of Paleolithic cultures. It is clear that Paleolithic of Kazakhstan was an integral part of world culture of the stone age.

From my perspective, all people have to visit this museum. Because the museum is like alive.




How has the geography and environment of Inner Asia shaped the way the peoples of this region have influenced history?  What is Inner Asia?

INNER ASIA Inner Asia includes the following regions and countries:

1. CENTRAL ASIA: Xinjiang, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Northern Afghanistan


Inner Asia is the setting for the Silk Roads. Its two most significant geographic features are

• Its remoteness from the sea and very dry, moisture-bearing winds from the ocean lose their wetness by the time they reach Inner Asia.

• It is continental. “ geographical factors mean that Inner Asia doesn’t produce much food and can’t support high population densities A useful web site for introducing Earth’s varied environments is

1. Forests (the taiga) are a rich source of fur, timber, and other products.

2. The Inner Asian steppe or grasslands stretches across Kazakhstan, northern Xinjiang province in China, and Mongolia.

16). The peoples who founded the great nomadic empires—Xiongnu,1 Turks, and Mongols—all depended on their herds (horses, sheep, camels) for survival. The steppe provided them

with essential pasture for their animals.

3. Early travelers thought that Inner Asian deserts such as the Gobi and Taklamakan were filled with demons. Although desert environments differ, all are barriers to trade and travel.

4. Although the great mountain ranges were barriers to trade and travel, in many parts of Inner Asia they were the major source of water. The agricultural oasis towns circling the Tarim basin,

Rationale: Unique topography and climate make Inner Asia a case study in how humans adapt to varied geographical contexts. The study of its geography and environment opens a door to better understanding of the central role this region played in world history




Dicuss about Kelteminar culture.  

The Kelteminar culture (5500–3500 BCE)[1] was a Neolithic archaeological culture of sedentary fishermen occupying the semi-desert and desert areas of the Karakum and Kyzyl Kum deserts and the deltas of the Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers in the territories of ancient Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, dated to the 6th-3rd millennium BCE.

The culture was discovered and first excavated in 1939 by the USSR Chorasmian Archaeological and Ethnographic Expedition under leadership of S.P. Tolstoy, who first described it. It is named after a site of the same name. The Kelteminar culture was replaced by the Tazabagyab culture.

The Kelteminar people practised a mobile hunting, gathering and fishing subsistence system. Over time, they adopted stockbreeding. With the Late Glacial warming, up to the Atlantic Phase of the Post-Glacial Optimum, Mesolithic groups moved north into this area from the Hissar (6000–4000 BCE). These groups brought with them the bow and arrow and the dog, elements of what Kent Flannery has called the "broad-spectrum revolution".

Scientists hold that Kelteminar culture is related to the Pit–Comb Ware culture and belongs to the Finno-Ugric peoples. The Kelteminar culture is cited as an argument against existence of an Indo-European ancestral homeland in Central Asia.

The Kelteminar people lived in huge houses (size 24m x 17m and height 10m), which housed the whole tribal community of about 100-120 people. They adorned themselves with beads made of shells. They manufactured stone axes and miniature trapezoidal flint arrowheads. For cooking, they used clay vessels produced without the potter's wheel.

The Kelteminar economy was based on sedentary fishing and hunting.




Significance of Silk Road for Kazakh history.

The Silk Road is a system of ancient caravan routes leading from China to the countries of the Near East and Europe. It is one of the most important achievements in the history of world civilization.

The Silk Road is a historical route without a juridical status, transcending many national borders. Hundreds of big and small towns fallen into oblivion or still in existence witness to grandeur of the Silk Road.

It began in 1380 when the ambassadorial caravan left the Khan capital accompanied by Prince Chzan-Tzyan sent the Emperor U-di to unknown countries of the West. Thirteen years latter the prince came back. He was able to reach the territory which is modern Afghanistan now, and was the first person to travel along the straight road from the inner parts of China to Central Asia. After him this route was used by caravans carrying silk from China to the West and bringing back goods from the Mediterranean the Near and the Middle East and Central Asia.

The Great Silk as a trade route was not unchangeable and stable route. As time went on, some parts gained primary importance, other the contrary, died away and formely prosperous market towns lost their fame giving ways to new ones. The choice of routes largely depended on political and economic circumstances the Eurasian continent.

What was South Kazakhstan like when it joined the system of the Silk Road? An original culture had developed there, formed by both nomadic and settled tribes which were rather similar in ethnic respects or were united in similar ethnopolitical formations. The interrelations and the mutual cultural enrichment were the main elements of human progress. This synthesis has resulted in a number of achievements created by the people of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Thus, in the 12th to the 3rd century B.C. there were nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes of the Saks living on the territory of Kazakhstan whose high culture has become known thanks to numerous excavated burial grounds among which figure Besshatyr, Issyk, Tegisken, Uygarack. By that time there were contacts with China, India, The Near and the Middle East. This is evidenced by objects found in the burial mounds of the Sak nobility, such as China looking-glasses and beautiful articles of art-dried bricks suggest that the artians must have been recruited from foreign countries. At the time of the state of the Usunys and the Kayus in the 2nd century B.C.. In the first half of the current millennium, when the Silk Road started operating, Roman glass and coins, Chinese silk, looking glasses and lacquered dishes , European fibulas. Clasps, different gems and sidnets from Sasanidi Iran were brought into the coutry.

This was the time when small towns and settlements were founded in the Chu, the Talas and the Syr Daria valleys. Many centers like that were located in the Tien Shan zone, in the Arys river valley and in the middle and the lower stretches of the Syr Daria. The towns in the dry desert zone of the Aral area and the Dzhetysar gorge are well preserved. One can still see their sun-dried yellow walls and necropolises.

In the second half of the 11th century, Semirechie and South Kazakhstan became members of the Tiurk Kaganat, a large nomadic empire embracing an area from Korea to the Black Sea.

At the end of the 11th century, Kaganat- the East Tiurk Kaganat and the West Tiurk Kaganat were divided. Semirechie became a central part of the latter with Suyab as its capital.

It was at that time that there was a busy life on the Silk Road in Semirchie and South Kazakhstan, which played an importnt role in the development of town culture. New town centers were founded in Semirechie and the South Kazakhstan began to develop quickly.

If in the first half of the current millenium there were records only of Chigu and Semey- the residence of the Usuns rulers and Bityan ( in South Kazakhstan)- the capital of Kanguis, then at begining of the XII century records existed of several dozen of towns. The largest of them were Cuyab, Taraz and 'the town on the White river", later colled Ispidzhab. In Chinice road guide books of the XII-XIII centuries and in the Arab route guide books one can find numerouse names of towns that were built along the Silk Road. The Silk Road passing through Central Asia, South Kazakhstan and Semirechie was used until the XIV century.

Along the Silk Road, caravans carried silk to the counties of the West, which, alongside totzars and ambassadors, the hired military units were paid with silk and also the state debts were settled in 'silk currency'.

In their turn, Rome, Buzantia, India, Iran, Iraq, the Arab caliphate and later Europe and Russia sent goods to the East. The list of their exotic goods is innumerable. These were myrrh and frankincense, jasmine water and ambergris, cardamom and nutmeg, ginseng and gall of gython, carpets and cloths, dyes and minerals, diamonds and jasper, amber and corals, ivory, ingots of gold and silver, furs and coins, bows, swords and spears and many other things.

It was along the Silk Road where the famous Fergana, Arab and Niss fast horses, camels and elephants, rhinoceroses, lions, leopards and gazelles, eagles, falcons, peacocks and ostriches were transported as well as grapes, peaches, melons, spices and sugar, vegetables and fruits. As time went on, these cultural plants were distributed and cultivated along the road elsewhere.

The archeological excavations of ancient monuments give numerous examples proving the development and mutual enrichment of different cultures in applied arts, architecture and painting, musical and theatrical activities. There are the Timurid style ceramics, objects and terracotta clay mask of an actor of the X-XI centuries was found in the excavations of the Syr Daria town of Keder.

The Silk Road was also a highway for religious ideas. Different missionaries carried their belief to distant countries. Thus Buddhism came from India, Christanity via Central Asia and East Turkestan and Islam from Syria, Iran and Arabia.

As a result of the interaction of European and Asian civilizations, the settled townspeople and the nomadic tribes of South Kazakhstan were able to create wonderful works and objects of art.

Thus the grandeur of the Silk Road does not only lie in the tremendous barter between different countries, but also in the mutual penetration and enrichment of different civilization and cultures. This was the factor which attracted the attention of the UNESCO which in 1987 approved a project 'The Silk Road is a Road of Dialogue".




Discuss about Andronov culture (ca. 1800–1400 BCE).

In the 1914 near the village Andronovo in the Enisei river valley, southern Siberia, several burial grounds containing skeletons in crouched position and pottery with very rich decoration were discovered. Archaeologists gave the name Andronovo to the distinctive Bronze Age culture dated mostly to the 2nd millennium BC. The Andronovo Culture covers a vast portion of western Asia. Its western flank constitutes a contact zone with the Srubnaya (Timber Grave Culture) in the Volga-Ural interfluvial; extending eastward to the Minusinsk depression. Sites are found as far south as the foothills of the Koppet Dag, the Pamir and Tian Shan mountains, while the northern boundary is rather vague reaching the taiga zone. Moreover, there is a chain of Andronovo type cultures in the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia.




Discuss the geo-political setting of Kazakhstan in Central Asia and its different characteristics. 




Explain the State symbols of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Flag is one of the main symbols of the state that represents its sovereignty and identity. The Flag of sovereign Kazakhstan was officially adopted in 1992. It was designed by Shaken Niyazbekov.

The State Flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a rectangular breadth of blue colour with the image of the sun in its center with a soaring steppe eagle underneath. Along the flagstaff there is a vertical band with the national ornamental patterns. The images of the sun, rays, eagle and ornament are of golden colour. each colour has its own specific meaning. Thus, a blue-sky colour symbolizes honesty and integrity. Moreover, the blue-sky colour has a deep symbolic meaning in Turkic culture. The ancient Turkic peoples always worship the Sky as their God, and their blue-sky banner symbolized devotion to Father Ancestor. The blue colour of the State Flag of Kazakhstan means pure sky, peace and prosperity, and self-colour of the background represents the unity of our country.

According to the heraldic principles the sun symbolizes wealth and abundance, life and energy. That is why the sun rays on the flag have the form of grain, a symbol of wealth and welfare. By representing the sun at its state attributes Kazakhstan reaffirms its commitment to universal values, which also indicates that the new young country is full of life-affirming energy and is open to all countries for cooperation.

The image of the steppe eagle is one of the main heraldic attributes which is used on coat of arms and flags of various peoples for centuries. This image is commonly considered as a symbol of power, insight and generosity. A soaring steppe eagle represents by itself a power of the state, its sovereignty and independence, aspiration to high goals and sustainable future. The image of the steppe eagle on the world outlook of Eurasian nomads has a special place and is associated with such notions as freedom and fidelity, sense of dignity and courage, strength and purity of thoughts. The symbolically rendered silhouette of the golden steppe eagle reflects aspiration of the young sovereign state to the heights of world civilization.

Another important element of the State Flag is a vertical band with the national ornamental patterns. This Kazakh ornament is one of the forms of specific artistic perception of world in strict accordance with aesthetic styles of the people. Representing a harmony of various forms and lines, it is also an expressive means of discovery of the inner world of the people. The national ornament along the flagstaff represents the art and cultural traditions of the people of Kazakhstan.

The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a picture of shanyrak (the cupola of a yurt) on a blue background on which all sides in the form of sun rays diverge uyki (support) in framing of wings of mythical horses. At the bottom of the emblem — the inscription «Kazakhstan». The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan — the two colors: golden and blue-blue. Today’s coat of arms of sovereign Kazakhstan is the result of labor, creative search of two famous architects: Zhandarbek Malibekov and Shota Ualihanov.

Emblem is round. In the world of the most perfect form is a form of ball. And the circle as the closest to perfection this item, especially appreciated the nomads. Circle as an element of heraldry is the application everywhere, but it is in special honor and respect among the eastern nomads. It is a symbol of life, eternity.

The central element has incorporated the basic idea of ​​our coat of arms is shanyrak — circular pommel dome of yurt. Shanyrak — a symbol of family prosperity, peace and tranquility. Skillfully, effectively and beautifully illustrated tundyk — zenith hole tent, reminds the bright sun against the blue, peaceful sky. Dome poles — uyk uniformly diverging from the center of the emblem on a blue space, similar to sunlight — a source of life and warmth. The authors managed to solve the problem of image kerege — sliding lattice framework of the yurt. Crosswise, triple, kuldereushi shanyrak symbolize the unity of the three zhuzs which provides its strength. Thus, the language of heraldry authors express peaceful essence of the Kazakhs. Call upon all peoples of the republic under the general shanyrak, strive to become a strong powerful supporting structures of our common home — Kazakhstan.

The next part of the composite structure of the arms are golden wings with horns in the shape of a crescent, fantastic jumpers — tulpars that state symbols has a long history. Silhouette jumpers in the language of heraldry has deep meaning and content. It means: fearlessness of a lion, vision falcon, physical power and strength of an ox, quickness, speed and plasticity of deer, cunning foxes and resourcefulness in the fight against enemies. Wings of Gold racers remind also sheaves of grain, gold wheat, i.e, a sign of labor, abundance and material prosperity.

In the center of the emblem is a five-pointed star, symbolizing that our hearts and arms open to representatives from all five continents. Color gamut of our arms — a golden and blue. The first corresponds to the bright, clear future of our nation. Blue sky united all the peoples of the world. Its color is in our arms embodies our desire for peace, harmony, friendship and unity with all peoples of the planet.

The Anthem is one of the main symbols of the state. The Russian term gimn for Anthem comes from the Greek word Gimneo and means solemn, ceremonial song. The Anthem serves as an important sound symbol with a key value for the effective socio-political consolidation and ethnocultural identification of citizens of the country. In the history of sovereign Kazakhstan the national anthem was adopted two times: in 1992 and 2006.

The new State Anthem was adopted in 2006 in order to promote the countrys sound symbolism. It is based on the patriotic song Menyn Kazakhstanym (My Kazakhstan) which is popular among the people and written in 1956, with music by Shamshi Kaldayakov and lyrics by Zhumeken Nazhimedenov. President Nursultan Nazarbayev modified the original lyrics of the song. The corresponding amendments have been introduced to the Decree On State Symbols at the joint session of the Houses of Parliament on January 6, 2006 and the Parliament approved it as a new State Anthem of Kazakhstan.

Music by Shamshi Kaldayakov

Lyrics by Zhumeken Nazhimedenov and Nursultan Nazarbayev




Consider the features of the development of education, science, culture and health in modern Kazakhstan.

State Program of Education Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011- 2020

The State program of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011- 2020 has been adopted by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan No.1118 dated December 7, 2010.

Goal increasing competitiveness of education and development of human capital through ensuring access to quality education for sustainable economic growth

Program aims • improvement of financing system, aimed at provision of equal access to education services;

• enhancing prestige of the teaching profession;

• establishment of state-public education management system;

• ensuring equal access of all participants of educational process to the best educational resources and technologies;

• full coverage of children with preschool education and training; ensuring equal access of children to various programs to prepare them for school;

• formation of an intellectually, physically and spiritually developed citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan in general education institutions, satisfying his/her needs in obtaining education, in order to ensure success in a rapidly changing world; development of competitive human capital for economic prosperity of the country;

• transition to 12-year education model;

• modernization of the system of technical and vocational education in accordance with the demands of society and industrial-innovative development of economy, integration into the global educational space;

• achievement of a high level of higher education quality meeting the demands of labor market, the objectives on industrial-innovative development of the country, satisfying the needs of a person and conforming to the world's best practice in education;

• ensuring life-long education;

• encouragement of active citizenship social responsibility, patriotism, high moral and leadership skills among the young people

Objectives • development of new mechanisms of education financing, increasing availability of quality education;

• training highly qualified staff for education sector;

• increasing state support and stimulating labor of teachers;

• improvement of education management including implementation of corporate governance principles;

• development of the public-private partnership system (further – PPP) in education;

• improvement of the system of monitoring education development, that includes establishment of national education statistics with consideration of international requirements;

• creation of conditions for automation of education process;

• enlarging the network of preschool organizations;

• updating the content of preschool education and upbringing;

• staff training for preschool education organizations;

• transition to 12-year education model and updating educational content;

• solution of problems of ungraded schools;

• improvement of inclusive education system in schools;

• updating the structure of the content of technical and vocational education according to the demands of the country’s industrial-innovative development;

• development of staff training infrastructure for the sectors of economy;

• enhancing prestige of technical and vocation education;

• training staff for undergraduate and postgraduate degrees meeting the demands of the country’s industrial-innovative development;

• integration into European higher education space;

• integration of education, science and industry; creation of conditions for commercialization of intellectual property products and technologies. Training highly-qualified scientific and scientific-pedagogical staff;

• creation of conditions for life-long education, education for all;

• implementation of a package of measures on patriotic education, encouragement of active citizenship and social responsibility and a mechanism of revealing youth potential;

Implementation period (stages) 2011- 2020

The Program will be implemented in two stages:

first stage: 2011 – 2015

second stage: 2016 – 2020

The State program of health-care development in the Republic of Kazakhstan "Salamatty Kazakhstan"

The State program of health-care development in the Republic of Kazakhstan "Salamatty Kazakhstan" for 2011-2015 years has been adopted by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan No.1113 dated November 29, 2010.

The goal of the program is to improve health of the people of Kazakhstan for ensuring country’s stable socio-demographic development.

Key tasks of the program are:

strengthening cross-sectoral and interauthority cooperation in matters of citizens’ health protection and provision of sanitary-epidemiological well-being;

development and improvement of the Unified national healthcare system;

improvement of medical and pharmaceutical education, development of the medical science and pharmaceutical activity.

As a result of implementation of the State program of health-care development Kazakhstan should achieve the following key indicators:

increase in life expectancy of the population to 69.5 years by 2013, to 70 years by 2015;

decrease in maternal mortality to 28.1 per 100,000 children born alive by 2013, to 24.5 per 100,000 children born alive by 2015;

decrease in infant mortality to 14.1 per 1000 children born alive by 2013, to 12.3 per 1000 children born alive by 2015;

decrease in total mortality to 8.14 per 1000 people by 2013, to 7.62 per 1000 people by 2015

decrease in tuberculosis sickness rate to 98.1 per 100,000 people by 2013, to 94.7 per 100,000 people by 2015;

maintenance of the spread of HIV in 15-49 age group at 0.2-0.6% level.

Esli che health tyraly na jakta da jazlgan sony korp korw,blmimn, durystap taba almai jatrmn http: //www.qhcp.net/en/countries/kazakhstan/


Ili prostoi mozhno i strategy 2030 ili 2050 lerdegini jaza salsak ta bolatn wgar

Cultural development

Cultural policy is the main ideological platform of each successful state which forms the main value system of society and the creative origin of the individual.

Realising the need for modernisation of the cultural policy, President Nursultan Nazarbayev in his address to the people of Kazakhstan, “Kazakhstan’s Way 2050: common goal, common interests, common future,” set a clear goal, “to develop and approve a long-term concept of the development of the cultural policy of the country, aimed at the formation of a competitive cultural mentality of Kazakh people and development of modern cultural clusters.” This target implementation will allow Kazakhstan to become one of the centres of world culture and art by 2050.

Culture is one of the most important priorities of the development of any country. The availability of an effectively-functioning infrastructure of cultural institutions, as well as mechanisms ensuring the preservation and enrichment of the national and world cultural heritage and the creation, broadcast and consumption of high-quality cultural values are a criterion of the success of the state.

Given the high demand for a new conceptual vision of the development of the industry, the elaboration of the proposed concept involved leading cultural experts, art critics, cultural organisations and creative unions. The set task was not easy – it was not just to present a vision of the cultural policy of Kazakhstan until 2050, but also set new development impulses and mechanisms of forming a competitive cultural mentality of Kazakhstan. Therefore, everyone’s opinion was interesting. We have studied the advanced world experience and best practices and carried out a comprehensive case study of the problems and needs of the population. A large-scale discussion was held at each stage of development of the draft concept. All have worked with great dedication.

In his national development strategy until 2050, the leader of the nation has put forward the fundamental idea of consolidation of our multinational state “Mangilik Yel” (Kazakh for eternal nation) which has become a basic component of the draft concept of cultural policy.

In general, the draft document is based on such principles as the priority of the national cultural heritage: recognition of culture as a factor of growth and a powerful resource for social development, respect for the cultural diversity of the country, support and development of cultures and traditions of multi-ethnic Kazakhstan, freedom of creative personality and cultural expression, unity of cultural environment on the basis of new institutional associations, contemporary cultural clusters and advanced technologies. All these principles allow for building a system of values which will be the core of forming a new, competitive cultural mentality of Kazakhstan.

Culture itself is a very complex industry because it is impossible to make any calculations here, to determine a clear development forecast, to bring a certain formula. It is safe to say that no country in the world has clear standards and regulations in its culture. It is possible to bring up a civilised person. Books, movies, music and the environment in which people live can be involved, so it’s important to create a high-quality cultural product to form the correct values.

The head of state very accurately said, “Traditions and culture are the genetic code of the nation and we should preserve our culture and traditions in all their diversity and grandeur to collect our cultural heritage by crumbs.”

He has repeatedly emphasised that the Kazakh culture should become the nucleus for all citizens of the country. The Kazakhs have always had seven great spiritual treasures,“Zheti Kazyna,” or as they say today, fundamental priorities. Thus, the draft concept identified seven components of the cultural code of the nation – heritage, traditions, customs, language, family, lifestyle and holidays. These are values which must be laid at birth, accompany a person throughout his or her life and passed on from generation to generation. People who know their origins and respect the historical roots of tradition are the foundation of a strong and successful state.

Modern realities require the creation of a qualitatively-new cultural product, capable of forming and cultivating basic guidelines available and understandable to everyone. First of all, it is human values – family, virtue, humanity, creative labour. It is necessary to create bright new images, have the ability to set a clear hierarchy of norms and be the conductors of simple and indisputable truths. Our heroes, relatively speaking, should be an ordinary doctor selflessly devoted to the profession, as well as well-known, prominent personalities who have left their mark in history. The assets of the national cinema, literature and paintings must be the projects of the country’s iconic historical events and cultural heritage.

Domestic animation should get its full development. This is the most effective and affordable tool of educating a new generation in Kazakhstan, for which value orientation should be our national way of life, our traditions and our heroes. Kazakh batyrs, sultans and heroes who receive artistic expression in animation and movies will become mass examples to follow. The experience of The Walt Disney Company is indicative, which by creating modern heroes for children made them the subject of large-scale replication and influence. It is a big business and a huge industry.

No small role in the concept is devoted to the creation of modern cultural clusters or so-called “creative economy,” which will provide the relationship among creativity, education and science, economics, business and innovation. Today, it is the most appropriate way to achieve the competitive benefits of the industry.

With regard to institutional reforms, there is a proposal to establish a National Council for literature and art under the President of Kazakhstan and the arts councils by branches under the Ministry of Culture and Sport. It is an initiative of creative unions, supported by experts and industry representatives, which note the need to create a dialogue platform for artists, public figures and businessmen. It will address issues of formation of repertoire and touring policy, personnel, logistics industry and others.

In addition, in the near future there are plans to transfer a number of art schools, colleges and schools to the Ministry of Culture and Sport. This measure will solve a wide range of issues on the preparation of creative personnel, their further advancement, professional orientation and implementation of the principle of dual education. It is known that the formation of a creative personality is a continuous process that begins in early childhood and continues throughout almost all of one’s life. In this context, the task of the Ministry of Culture and Sport is to provide a systematic support to talents, to create the starting conditions for their creative growth and to shape its unique educational model in culture.

Cultural products should teach each of us to be proud for the country. We live in a country with rich historical and cultural heritage and we have unique cultural and natural sites, historical monuments and sacred places. We have everything, but unfortunately, it almost cannot find the proper development. In this regard, it is necessary to combine all the resources to use all available tools and to create the conditions for intensive development of a competitive cultural environment. In particular, the concept of cultural policy proposes to significantly expand the functions of national museums and reserve museums. The format of their work is expected to be focused on close interaction with the science of history, archeology, restoration, art and ethnography. Museums in the country should be supporting centres of research, science, cultural information and creative innovations.

We see the new format as well in the work of national libraries. Today they are a large-scale information resource for the country that should be utilised to the maximum and become widely available in a modern and convenient format. In fact, the library must be a multi-functional, educational and informational platform of the cultural activities of our citizens.

The priorities of the new cultural policy include strengthening the status of the Kazakh culture in the world. It is no secret that today, the potential of integration of the national culture and art in the world cultural process is not realised enough. There is a real need to increase international ties, including through organisations such as UNESCO, TURKSOY, ICOMOS and others. There are plans to create the country’s regional research, scientific and educational centre in the field of humanitarian cooperation with the UNESCO International Institute. There is also a proposal to make Astana the headquarters of a new international organisation in the field of culture – the Eurasian Council for Cultural Development of the Silk Road.

Of course, the industry faces difficult tasks. Each predetermined direction of the new cultural policy is a huge area of work and their successful implementation is another step towards a successful building of a strong, successful state with a high level of cultural development.




The activities and the role of the first President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the creation and development of independent Kazakhstan.

Nomadic states have always maintained an active relationship with sedentary ones, and the emphases in foreign policy were placed depending on the importance of trade directions. The interaction of nomadic and sedentary world of the medieval period played a significant role in the formation and development of Kazakh statehood. For the Kazakh Khanate, strategic partners were the settled Central Asian neighbours and particularly the empires lying adjacent to the region – those in China, Russia, and India.

the medieval social relations of Kazakhstan have concluded that the nomadic states here lacked precise territorial division, public authority, permanent system of taxation, and in order to study the Kazakh state and other nomadic societies special criteria are needed.

It was after the historical events of the second half of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries when the modern name of the Kazakh nation was established, and the process of formation of the Kazakh ethnic group took place. During this period, the people started making contacts with neighbouring countries representing themselves as Kazakhs. It was during that time when the terms Mamlakati-Kazakh, Doulati-Kazakh, and Ulusi-Kazakh appeared, representing the Kazakh statehood with a definite territory and a particular ethnic composition.

The strength of the Khan’s authority depended on whether it had met the interests of the nomadic elite. For this reason, in order to address issues affecting the entire state, the Khans had to rely on the council which comprised Chingizids (sultans and oglans, and direct descendants of Genghis Khan), leaders of clans (biys, tarhanys, batyrs, and elders), urban nobility, and the clergy.

The spread of Islam was also another factor in strengthening the power of a Khan. Spiritual leaders have played a significant role in the political life of the Kazakh society in the 16th and the 17th centuries and provided various support and assistance to Khans in all state affairs. Furthermore, monetary reforms were also undertaken to strengthen the authorities, where the circulation of money made a particularly positive impact on the development of trade relations with neighbouring countries and peoples.

Starting from the 16th century, large cities in South Kazakhstan started playing the role of centres of the government’s coinage. It was during this period of history that diplomatic relations with polities in Central Asia, Iran, India, Russia, Afghanistan, and Turkey strengthened, where exchange of embassies between Kazakhstan and these states was, in essence, in a form of trade relations.

Many historical sources related to commerce, trade routes, and expeditions in the region support the notion that Kazakhstan has served as a bridge of interaction and mutual enrichment of cultures between the East and the West.

The relationship of the Kazakh Khanate with other Central Asian khanates varied, where there were periods of military conflicts, followed by periods of good neighbourly relations and development of the caravan trade.

The end of the 16th century was marked by the enhanced exchange of embassies between Russia and the Kazakh Khanate, where the trade routes between Kazakhstan, Central Asia, and Russia played a large role in the economic life of the regions through which they passed. Kazakhs, in their turn, were suppliers of camels and horses, peasants of nearby settlements supplied passing caravans with food, as well as were hired as security guards and guides.

Ever since the 12th century, the busiest transit route was the part of the Silk Road which snaked its way from China to the West through the Jetisu (Semirechie) and Southern Kazakhstan. The sources dating to the 16th and 17th centuries indicate that various trade routes through the territory of Kazakhstan linked China, India and Central Asia, where pilgrims as well as military troops passed. Furthermore, trade was also carried out through the Caspian Sea.

Kazakhs’ trade mostly consisted of cattle, where horses of Kazakh breed were of particular value. According to documentary evidence, Kazakh merchants’ caravans to India delivered up to 40,000 horses. Furthermore, in accordance with chronicles of the beginning of the 16th century, Kazakh caravans heading to China have consisted of around 1,000 people, which, to some extent, indicate the volume of trade with China back then.

Despite the distances and the absence of the modern types of communication, the Kazakh Khanate had developed and maintained close relationship with neighbouring states, stimulating the development of economy and strengthening friendly diplomatic and social ties.




Initiates a President of the Republic of Kazakhstan industrial- innovative development program of Kazakhstan. The program is designed in accordance with the long-term priorities of the strategy "Kazakhstan-2050" and the concept of Kazakhstan joining the top 30 most developed countries of the world, is a logical continuation of the state program for accelerated industrial and innovative development for 2010-2014 and takes into account the experience of its implementation. The main goal of the program is to improve the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. In particular, were chosen 6 priority manufacturing industries: metallurgy, chemical, petrochemical, machinery, construction materials, food industry. They are divided into 14 sectors. During the of the program the state will focus on the development and balanced support one national cluster of basic resource sectors associated with the production and processing of oil and gas, oil and gas chemistry, oil and gas and chemical engineering and services for the oil and gas industry




Explain the History of the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan.

The Assembly of People of Kazakhstan - an institution without a legal entity formed by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, whose main task is the implementation of the state national policy, ensuring political stability in the Republic of Kazakhstan and increase the efficiency of cooperation between state and civil society institutions in the field of inter-ethnic relations.

The idea of establishing the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan was first announced by President Nursultan Nazarbayev in 1992, at the Forum of the Peoples of Kazakhstan, marking the first anniversary of Independence. March 1, 1995 was a Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the formation of the People's Assemblythat defined his status as a consultative and advisory body to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Throughout its history, the Assembly was transformed from a consultative body under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the constitutional body with a strong legal basis and socio-political status.

In May 2007, in the Constitution Republic of Kazakhstan, were made several amendments. Assembly of People of Kazakhstan given constitutional status, it received right to choose in the Majilis nine members, which greatly improved the socio-political role of the Assembly.

October 20, 2008 the President signed the Law "On the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan", which has no analogues in the world. The Assembly of People of Kazakhstan has become a full subject of the political system of the country, have been identified normative legal basis of its activities.

Assembly contributes to the development and implementation of the state national policy to ensure political stability in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The purpose of the Assembly is to ensure inter-ethnic harmony in the country in the process of formation of Kazakhstan citizen identity and competitive nation on the basis of the Kazakhstan patriotism, civic, spiritual and cultural unity of the people of Kazakhstan to the consolidating role of Kazakh people.




Describe The history of Kazakhstan as a science, purpose, objectives and relevance of its study. History - the science which is in constant development. History - especially the discovery of the world, the discovery of his past. The history of the Kazakh people is the most important part of world history, its study has an important place in the formation of the historical consciousness of youth.


A) to reveal role and place of the Kazakh people, the Kazakh state in Turkic community, in the system of nomadic civilization, in the development of the historical and cultural identity of the peoples of the Eurasian world

B) trace the main stages of occurrence, formation of the Kazakh ethnic group, his farm, life, social structure and political system in the long historical period

B) to rethink the problem of the history of peoples

D) describe the social and class relations in the Kazakh society, to reveal the role of the different classes of the population - Sultans biys warriors, members of the cult and sharua

D) show the evolution of the spiritual world and their contribution to world civilization, the relationship and interaction of cultures nomadic steppe with agricultural and sedentary, with the culture of the neighboring nations - Russia, China and Central Asia.

The aim of the course - to give a complete overview of the main stages and characteristics of the historical process pas Kazakhstan from ancient times to the present day, paying special attention to the problems of formation of the Kazakh nation and state, traditional economy, original (nomadic) material and spiritual culture.




Describe the monuments of the Stone Age and organize its periods.

Stone Age - period when early humans were made and used stone tools. Stone Age is divided into 3 periods:

Paleolithic (2.5 million - 12 thousand. BC), Mesolithic (12-5 millennium BC.), Neolithic (5-3 millennium BC.). The oldest of the sites of the Stone Age - Shakpakata on Mangistau, Arystandy in the Karatau Mountains. Parked Borikazgan, Shabakty in Zhambyl region was found more than 5000 stone tools. Parking Semizbuzgy, Batpak located in central Kazakhstan. In Kazakhstan, found about 20 sites Mesolithic. The cave Karaungir discovered stone, bone, pottery, animal bones. Also parking Neolithic - hemp, Green Beam, Ust-era Narym.Stoyanki enolita - Botai settlement in northern Kazakhstan, Shebir in Mangistau. In the Stone Age began the process of human development. Man acquired a modern human form, improved methods of manufacturing tools, enhanced his performance, which resulted in some progress in the material and cultural development of society.




Discuss about Formation of the Kazakh khanate: role of Kerey and Zhanibek khans. The emergence of the Kazakh Khanate was a natural result of the socio-economic and ethno-political processes in the vast area of East Dasht-i-Kipchak, su, and Turkestan. The course of its formation is associated with Mogulistanom and Abulhair Khanate. Dzhanibek and Kerey - authoritative Kazakh leaders. Constant wars, raids Oirats (Jungars) caused great popular indignation, so at the end of the 50s for 10 years as a protest there was a massive carting away from B. Dasht-i-Kipchak, Turkestan west Semirech'e Moghulistan territory. Dzhanibek and Kerey headed families, retirement from the Khanate Abulhair west Moghulistan (200t people). Kazakh Khanate first in the valley Chu, Talas and Goat-Bashi. When 1462g Esenbuga died in Mogulistane anarchy, there was a Kazakh Khanate. Mohammed Haydar Dulat relates to the formation of the 1465 - 1466. Towns near Syr Darya and pastures were essential to counter. Turkestan and Sygnak passed from hand to hand. Janibek sons: Sultan Mahmud - the ruler of Suzaku died in battle; Irenchi - held Sauran. Son Kerey - Chipmunk. The result of the struggle to end 15c - receiving cities Suzak, Sygnak, Sauran; Khanate included in the Seven Rivers West, the area of the Karatau, the lower reaches of the Syr Darya, Northern Aral Sea region, the Centre. K. Muhammad Shaibani kept Otrar, Turkestan, Uzgend, Arkuk. Close alliance with Nogai




Locate and identify the following features on the map: Iaxart river, Oxus river, Horezm sea, Gobi desert, Kizil Kum, Pamirs, Taklamakan, Tarim Basin, Ustyurt Plateau, Hazar sea.  




Contributions of the scientists and thinkers of the Turkic period: Al Biruni (973-1048), Ulugh bek (1394-1449). 

Abu Raihan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was one of the well-known figures associated with the court of King Mahmood Ghaznawi, who was one of the famous Muslim kings of the 11th century A.D. Al-Biruni was a versatile scholar and scientist who had equal facility in physics, metaphysics, mathematics, geography and history. Born in the city of Kheva near "Ural" in 973 A.D., he was a contemporary of the well-known physician Ibn Sina. At an early age, the fame of his scholarship went around and when Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi conquered his homeland, he took al-Biruni along with him in his journeys to India several times and thus he had the opportunity to travel all over India during a period of 20 years. He learnt Hindu philosophy, mathematics, geography and religion from thre Pandits to whom he taught Greek and Arabic science and philosophy. He died in 1048 A.D. at the age of 75, after having spent 40 years in thus gathering knowledge and making his own original contributions to it.

He recorded observations of his travels through India in his well-known book Kitab al-Hind which gives a graphic account of the historical and social conditions of the sub-continent. At the end of this book he makes a mention of having translated two Sanskrit books into Arabic, one called Sakaya, which deals with the creation of things and their types, and the second, Patanjal dealing with what happens after the spirit leaves the body. His descriptions of India were so complete that even the Aein-i-Akbari written by Abu-al- Fadal during the reign of Akbar, 600 years later, owes a great deal to al-Biruni's book. He observed that the Indus valley must be considered as an ancient sea basin filled up with alluvials.

On his return from India, al-Biruni wrote his famous book Qanun-i Masoodi (al-Qanun al-Masudi, fi al-Hai'a wa al-Nujum), which he dedicated to Sultan Masood. The book discusses several theorems of astronomy, trigonometry, solar, lunar, and planetary motions and relative topics. In another well-known book al-Athar al-Baqia, he has attempted a connected account of ancient history of nations and the related geographical knowledge. In this book, he has discussed the rotation of the earth and has given correct values of latitudes and longitudes of various places. He has also made considerable contribution to several aspects of physical and economic geography in this book.

His other scientific contributions include the accurate determination of the densities of 18 different stones. He also wrote the Kitab-al-Saidana, which is an extensive materia medica that combines the then existing Arabic knowledge on the subject with the Indian medicine. His book the Kitab-al-Jamahir deals with the properties of various precious stones. He was also an astrologer and is reputed to have astonished people by the accuracy of his predictions.

Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh, Uzbek: Mirzo Ulug'bek) better known as Ulugh Beg (March 22, 1394 in Sultaniyeh, Persia – October 27, 1449, Samarkand) was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan. His commonly known name is not truly a personal name, but rather a moniker, which can be loosely translated as "Great Ruler" or "Patriarch Ruler" and was the Turkic equivalent of Timur's Perso-Arabic title Amīr-e Kabīr. His real name was Mīrzā Mohammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrokh. Ulugh Beg was also notable for his work in astronomy-related mathematics, such as trigonometry and spherical geometry. He built the great Ulugh Beg Observatory in Samarkand between 1424 and 1429. It was considered by scholars to have been one of the finest observatories in the Islamic world at the time and the largest in Central Asia.He built the Ulugh Beg Madrasah (1417–1420) in Samarkand and Bukhara, transforming the cities into cultural centers of learning in Central Asia He was also a mathematics genius of the 15th century — albeit his mental aptitude was perseverance rather than any unusual endowment of intellect. His Observatory is situated in Samarkand which is in Uzbekistan. He ruled Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan and most of Afghanistan for almost half a century from 1411 to 1449. His own particular interests concentrated on astronomy, and, in 1428, he built an enormous observatory, called the Gurkhani Zij. In mathematics, Ulugh Beg wrote accurate trigonometric tables of sine and tangent values correct to at least eight decimal places.




Locate on the map the Transoxania and the main cities along the region. 




Describe the location and identify the three zhuzes along the Kazakhstan territory.

Kazakhs of senior zhuz occupied the territory of Zhetysu, Ili River's basins and its many tributaries, the foothills of the Jungar, Zailiysky and Kyrgyz Alatau, Karatau, interfluve of Chu and Talas, also areas of the upper and middle reaches of the Syrdarya.

Written in my notebook




Analyze the trade exchanging system of medieval kazakhs.




Write a political profile of a leader of Kazakh khanate: Abilkhaiyr.

Little Horde Khan Ghazi Mohammed Abul Khair Khan Bahadurlineal descendant of Chingiz Khan in the 15th generation. Abul Khair was born in 1693. He spent his childhood in the conditions when the Kazakh Khanate attacked Jungaria and Volga Kalmyks. During the reign of Galdan Tseren (1697-1728 gg.) Jungaria reached their military and political power. Oirats Military operations were directed against Manchurian China, Kazakh nomads and Central Asian possessions. In 1718 Sultan Abulhair was elected a Khan Little Horde. Headed 30,000th troops he opposed to Jungars on the river Ayaguz. in 1726 at the Congress of Kazakhs in all three zhuzes Ordabasy sultans, Bii and batyrs elected him commander of the army of the Kazakh Khanate. in 1728 was the won the first victory over Dzhungars. These battles took place in the area Karasiyr, the river Bulanty where Kazakhs won Jungars led by the son Khong Tayiji.

In September 1730 in Moscow were sent representation Abulhair for the acceptance of Kazakhs in the Russian citizenship. And February 19, 1731 Empress Anna Ivanovna signed the instrument of voluntary entrance the Little Horde to Russia.In 1735 Middle Horde`s Khan Kuchuk and Sultan Barak confirmed in a written message Russian citizenship of Middle Horde. In early August 1748, returning from Orsk, where he met with Ambassador A. Tevkelev, was killed by Barack.




Write a political profile of a leader of Kazakh khanate: Khan Kerei

Kerey Khan - the first Kazakh Khan, one of the founders of the Kazakh Khanate and its ruler probably in 1459-1473 years. In historical data up to the 50s. XV century. information about Kerey Khan does not meet. According to the data from the "Tarihi Rashidi" in the late 50s. XV century. Kerey Khan with Janibek Khan, leading one part of the tribes of the Uzbek Khanate (the so-called "State of nomadic Uzbeks"), moved into Moghulistan. Mogul`s Khan Esen-Buga gave them the land of the Chu River. Esen-buga Khan also did not prevent migrations most of the state's population Abul Khair Khan under the patronage Kerey and Zhanibek. In 1462 after the death of Esen-Buga, they are amplified due to the recognition of their power delivery Zhetisu and migrations from East Desht-Kipchak. All this led to the formation Kazakh Khanate about 1465/66 by Kerey and Janibek. Soon, around 1468/69, during a campaign against of the Kazakh Khanate died Shaybanids Abul Khair Khan. After that Kerey Khan and Janybek Khan began to fight against Shaybanids power over East Dasht-i Kipchak. Kerey Khan and his followers fought for the creation of a strong independent state. In the course of this struggle Kerey Khan died. His name is mentioned in historical sources in 1473/74. The names of his sons - Burunduk, Khoja Muhammad Ali and Sultan. his descendants of Kazakh Khan was only Burunduk, who ruled after his father to 1510.




Write a political profile of a leader of Kazakh khanate: Khan Kasim 

Kasim Khan - Kazakh Khan, the son of one of the founders of the Kazakh Khanate Janibek Khan. During his Kazakh Khanate hardened its position, expanded and established control over vast territories of East Dasht-i-Kipchak. Kasim Khan using the defeat and death of Shaibani at Merv in the battle against the Shah of Iran, Ismail, consolidated his power in southern Kazakhstan. In 1513 he took control of the southernmost towns near Syr Darya Sairam and marched to Tashkent. Kasim Khan maintained friendly relations with the Sultan Said Khan Mogolistan. In East Turkestan, he founded a new state with its center in Yarkand. This strengthened the power of the Kazakh khan in the Seven Rivers. In the west, under his rule migrated group of genera of Nogai Ordy.Soglasno information historian Mohammed Haydar Dulati, the number of citizens was determined for million. He went down in history as "collector of Kazakh lands." But after the death of Kasim Khan among Kazakh sultans began a fierce struggle for power.




Write a political profile of a leader of Kazakh khanate: Khan Burunduk

Burunduk Khan - Kazakh Khan, the ruler of the Kazakh Khanate probably in 1480-1511 years, son Kerey Khan. So he pitched Sheikh Haidar, Abulhair successor, and cast out Shaybanids in Astrakhan. After the death of the first two Khans, Khan became the Kazakh Khanate - Burunduk. At this time, the heir Abul Khair Khan Muhammad Shaybani while began to actively work to restore of power Abulhair. rivalry and division of power between Kasym and Buryndykom. Buryndyk was influential and powerful, but still influential Kasim. In fact, power was in his hands, although he was only the sultan and Buryndyk - Khan. Patient and visionary Kasim tried to stay away from Buryndyka not to aggravate relations with him. This tactic was successful relaxing waiting Kasim. Involuntary rivalry ended in his favor. Kasim Khan was recognized and Buryndyk, rejected by his subjects, in autumn 1511 left the country and went to Samarkand to daughter. Soon after he died.




Write a political profile of a leader of Kazakh khanate: Khan Zhanibek 

Zhanibek khan (year of birth and death are unknown) – one of founders of the Kazakh khanate and a dynasty of the Kazakh khans. Zhanibek was a son of Barack khan and the grandson of Kuyruchuk khan- the fourth son of Orys khan. There are a bit information about Zhanibek’s grandfather - Kuyruchuk. There is such story in "Zafar-name" Sharaf of ad-Din Ali Jasdi (XV century). In April, 1395 on Terek there was a decisive battle between the emir Timur and Toktamysh, the khan of the Golden Horde. Toktamysh suffered defeat and ran. Timur moved to a pursuit the opponent. Having arrived to a crossing place through Volga (Itil), called by the Turatur crossing, "he gave to the son of Urys khan, Kuyruchuk-oglan, who was with him, group of brave Uzbeks, who servants in the highest yard, prepared accessories of padish advantage, awarded him with embroidered gold robe and a gold belt, ordered to him transported through Itil(V olga) and transferred him the Ulus Dzhuchi. The tsarevitch from a Dzhuchi kin, according to an order, came over to riverside and was engaged in bringing of scattered army and the system of the ulus". About that when and as Kuyruchuk-oglan appeared in Timur's horde and about circumstances of his board Ulus Dzhuchi of data is not present. It is known only that his reign was short: soon after Timur's leaving from the territory of the Gold Horde his protege was killed.

The Zhanibek’s father Barack khan was known as the person of desperate bravery and very vigorous governor. He possessed all qualities of the person of action: courage, determination, persistence. At the very beginning of the 20th of the XV century he won a victory over the political opponents in Syr Darya possession of Dzhuchids. From there he acted in the Volga region on war with applicants for a Golden Horde’s throne. Having victoriously crushed army of the Hudayda , khan, he captured Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde. Then he got back to shores of Syr-Darya and was at war with Timur's grandson, Ulugbek, the governor of Transoxiana.

Barack khan had three sons and one daughter Saadat-begim; names of his sons: Mir-Sayid, Mir-Kasim, Abu-Said, also called him Zhanibek". It is known that Barack khan died in1428; therefore, it is possible to assume that Zhanibek was born no later than in 1429. Mentions of Zhanibek-khan meet in many east books that testifies to his popularity. There he acts as the leader of Kazakhs, the brave soldier, one of founders of the Kazakh khanate. His name is almost always mentioned near the name Kerey khan. However it is unlikely that Zhanibek was the independent governor. Sources say that he "was called Kichi Zhanibek khan ", that means the junior khan. And he "… in all affairs obeyed and submitted to Buryndyk khan " who continued business of his father Kerey khan. It must assume that Zhanibek khan was very educated person of this time, knowing history of the state of Genghis Khan – the Golden Horde. Zhanibek gave to the people, inhabiting his state, the name Kazakh, and called the state as Kazakh khanate. He had to be engaged in mainly internal affairs: creation of the center of the Kazakh khanate with the capital in Saray-Jük and distribution of lands between the Kazakh kins; army creation, adjustment of trade with neighboring countries and stamping of coins. The protection of borders of the khanate he instructed to his sons.

Zhanibek khan had nine sons. His third son Kasym became a khan and managed to approve the sovereignty over huge open spaces of the Kazakh lands. During his reign Kazakh khanate became one of the strongest states in Central Asia.




Write a political profile of khan Abylai. Ablai Khan (; 1711-1781) - Middle Horde Khan, one of the most famous Khans, grandson Abylaikhan Kanshera, a descendant of Barak-Khan. Abylay - an outstanding statesman, military leader, restored the territorial possessions of Kazakhstan. With 15 years actively involved in the fight against Dzhungars had great authority. In 1771, after the death of Khan Abulmambet, Abylay officially headed the Kazakh Khanate He was able to restore the unity of the Kazakh Khanate. He sought to bring in management zhuzes elements of feudalism based on the traditional mentality. The role of the sultans. In the state apparatus consisted of persons who are vitally connected with it, so they unquestioningly do his will. It was the only way to consolidate and centralize power. Rules alone possessed the organizational, leadership talent, diplomatic skill, foresight and wisdom, supported the development of culture and art.




Discuss any ONE of the following khanate or state of Kazakhstan history in detail (Emergence, rise and decline):

  • Turkic Khaganate (552–744)

  • the first feudal state in the territory of Kazakhstan. The ethnonym "Turk" was found in Chinese chronicles with 542 years. About the appearance of statehood referred to as 552 years. territory from the Altai to Mongolia. At this time, the Turks fought with Zhuzhans. Government is a Bumyn.

  • in 552 Bumyn started a war against Anaguy and broke their troops. Anaguy completed suicide. A Bumyn after the victory was awarded the title "El Khan"

  • Suyab - the capital of the khanate. Under the authority of Turkic khanate lands of Kazakhstan were in the VI. In an effort to seize the wealth of the settled tribes, the Turks moved to Central Asia. Here they met with ephtalites, whose possessions stretched from the Caspian Sea to Northern India and Eastern Turkestan. In 561 - 563 years the Turks made an alliance with Iran against Ephtalites. After the conquest of Central Asia, the Turks became masters of the Silk Road in the Mediterranean countries. Turks and Sogdians were interested in trade relations with Byzantium, this prevented Iran. Civil wars, social conflicts have weakened Khanate. In the year 603 of the Turkic khanate stood Western Turk Empire.




Discuss any ONE of the following khanate or state of Kazakhstan history in detail (Emergence, rise and decline):

  • Uyghur Khaganate (744–848)

  • Oghuz Yabgu State (750–1055)

  • Karluk Yabgu State (756-940)

Karluk Khanate (756 - 940 years.) at first time, the Karluk known as Bulak, occupied the territory between the Altai and Balkhash. In 746, the Karluk troops were defeated by Uighur Khaganate and moved to the Zhetysu. In the middle of the VIII century, the struggle for the Turkic succession between Karluk and Oguz. As a result, Oguz went to the Syr Darya, and stayed in the Seven Rivers Karluk, created Karluk Khanate. Capital city was Suyab. The leaders of the Karluk Jhabgu bore the title, and from named 840 Hagan. In VIII-X centuries in Karluk state was a process Turkization. In VIII-X centuries Karluk tribes occupied the land from Dzhungar Alayau to the Syr Darya. Arab geographer IbnHaukal (X century) wrote: "It took 30 days to go to get the Karluk land from west to east." As part of the federation was 9 Karluk tribes. At the end of the IX century the Arabs continued their campaigns on land Karluk captured Ispijab attacked Taraz and the population converted to Islam. Karluk Hagan temporarily moved the rate of Taraz in Kashgar. At the Karluk was voёnno - administrativiaya management system. Spread Islam. The bulk of the population were freemen. The ruling nobility owned pasture, urban centers. In the Persian treatise "Hudud al-Alam," said that the country was Karluk 25 cities. State torn by civil strife, struggle for power and pastures. In 940, the state Karluk fell.




Discuss any ONE of the following khanate or state of Kazakhstan history in detail (Emergence, rise and decline):

  • Türgesh (699–766)

  • Kimeks (743–1220) in the IX century a state of Kimaks from the Altai to the Syr Darya .. create a powerful state of headed "baiga", and at the beginning of the tenth century. assumed the title of "Hakan". At the end of the IX. in the kimak state-wa includes 7 tribal groups. By the tenth century. Kimek Khanate territory is divided into 4 areas: In kimak based on the increasingly important role of the military. Rulers of principalities were military leaders. Arab. historian Al-Idrisi in his book calls Kimaks 16 cities, 12 of which were in the river Irtysh. In the state of a system of tax collection. Many nomads because of their poverty were forced to move to the residence and engage in trade, fishing and agriculture. They are called zhatak. However, in the IX-X centuries. began to show signs of its decline. The rulers of principalities, aspired to independence, which led to the weakening of the central government, the collapse of state-va. By the end of the tenth century. Kimek Khanate ceased to exist, the power of its territory passed Kypchak association.




Discuss any ONE of the following khanate or state of Kazakhstan history in detail (Emergence, rise and decline):

Oghuz Yabgu State (750–1055) In the IX-X centuries. in the basin of the middle and lower reaches of the Syr Darya and Western Kazakhstan formed a political union of the Oguz .. In the tenth century. Oguz became the capital of the state Yangikent or New Guziya. Oguz power was mixed ethnically. In urban and rural areas lived Turkic and Iranian-speaking population. State of the Oguz was not monolithic. The head of state was the supreme ruler, who bore the title "Jhabgu." The rulers have co-rulers and advisers. Heirs ruler called "Ending", and educators heirs "Atabekov." Wife rulers bore the title "Khatun" and played a significant role in the life of the court. An important place is also occupied by warlords. Commander in chief of the troops - "syubashi" relied on the military council and actively intervene in political events. The rulers were chosen on the basis of a set of unwritten rules of customary law - "torus" of the most powerful families. The power of the supreme ruler of limited advice largest military-tribal aristocracy. At the end of the tenth century. formed the administrative apparatus and the system of regular collection of taxes.




Throw light on the trade and exchange between nomads and sedentary society. 




Discuss about Crude Oil, Natural Gas of Kazakhstan by Olga Oliker, Thomas S. Szayna’s book Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus.




Give details of Oil companies in Kazakhstan: Karachiganak, Kashagan, Tangiz.

KazMunaiGas, Kazakhstan's national oil company, has played an increasingly important role in the country's oil and gas sector.

• Kazakhstan's two largest projects, Tengiz and Karachaganak accounted for 40% of the country's total liquids production thus far in 2013.Most of Kazakhstan's natural gas reserves are associated gas that is located in just four fields: Karachaganak, Tengiz, Imashevskoye, and Kashagan.

• The vast majority of Kazakhstan's power generation comes from coal-fired power plants, concentrated in the north of the country near the coal producing regions.

The largest onshore oil fields are Tengiz, one of the world's 10 largest oil fields with 6-9 billion barrels of reserves, and Karachaganak with 2.2 billion barrels. Recent seismic studies suggest that Tengiz may have between 9 and 13.5 billion barrels of oil.

Tengizchevroil, the joint-venture consortium developing the Tengiz field, is comprised of ChevronTexaco, ExxonMobil, KazakhOil, and LukArco.

At Karachaganak, the Karachaganak Integrated Organization (KIO) is a consortium of ENI, British Gas and ChevronTexaco, and manages drilling. In addition to major oil deposits, Karachaganak also has 500 billion cubic meters of natural gas.

The most promising recent discovery of major hydrocarbon deposits is at offshore Kashagan, which is three times larger than Tengiz. The consortium developing this 2,000 square mile block 14,000 feet below the Caspian seabed includes seven companies: ENI, British Gas, ExxonMobil, Shell, Total Fina Elf, Phillips, and Inpex.

Transportation Routes: Kazakhstan is committed to the development of multiple oil export routes, in order to support its potential oil reserves of 100-110 billion barrels.

Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) (Route 2 on map) The CPC was formed to build a pipeline system to transport oil from Tengiz, western Kazakhstan, to the Black Sea at Novorossiysk, Russia, and began to bring oil to world markets in the fall of 2001. The CPC Project upgraded the existing line from Tengiz via Atyrau and runs along the Caspian coast to join in the north with the Russian end of the line. The system also consists of port facilities and a newly built line from the northwest Caspian coast in Russia to Novorossiysk. The total cost of the project is estimated at $2.4 billion. The completion of both the CPC pipeline and ongoing Tengiz operations should add more than $150 billion in the combined GDP to the Russia and Kazakh economies. The CPC pipeline will also be used for transporting natural gas liquids from a production plant to be constructed at Karachaganak by the KIO consortium.

Aktau-Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan: (Routes 3 and 4 on map) The recent discovery at Kashagan prompted plans to connect the proposed Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline with a route from the port of Aktau on the Kazakh coast of the Caspian Sea. The entire route would have a total length of about 2,300 kilometers, although the proposed pipeline route would only run from Baku to Ceyhan. Kazakhstan "politically supports" the BTC route, and proponents of the BTC pipeline believe that the likely absence of routes through both Iran and China will probably make this the most commercially and politically viable route for vast reserves of Kashagan oil.




Fossil Fuel Production in the Caspian Sea Region and its benefit for Kazakhstan.




Evaluate the political evolution (1312–1359) of the Golden Horde.

After Uzbeg (Öz-Beg) mounted the throne in 1313, he adopted Islam as the state religion. He proscribed Buddhism and Shamanism among the Mongols in Russia, thus reversing the spread of the Yuan culture. By 1315, Uzbeg had successfully Islamicized the Horde, killing Jochid princes and Buddhist lamas who opposed his religious policy and succession of the throne.

Mohammed Uzbeg Khan continued the alliance with the Mamluks which Berke and his predecessors had begun. He kept a friendly relationship with the Mamluk Sultan and his shadow Caliph in Cairo. After a long delay and much discussion, he married a princess of the blood to Al-Nasir Muhammad, Sultan of Egypt.




Emergence of Islam in the Kazakh history.

Islam was brought to Kazakhs people during the 8th century when Arabs arrived into Central Asia region. Islam was widely spread because of zealous missionary work of Samanid rulers, especially in areas surrounding ancient Kazakhstan city of Taraz where a lot of Kazakh people accepted Islam.

In the late 1300s, the Golden Horde was spreading Islam religion among Central Asian tribes. During the 1700s, Russian influence toward Kazakhstan region rapidly increased in Central Asia region. However, Russian policy gradually changed toward weakening Islam by introducing pre-Islamic elements of collective consciousness.

During the Soviet period, Muslim institutions of Kazakhstan survived only in areas where Kazakhs significantly outnumbered non-Muslims due to everyday Muslim practices. In an attempt to conform Kazakhs into Communist ideologies, gender relations and other aspects of Kazakh culture were key targets of social change.

In recent times, Kazakhs have gradually employed determined effort in revitalizing Islamic religious institutions after the fall of the Soviet Union. While not strongly fundamentalist, Kazakh people continue to identify with their Islamic faith, and even more devotedly in the countryside.




Kazakhstan during the II World War: contribution and “rewards”. 




Education system in Kazakhstan during the Tsarist Imperia. 




Explain the "Semipalatinsk-Nevada" - The Soviet Union's Anti-Nuclear Movement.

On Aug. 29, 1949, the Soviet Union detonated its first atomic bomb in this spot, a 22.4 kiloton explosion codenamed “First Lightning,” that launched the nuclear arms race.

 Four years later, the same earth shook with the Moscow’s first thermonuclear bomb—a 400 kiloton explosion 26 times more powerful than the bomb the United States dropped on Hiroshima.



Nuclear Detonation Timeline '1945-1998'

The RDS-1 (codename: First Lightning, but the Americans called it Joe-1, in reference to Stalin) was detonated here on 29 August 1949 – without evacuating the nearby cities and villages.

 The Soviet Union became the second nation to successfully develop a nuclear bomb, but this project made a terrible impact on the local people.


 Between 1949 and 1989 this place saw 456 nuclear tests, including 340 underground and 116 atmospheric explosions with mushroom clouds.

 These were roughly the equivalent of 2500 Hiroshima atomic bombs.

 The Soviets conducted these tests without any regard for the effects on the local environment or the almost quarter-million inhabitants of the area.

Children with genetic diseases, leukemia, infertility, and cancer are really common here.

 After the fall of the Soviet Union and the birth of Kazakhstan, in the Summer of 1991, the site was closed.

 But a tenth of the country's total population – nearly 1.5 million people –have health problems.

 Lots of poor people still live in the most dangerous zone in a semi-nomadic way and sell the remaining scrap metal for money.

 One in every 20 children in the area is born with serious deformities, and half of them can't reach the age of 60.


 The anti-nuclear movement in Kazakhstan, "Nevada Semipalatinsk", was formed in 1989.

 One of the first major anti-nuclear movements in the former Soviet Union.

 It was led by author Olzhas Suleimenov and attracted thousands of people to its protests and campaigns which eventually led to the closure of the nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk in 1991.

According to UNESCO, Nevada-Semipalatinsk played a positive role in promoting public understanding of "the necessity to fight against nuclear threats".

 The movement gained global support and became "a real historical factor in finding solutions to global ecological problems".




Analyze the developing “Strategy 2050”.




Discuss about “Zheltoksan movement” (1986) and describe its aim.


 Buoyed by then-Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s slogans about glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring), they assailed Moscow’s appointment of a new party leader for Kazakhstan, Gennadiy Kolbin,

objecting on the grounds that he was an ethnic Russian from outside the republic. dKazakhstan in 1986 was a far different place, in terms of demographics, than it is today. Kazakhs back then did not constitute a majority of the population.

 Slavic immigration had pushed the titular nation to the fringes, as relatively few Kazakhs held positions of importance in the republic.

 Russian had likewise squeezed the Kazakh language out of the public discourse – a controversial topic that still reverberates in Kazakhstan today

The negative phenomena that had been building up over dozens of years –the serious shortcomings in the public-social and cultural spheres, the exacerbation of the nationality issue – led to anger and indignation among

the young people of the republic, the most dynamic segment of the population, and forced them to resort to decisive methods of struggle.

 The removal of D. A. Kunaev, the republic’s first secretary for many years, on 16 December 1986 and his replacement by a native Russian, G. Kolbin, triggered the open expression of mounting mass dissatisfaction that took place on 17–19 December 1986.

The protest was expressed in a peaceful demonstration that did become political but was not aimed at overthrowing the existing state power.

 The leadership of the republic and the USSR did not believe it necessary to take the young people’s opinion into account and considered the political protest to be a threat to the state.

 The young people’s demonstration was mercilessly suppressed by MVD (Internal Affairs Ministry) troops and special units using clubs, small digging tools and dogs; 8,500 people were arrested.

Numerous and extremely crude violations of the law were committed during the legal investigation into the criminal cases opened against the participants in the events.

 Ninety-nine people were sentenced to various terms; over a short period of time more than 1,000 people were fined various sums for their participation in the December events;

 271 people were expelled from their educational institutions; and hundreds of people were forced to resign from their jobs.

 A July 1987 resolution of the CPSU Central Committee called the December events ‘a manifestation of Kazakh nationalism’. On the threshold of the 1980s and 1990s, the historical process of the USSR’s collapse became irreversible.

 The national republics proclaimed their demands for economic independence with increasing persistence, inasmuch as it had become disadvantageous to remain in the Union and subject to the tyranny of the mother country. On the threshold of the 1980s and 1990s, the historical process of the USSR’s collapse became irreversible.

 The national republics proclaimed their demands for economic independence with increasing persistence, inasmuch as it had become disadvantageous to remain in the Union and subject to the tyranny of the mother country. The institution of the presidency that had been established in Kazakhstan in April 1990 (when federal rule from Moscow still essentially existed) shifted the burden of power to Almaty, where a fairly independent political centre had already taken shape under the leadership of N. A. Nazarbaev

The Dawn of Liberty monument in Almaty was opened on 18 September 2006.




Discuss the Geo-Strategic importance of Kazakhstan and the emergence of Great Game.




Explain about the “purges of 1937”.

The Great Purge was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union that was orchestrated by Joseph Stalin and occurred from 1934 to 1940. It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants and the Red Army leadership, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and arbitrary executions. In Russian historiography, the period of the most intense purge, 1937–1938, is called Yezhovshchina (Russian: Ежовщина; literally, Yezhovism), after Nikolai Yezhov, the head of the Soviet secret police, NKVD.




William of Rubruck: aim and results of his journey to Central Asia.

Franciscan missionary from Flanders who traveled through the Black Sea and the territories of the Golden Horde to the court of the Great Khan Möngke at Karakorum. His account (Itinerarium) is "a mine of varied information about the Asiatic life of his times" (Olschki). It contains "the fullest and most authentic information on the Mongol Empire in its pre-Chinese phase" (Dawson); it is of interest for descriptions of encounters with Nestorian Christians, of Karakorum itself and the palace which is no longer extant, and much more. Although his experiences interested his contemporary Roger Bacon, Rubruck's account did not become widely known until it was translated and published late in the sixteenth century.1271-129




Marco Polo: aim and results of his journey to Central Asia.

The most famous of the Silk Road travelers, who, by his own account, worked for Qubilai Khan. He traveled overland through Persia across the Pamirs and south of the Taklamakan; his return was by sea from China around south Asia to Hormuz, whence he went overland to the Mediterranean. A Venetian, Marco dictated his account to a professional writer of romances while imprisoned by the Genoese on his return. It is important to remember he was not keeping a diary. Olschki calls it "not...a book of travel and adventure, but a treatise of empirical geography."




Discuss about customs Barymta and Bride kidnapping from Kazakh history.




Discuss transition from ‘nationalism to independence’ in the republic of Kazakhstan.




Highlight the Darwin’s theory of human evolution.

Darwin demonstrated that the natural world of organisms on Earth was subject to laws in the same way as the inorganic world or the world of planets and stars. The study of biology was just as scientific as the study of chemistry or physics. This conclusion is not particularly shocking today—and this fact suggests that Darwin’s ideas are common knowledge, which are accepted by most—but in the nineteenth century, these ideas revolutionized scientific thought and the field of biology. Before Darwin, most people in the West believed that all forms of plant and animal life were created by a single creator who had a specific purpose in mind. There was nothing accidental about this creation: random mutations or variations could not explain the appearance of species. If those same people were asked to explain what they meant by a ‘‘purposeful creator,’’ they would have replied that the God of the Bible had created the world as a home for humans or something similar. Darwin presented evidence that contradicted the thesis about the activity of a creator; he argued that life on Earth was the result of the same kinds of laws that cause the attraction of one object in the universe to another. There was no person ‘‘running the show.’’

Darwin’s explanation for the origins of life is a naturalistic one (hence, the philosophy associated with it is called naturalism). Instead of relying on forces outside of or beyond human knowledge, Darwin proposed that scientists investigate processes and laws that humans could identify. In The Origin of Species, natural selection is the process that enables various forms of life to change from a particular form to a different one. (Darwin called these changes ‘‘descent by modification’’ rather than evolution.) In The Descent of Man, sexual selection is the means by which various species preserve characteristics that will enable them and their descendants to survive. In 1905, Hugo de Vries (1848–1935), one of the botanists who discovered the forgotten work of Gregor Mendel on heredity, summarized the importance of Darwin this way:

Newton convinced his contemporaries that natural laws rule the whole universe. Lyell showed, by his principle of slow and gradual evolution that natural laws have reigned since the beginning of time. To Darwin we owe the almost universal acceptance of the theory of descent. This doctrine is one of the most noted landmarks in the advance of science. It teaches the validity of natural laws of life in its broadest sense, and crowns the philosophy, founded by Newton and Lyell.





Analyze a book of L.N.Gumilev "Ethnogenesis and biosphere of the Earth".




Explain how Toynbee described the rise and fall of Civilization.

Arnold Joseph Toynbee(14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of University of London.He is best known for his 12-volume A Study of History (1934–61), through which he examined the rise and fall of 26 civilizations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders.26 local civilizations, 13 developed.

5 civilizations have been preserved: Chinese, Hindu, Islamic, WesternChristian and Orthodox Christian Byzantine) after which perishes.

Criterion for the growth of civilization - an increase of its spiritual independence; cause of fracture - loss of strength than exaggeration the role of technology. Any of the victims or the currently existing civilizations passes in its development the same 4 steps:





Challenge and response:

With the civilizations as units identified, he presented the history of each in terms of challenge-and-response, sometimes referred to as theory about the law of challenge and response. Civilizations arose in response to some set of challenges of extreme difficulty, when "creative minorities"devised solutions that reoriented their entire society.

Challenges and responses were physical, as when the Sumerians exploited the intractable swamps of southern Iraq by organizing the Neolithic inhabitants into a society capable of carrying out large-scale irrigation projects; or social, as when the Catholic Church resolved the chaos of post-Roman Europe by enrolling the new Germanic kingdoms in a single religious community.

When a civilization responded to challenges, it grew. Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority. According to an Editor's Note in an edition of Toynbee's A Study of History, Toynbee believed that societies always die from suicide or murder rather than from natural causes, and nearly always from suicide.

He sees the growth and decline of civilizations as a spiritual process, writing that "Man achieves civilization, not as a result of superior biological endowment or geographical environment, but as a response to a challenge in a situation of special difficulty which rouses him to make a hitherto unprecedented effort."

Toynbee identifies several types of civilization response:

Challenge of severe climate (Egyptian, Sumerian, Chinese, Mayan,Andean civilization);

Challenge of new lands (Minoan civilization);

Challenge of unexpected attacks from neighboring societies (Hellenic civilization);

Challenge permanent external pressure (Russian Orthodox, Western civilization);

Challenge prejudice when society having lost something vital, directs his energies to the production of the properties to compensate for.

Toynbee concludes:

Favorable conditions are not conducive to the creation and development of civilization, because they provide weak incentives. "The greater the challenge, the greater the incentive."

But if the challenge is extremely severe, it becomes excessive and ineffective stimulus.

Development of an adequate response to the challenges -social function of "creative minority", which not only raises and sells ideas, but also drags the rest.




Explain Kondratiev waves (also called supercycles, great surges, long waves, K-waves or the long economic cycle). 

At the heart of innovation is Kondratieff wave theory. He revealed the presence of opportunistic long waves in economic development of society and determines development of the economy how uneven and cyclical process.

According with the theory of any economic system is characterized by alternating periods of ups and down in its development. cycle detections of Kondratieff lasts about 50 years - long waves.

They include:

- Seasonal cycles (less than 1 g.);

- Short (3-4g);

- Average (7-11).

Kondratyev concluded:

1. Before starting the upward wave in every great cycle occurs socio-economic transformation processes, which is reflected in the increasing importance of scientific discoveries, technological inventions and changes in sphere production and exchange.

2. Period of rise is accompanied by spring social upheaval (war, revolution).

3. the downward wave of cycle associated with prolonged depression of agriculture.




Discuss about the Toynbee’s theory “Challenge and response”. Give some examples from Kazakhstan history. 

Arnold Joseph Toynbee(14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of University of London.He is best known for his 12-volume A Study of History (1934–61), through which he examined the rise and fall of 26 civilizations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders.26 local civilizations, 13 developed.

5 civilizations have been preserved: Chinese, Hindu, Islamic, WesternChristian and Orthodox Christian Byzantine) after which perishes.

Criterion for the growth of civilization - an increase of its spiritual independence; cause of fracture - loss of strength than exaggeration the role of technology.

With the civilizations as units identified, he presented the history of each in terms of challenge-and-response,

sometimes referred to as theory about the law of challenge and response. Civilizations arose in response to some set of challenges of extreme difficulty, when "creative minorities"devised solutions that reoriented their entire society.

Challenges and responses were physical, as when the Sumerians exploited the intractable swamps of southern Iraq by organizing the Neolithic inhabitants into a society capable of carrying out large-scale irrigation projects; or social, as when the Catholic Church resolved the chaos of post-Roman Europe by enrolling the new Germanic kingdoms in a single religious community.

When a civilization responded to challenges, it grew. Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority. According to an Editor's Note in an edition of Toynbee's A Study of History, Toynbee believed that societies always die from suicide or murder rather than from natural causes, and nearly always from suicide.

He sees the growth and decline of civilizations as a spiritual process, writing that "Man achieves civilization, not as a result of superior biological endowment or geographical environment, but as a response to a challenge in a situation of special difficulty which rouses him to make a hitherto unprecedented effort."

Toynbee identifies several types of civilization response:

Challenge of severe climate (Egyptian, Sumerian, Chinese, Mayan,Andean civilization);

Challenge of new lands (Minoan civilization);

Challenge of unexpected attacks from neighboring societies (Hellenic civilization);

Challenge permanent external pressure (Russian Orthodox, Western civilization);

Challenge prejudice when society having lost something vital, directs his energies to the production of the properties to compensate for.

Toynbee concludes:

Favorable conditions are not conducive to the creation and development of civilization, because they provide weak incentives. "The greater the challenge, the greater the incentive."

But if the challenge is extremely severe, it becomes excessive and ineffective stimulus.

Development of an adequate response to the challenges -social function of "creative minority", which not only

raises and sells ideas, but also drags the rest.




Analyze the classification of nomads. Give two or more examples.  




Explain the L.N.Gumilev’s Passionarism’ theory with giving examples.

Ethnogenesis connected with genetic traits - passionarity.

L.Gumilev offers analysis is based on ethnogenesis, military history and cultural history. Common base - the concept of "passionarnost." Through this concept it comes to historical synthesis.

The notion of passionarity was opened Vernadsky. His passionarnost - biochemical energy of living matter of the biosphere.

Gumilev passionarnost - characteristic of behavior. This excess of biochemical energy of living matter, which is manifested in the ability of people to overvoltage.

Changes in the level of drive, as the basic principle of separation stages of ethnogenesis. Stage for the ethnogenesis Gumilev: passionate push acme phase, the phase of fracture, the inertial phase, the phase of obscuration, the memorial phase homeostasis.

Level of passionarity in the ethnic group is changing, and in this connection L.Gumilev highlights the major stages of development of the ethnic group.

1 Passionary push.

2. "acme phase". people's desire not to create unity, but nothing obedience, considered only with yourself.

3. Phase fracture. Start a civil war. The energy dissipated in the culture and art. This phase ends in bloodshed.

4. Inertial phase. At this time, formed large states, there is an accumulation of material wealth.

5. Phase obscuration. Energy runs out. Leading position in the society occupy subpassionarii. Dominated by sluggish, selfish.

6. Memorial phase. Begin irreversible processes of decay. Ethnicity saves only pas crush its historical tradition.

7. homeostasis. Disappears and the memory of historical tradition.




Write about 8th century Persian historian and geographer, famous for his Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan ("Concise Book of Lands") Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadani.

Ibn al-Faqih

Ibn al-Faqih. (Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadhani) (Persian: ابن فقیه الهمذانی‎) Persian author of a geography written in Arabic during the ninth century. In his only surviving work The Book of the Countries (Concise Book of Lands), he describes his native town Hamadan and the countries of Iran, Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Rum, Jazira, Central Asia, Nubia, Abyssinia, North Africa, al-Andalus and Sudan are given merely a brief mention.

Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadhani became famous for his Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan (Concise Book of Lands). He was noted for his comparison of the customs, food diets, codes of dress, rituals, along with the flora and fauna of China and India.

Al-Faqih wrote a testimony on the Khazar conversion.

"It seems to be well established that Ibn al-Faqih was a Persian, a native of Hamadan, who was writing about the Kitab al-Buldan which we possess is an abridgement by one al-Shayzari of an original some four or five times the length. As an adib, not a dry geographer, Ibn al-Faqih is under no obligation to deal with his geographical material in a systematic way. His order of treatment does not seem to follow any plan. It begins with Mecca and Medina and continues with Bahrayn, then Yemen, then Egypt. The Maghrib comes next, then Syria. The Islamic world is then left for a time for an excursion into the lands of Byzantium. After that come Iraq and Persia. Another excursion outside Islam to Armenia follows, and the discourse ends with Khurasan. His geographical material is copiously enlivened with legendary or traditional matter, such as the long account of the city of al-Baht or the embassy to the Rum. He loves numbers, especially when occurring in apothegms: "Abdullah b.'Amr b. al-'As said: 'There are ten blessings. In Egypt there are nine, in the rest of the earth, one. Evil is in ten portions. In Egypt there is one portion, and in all the rest of the earth nine portions.'[13]'. In addition to these remotely "geographical" chapters representative of "la litterarisation de themese jusque la reserves aux specialistes"[14], there is a substantial section that has no connection with geography whatsoever: "The Conversion of Humour to Solemnity and Solemnity to Humour" as well as numerous shorter, irrelevant passages. Characteristic of the adib is the interest in linguistic matters. Ibn Al-Faqih offers etymologies for many toponyms. At one place he takes the opportunity to parade almost a whole page of nisbah-adjectives derived from names of places or peoples: su BN

AL-FAQIH’S DESCRIPTION OF SAMARKLAND “Samarqand was built by Iskandar (Alexander the Great). The diameter of its walls if twelve farsakhs. There are twelve gates in the city and the distance between the gates is one farsakh. On top of the walls there are loopholes and war towers. All the gates are wooden and folding. At the far end there are two more gates with a lodging for the guard in between. When you pass the fields you stop in Rabad with buildings. Rabad and irrigated lands stretch to as much as 6,000 jaribs and the wall surrounds the rustaqs, gardens and melonfields together with twelve gates built in this wall. Then you find yourself in the town, which is as vast as 5,000 jaribs. There are four gates . . . and then you enter the iner city, which occupies the space of 2,500 jaribs. There is a moque, quhandiz, and the residence of the ruler inside the city. There is running water in the city. Nd there are rivers and canals flowing behind the wall. Quhandiz has an iron gate at the beginning and at the end.




Throw light on Tamim ibn bah’s journey to Uygur’s capital on the Orkhon, Karakorum.  

According to Minorsky, "the only Muslim traveller who has left a record of his visit to the Uyghur capital on the Orkhon, i.e., to Khara-balghasun in the present-day Mongolia." The author likely was from Khorasan and was sent to the East in connection with political upheavals in Transoxiana. Only an abridged version of his narrative survives, known especially from Yaqut's geographical dictionary.

Since we know that Tamim b. Bahr went to tuguzguzs Khakan, the answer to the question of when the journey took place and what was the end point of the route has been discussed for a long time, may clarify who were called the tuguzguz in the Arab sources.

About tuguzguz Hakan Tamim gives the following information.

• Hakan was son in law of the Chinese emperor.

• Chinese emperor paid him tribute in 500 thousand pieces of silk,

• The capital of tuguzguz had a golden tent.

• Tuguzguzs were Manichaean.

• Right from the capital tuguzguz lived Turks, not mixed with other people, and ahead located China.

• He said: The countries of Turks are tuguzguz, their country is the largest between the turkic, bordered with china and tibet, karluk, kimaki, guzzes, djikia, pechenegs, bazkish, azkish, kipchaks and kyrgyz.




Discuss about "primordialism" and "instrumentalism", and "constructivism" and "essentialism" by Thomas Hylland Eriksen. 

PRIMORDIALISM The argument which contends that nations are ancient, natural phenomena.

INSTRUMENTALISM A pragmatic philosophical approach which regards an activity (such as science, law, or education) chiefly as an instrument or tool for some practical purpose, rather than in more absolute or ideal terms

CONSTRUCTIVISM is a theory of knowledge (epistemology) that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas.

ESSENTIALISM is the view that, for any specific entity (a group of people, a physical object, a concept), there is a set of

attributes which are necessary to its identity and function

According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen, the study of ethnicity was dominated by two distinct debates:

1. Between "primordialism" and "instrumentalism".

2. The second debate is between "constructivism" and "essentialism".

In the primordialist view

•the participant perceives ethnic ties collectively, as an externally given, even coercive, social bond.

•The instrumentalist approach, on the other hand, treats ethnicity primarily as an ad-hoc element of a political strategy, used as a resource for interest groups for achieving secondary goals such as, for instance, an increase in wealth, power or status.

Constructivists view

•National and ethnic identities as the product of historical forces, often recent, even when the identities are presented as old.

•Essentialists view such identities as ontological categories defining social actors, and not the result of social action.

"Modernist constructivism"

•correlates the emergence of ethnicity with the movement towards nation-states beginning in the early modern period.




Analyze the organization of ethnic processes in Kazakhstan and stages in the development of the Kazakh nation.




Discuss about historical cohesion of Kazakhstan, along with its pivotal role in evolution of Eurasia.




Describe the strategy "Kazakhstan -2050" - the issue of state held in Kazakhstan. Summarizing the results of 15 years of the Strategy "Kazakhstan 2030", it can be stated that the Republic of Kazakhstan took place as a modern, forward-looking and confident state, responsible partner in the international arena.

However, today the development of any country depends on the ability to adequately and timely respond to the new challenges of the globalized world.

To solve this problem, developed a new strategy "Kazakhstan 2050", which will determine the vector of sustainable long-term development of our country in the XXI century.

The main provisions of the Strategy are:

-further strengthening of statehood;

-transition to the new economic policies;

-comprehensive support entrepreneurship;

-formation of a new social model;

-the creation of modern and effective education and health systems;

-improved accountability, efficiency and functionality of the state apparatus;

-forming an adequate new challenges to international and defense policy.




Describe the strategy "Kazakhstan -2050". The challenges of globalization of the XXI century. Kazakhstan took place as a modern, forward-looking and confident state, responsible partner in the international arena.

However, today the development of any country depends on the ability to adequately and timely respond to the new challenges of the globalized world.

To solve this problem, developed a new strategy "Kazakhstan 2050", which will determine the vector of sustainable long-term development of our country in the XXI century.

The main provisions of the Strategy are:

-further strengthening of statehood;

-transition to the new economic policies;

-comprehensive support entrepreneurship;

-formation of a new social model;

-the creation of modern and effective education and health systems;

-improved accountability, efficiency and functionality of the state apparatus;

-forming an adequate new challenges to international and defense policy.

Currently, humanity is faced with new global challenges.

For our country stands out ten key challenges.

The first challenge - the acceleration of historical time

Historical time is rapidly accelerated. by 2050 the population of the world will reach 9 billion people. For 20 years, we have modernized all spheres of society in a very high pace. However, we still have social groups that have not been integrated into the overall modernization process. For obvious reasons. In a society still holds some imbalance affecting the morale of the people and public expectations. We must address this imbalance and provide all levels of society to be integrated in the modernization process, to find their rightful place in society, to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the new policy.

The second challenge - the global demographic imbalance

Every day an increasing global demographic imbalances. The global trend - the aging of mankind. Low birth rate and aging of mankind in many countries provoke problems in the labor market, labor shortages. We - the young nation. The average age of our country is 35 years. This gives us a great opportunity to keep our human potential and to position itself in the world.

In our country we have a job, and everyone can find it. Moreover, we each have the opportunity to create itself a job, take care of yourself. It is our great achievement. Our young people must learn and master new knowledge, acquire the latest skills, skillfully and effectively use knowledge and technology in everyday life. We need to do everything possible to create, to ensure the most favorable conditions. The third challenge - a threat to global food security

Even today, the world's tens of millions of people are starving, nearly one billion people lack food. Without revolutionary change these numbers will only grow.

We have one of the largest exporters of grain crops. We have a huge eco-friendly areas and can produce organic food.

The fourth challenge - an acute shortage of water

. By mid-century, many countries will be forced to import water.

Water - a very limited resource and competition for water is becoming a major factor ...

The fifth challenge - global energy security

All developed countries are increasing their investments in alternative and "green" energy technologies.

Already by 2050, their use will generate up to 50% of all energy consumed. Kazakhstan is one of the key elements of global energy security.

The sixth challenge - Depletion of natural resources

With limited, depletion of natural resources of the Earth unprecedented in human history, the growth of consumption will be different processes.

Our country has a number of advantages here. Hashem gave us a lot of natural resources. Other countries and peoples will need our resources.

We are fundamentally important to rethink our relationship to its natural resources. We must learn how to manage them, accumulating profits from their sale in the treasury, and most importantly - as efficiently as possible to transform the natural resources of our country's sustained economic growth.

Seventh challenge - Third Industrial Revolution

Humanity is on the threshold of the third industrial revolution, which changes the very concept of production. Technological discoveries radically change the structure and needs of global markets.

Eighth challenge - increasing social instability

  increasing social instability is the biggest world problem. Her main reason - social inequality.

Today, there are about two hundred million people can not find work. Even in the European Union, unemployment is at its highest level. The situation in Kazakhstan looks pretty well. Today we have the lowest unemployment rate in recent history.

Important task for us - to strengthen social stability in our society.

Ninth challenge - the crisis of values of our civilization

The world is experiencing an acute crisis of values and worldview.

We must learn to live in coexistence of cultures and religions. We must be committed to the dialogue of cultures and civilizations.

Only in dialogue with other nations, our country will be able to achieve success and influence in the future.

Tenth challenge - the threat of a new global destabilization

The global economic system can give a serious crash in the 2013 - 2014's, cause a drop in global commodity prices.

The reduction in foreign exchange reserves increases the pressure in exchange rates and inflation, which again may adversely affect the socio-economic situation.




Analyze the strategy "Kazakhstan - 2050". The new political course of the country.




Highlight the political situation of Kazakh khanate from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century.




Discuss about the Dzungar invasion of Kazakh territory. 

Since the early 18th century the Kazakh and Dzungar relations deteriorated sharply because of Dzungar invasions. These events undermined foundations of the state, which was consolidated by the policy of Kasym, Khak Nazar, Esim and Tauke. After the death of Tauke Khan a whole series of misfortunes for the Kazakhs started. Among them defeats of the Kazakh troops in 1717 - 1718, death of Kaiyp Khan and Bulat Khan's death during the “Great calamity” in 1723 - 25. Only by the end of the 20’s of the 17th century, in face of common danger the Kazakhs joined together (A.I.Levshin) and began to fight back against the Dzungars. A new wave of Dzungarian attacks on the Kazakh Khanate started after the accession of Galdan Boshugtu Khan. By the 80’s year of the 17th century the Kazakhs were driven out of Semirechye by the Dzungars, losing their towns and rich pastures. "Since the power of the Oirats in Semirechye was not disputed, and their many wars with the Kazakhs, Mongols and Chinese were not related to this area" (Bartold). In 1681- 1684 Galdan organized a major campaign to the south of Kazakhstan, and in 1684 the city of Sairam was destroyed. The Kazakhs headed by Tauke Khan with great difficulty managed to stabilize the situation on the eastern borders. The south of Kazakhstan was especially important for the Oirats. This region had a large number of cities that became trade centers of nomadic and sedentary tribes. The cities of Taraz, Sairam, Otrar, Turkestan and others were the source of well-being for nomadic tribes of Sary-Arka. The nomads bought in these cities all the basic necessities that were needed in everyday life. Political dominance in these oases provided the rulers with the ability to collect taxes and tributes, necessary for the proper functioning of power structures.

In the 90’s of the 17th century war with China forced Galdan Boshugtu to stop aggression against the Kazakhs. But at the beginning of the 18th century Tsewang Rabtan turned his arms against the Kazakhs. In two battles in 1717 (at the Ayaguz River) and in 1718 (at the Bogen, Shayan and Arys rivers) the Kazakh army suffered a crushing defeat. The Kazakh army, led by Khans Kaiyp and Abul Khair, returned ingloriously in their uluses. We do not know what the reason for the failure was. Perhaps, disorganization of the Kazakhs caused by unexpected attack, absence of strong central government and lack of coordination in the actions of the Khans were the main reasons for their defeat.




Analyze the emergence and functions of Kazakh hordes (zhuzh): Senior, Middle and Junior zhuzes.




Discuss about origins of the Kazakhs based on medieval sources.

Analysis of curriculum subjects of social and humanities in higher education system makes it possible to argue that they do not provide a separate dedicated time to study the full range of medieval Turkic-speaking sources. These written records fragmentary highlights the various periods of the history of Kazakhstan, and this is clearly insufficient for a more complete study of all available sources in the scientific revolution. In this regard, one of the pressing problems of education and the formation of historical thinking is the study of the written sources of the past, which are associated with human activity and reflect the history of social development.

The main sources for the history of the medieval period are works written in Persian and Turkic languages in Central Asia and neighboring countries with her. History of Cumania (Desht-i-Kipchak), Zhetysuty, Maurya, East Turkestan and other neighboring regions that are closely related to each other — is the story of important social phenomena caused by internal and external factors of economic development. In manuscript repository of CIS countries, there are many Persian-Turkic-speaking narrative compositions, containing information on the history and culture of Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries in 13th-18th centuries. Their level of knowledge is different — some found a long time and worked out pretty good, their information actively and are used in scientific research; others are only introduced in the scientific revolution, and others are known only by name, and only to a narrow circle of specialists, is only the fourth to be identified. For a long time researchers have clearly ignored the information and the facts stated in the autochthonous and authentic sources, they only served as additional sources. This is quite common in the Soviet historiography trend has been associated with the development of science ideological bias of the period.  It had significant contribution from the Marxist class approach and dogmatic concept for the development of a nomadic society. The view of the absence of the nomadic culture of the written sources in Soviet historiography becomes quite common. At the present stage of development of source of science there was a need to revise their attitude to the written culture migratory habits of civilization. The research problems of sources of the Middle ages which are relevant to the history of Kazakhstan should be developed with great activity.

In the schools of high school it is necessary to study these written records from the standpoint of a new historical thinking. In this case, the previously known facts will be presented in a different light, turn to us with new faces, to identify aspects which previously could not be seen again will be revealed new phenomena and events. Identification of interaction sedentary and nomadic components written and cultural traditions, continuity and relations and Kipchak Turkic heritage can significantly enhance our understanding of historical events in the territory of medieval Kazakhstan.

The diversity and complexity of documents written in different languages Dzungaria, China, Central Asia, Iran, the Volga, Black Sea, require in-depth scientific study of the critical and complex. Institute of Oriental Studies of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan developed a great theme, “The Arab-Persian-Turkic, Chinese sources on the history and culture of Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries and their relationships in the 13th −19th centuries”. In future it is planned to form “Code of Oriental monuments of history and culture of Kazakhstan” from these materials. Turkologists and Orientalists of the republic bind the poorly studied medieval sources, especially with the problems of classification.

In terms of theoretical sources the classification of Turkic and Persian sources on the history of the peoples of Kazakhstan and Central Asia on a territorial basis is the most common. Sources are divided into the Timurid, Shaybanid, Chagataid, Safavid and Ottoman historiography group [2, p. 14]. As it shown, the classification of a huge source-material in the first place, only the geographical origin or place of writing sources can be considered. At the same time, certainly, mismatch boundaries of the medieval states with modern state territory, which in turn hampers their scientific study should be considered.

There is also a classification of sources on linguistic grounds, i. e. on the basis of language, but it does not contribute to their further-sided study. We would like to offer a comprehensive classification of sources, and their systematization of several, including the above listed factors. Thus, the study of medieval Turkic-speaking sources, you must consider the following factors:

a) A chronological factor. In the first factor all medieval sources can be divided into Ancient monuments written in the period 5th-10th centuries, old Turkic monuments written in the 11th-16th centuries and new Turkic monuments belonging to the 17th-18th centuries [3, p. 9].

b) The geographic factor (area of writing, territorial affiliation). According to this factor, the written sources are divided into the following groups: 1) Documents of East Turkestan written mostly in Kashgar and Balasagun cities [4, p. 314]; 2) Documents the Western Turkestan are divided into three subgroups: a. sources, written in towns near Syr Darya like Sairam, Sygnak, Otyrar and Sauran;

b. sources, created in the major cultural and commercial center of Samarkand, Yasst, Ispidzhab, Igunek etc.;  

c. Khorezm sources, created in the Urgench, Bukhara and Fergana, allocated separately [5, p. 70].

3) written monuments of the Golden Horde were published in major cities Saray-Batu, Sarai Berke, a large medieval cities Ak Horde and Kok Horde; 4) separate group of sources created in Egypt and Persia, especially in the cities of Baghdad and Cairo; 5) Crimean sources were written mostly in the town of Sudak, Solkhat, Kaffa and Tana; 6) Written sources of cities in Western Ukraine were established in Galicia, Podolsky, Lviv and Kamenetz.  written monuments cities in Western Ukraine were established in Galicia, skirts, Lviv, Kamenetz. c) ethno-genetical factor. According to the basis of ethno-genetical factor there are:  1) monuments written in Turkic peoples Karakhanid state Karluk tribal representatives, Shygyl and Yagma;  2) Central Asian sources, written by natives Oguz and Kipchak tribes in the Turkic languages; 3) The Golden sources, written mostly in Kipchak and Turkic language in Kamenetz-Podolsk, which was the Armenian colony; 4) sources, written in the language of the nomadic peoples of Central Asia in the 15th-16th centuries, which is called — Chagatai language [6, p. 170].  Thus, studied in the course of social and humanities medieval written records can be correlated with respect to this classification. In this case, the classification will led teachers and students in a variety of Persian and Turkic-speaking sources that shed light on the historical and cultural past of Kazakhstan and neighboring countries and the peoples of Central Asia in the chronological framework of the 5th-18th centuries.




Describe the Kazakhstan as a part of Russia: the struggle for independence. Kazakhstan's accession to Russia was preceded by considerable political connection between them. Russian government is interested in expanding their national borders in the East. As the centralization of state power and gain increased significantly the possibility of trade exchange and other forms of relationship with the people next door to the eastern states. The interest of the Russian state in Kazakhstan increased particularly from the 2nd half of the XV-XVI centuries., After the establishment of trade and diplomatic relations between Russia and the Central Asian khanates.  Important role in this regard played embassy. In 1573, in the Kazakh steppe was directed at the Russian embassy headed by Tretiak Chebukovym. The Embassy had the task of establishing trade with the Kazakhs. However, the diplomatic mission Chebukova not reached the limits of Kazakhstan, as was exterminated nephew Siberian Khan Kuchum Mametkulom. In the trade and economic relations between the two sides were equally interested. Kazakhs acquired through barter household items, firearms, and Russian received from them various raw materials, livestock. Russian state needed allies in the fight against the descendants Kuchum, unimpeded access to the markets of Central Asia, security passes through Kazakhstan caravan routes. In turn, the Kazakhs were subjected to constant ruinous raids Central Asian khanates were interested in expanding contacts with Moscow. To ensure the security of trade relations with Kazakhstan, Siberia, Central Asia, the Russian state, along with the promotion of explorers, merchants, embassies and military units began intensive construction on the border with Kazakhstan fortified settlements, fortresses. formation Jungar khanate made significant changes in Central Asia. Tauke Khan, expressing the interests of the ruling feudal groups constantly striving to consolidate its borders. During the reign of Tsewang-Rabdana and Galdan Tserena were a time of greatest power Jungar khanate, his active role in the life of the peoples of Central Asia. The first major act of Tsewang-Rabdana was a war with the Kazakh Khan Tauke.

Started on the personal order of Peter I of defensive points, making the Upper Irtysh line, played a role in protecting against the raids of Kazakhs Dzungarian troops

Kazakhstan's accession, which began in the 30s. XVIII century., Was completed only at the end of the middle of the XIX century. and is a complex, contradictory process. Joining Kazakh zhuzes occurred in various foreign and domestic conditions. A significant part of the Younger, some areas of the Middle zhuzes took Russian citizenship voluntarily. The greater part of the Middle and Southern regions of Kazakhstan, were joined by military force tsarism, sought to accelerate the accession of territory, ignoring the interests of the overwhelming majority of the population of Kazakhstan, with the chief strategic, far-reaching goals of the empire in Central Asia. Joining Southern Kazakhstan, and then Central Asia to Russia allowed tsarism win in rivalry with the British Empire.




Give detales about Kazakh military organization and arts at the late medieval ages.

Kazakh military organization and artsThe Kazakhs did not have a standing army, but raised levies as required. A detachment was anindependent military unit: the chief of the clan was its commander and each detachment had itsown battle flag and war cry (uran). A few such autonomous units formed the host of an ulus(familial or tribal domain). The leader of the ulus was also the leader of the host, which had itsmain banner and its own war cry. The khan was the commander-in-chief of all the hosts; hepersonally stood at the head of his troops in battle and was expected to share their hardships anddangers. Sources indicate that the Kazakh rulers had, on average, 30–50,000 mounted warriors.Mobility was a feature of the light cavalry of the steppe-dwelling nomads, who were able toassemble large forces for an attack at any time and in any place.The main weapons of the Kazakhs during the period were the sword and the bow. Other armsmentioned are war axes, bludgeons, one-handed maces, two-handed clubs, and long spearsdecorated with horsehair tassels and fitted with a hook for dragging an opponent from the saddle.We have a reference to a warrior sultan from the Dasht-i Qipchaq in the following terms: ‘Overhis chest he wore a shirt of mail as blue as the sky, on his head there was a sparkling helmet witha helmet liner, and round his waist was a belt from which hung a sword.’ Firearms were not verycommon, but the Kazakhs knew how to make ‘good gunpowder’, and also how to smelt lead andcopper ore.There is much information in the sources on the military art of the Turco-Mongol nomadic tribesand peoples. If the military commanders thought it pointless to engage in a cavalry skirmish, thewarriors dismounted, and having fastened the reins of their horses to their belts, rained downarrows on the enemy and sought to prevent the opponents’ advance with spear thrusts. If theenemy attacked unexpectedly, making it impossible for the defenders to form ranks, they stroveto close the flanks and form a circle, wheeling round as they fought, ‘in the Mongol fashion’. Inattack the nomads used a method which had its own special name – tulgama (tulgamish). Boththese words come from the Turkic verb tulgamak – to encircle, wind round, turn, spin, whirl. Asa method of warfare, tulgama means to turn, make a flanking movement and attack the enemy onthe flank or in the rear.Military prowess was highly esteemed and a person who ‘cut off more heads and spilled moreblood’ than others enjoyed general respect. We know from fifteenth-century sources thatoutstanding swordsmen who were repeatedly successful on the battlefield were awarded the titleor style of tolu-batir or tolu-bahadur (perfect hero) or bogatyr (complete hero), i.e. a person ofboundless courage, steadfastness and strength.




Explain the material and spiritual culture of Kazakhs.

Thousands of years ago, an original culture which revered nature was born in the nomadic society in the very centre of Eurasia, within the limitless steppe among high mountains and lakes. It appeared as a result of the merging of the cultures of Mongolian and Turkic people and later it was enriched by elements of Islamic and Persian world-views. 

During that period, Kazakhstan did not exist as a state. However, a centuries-old cultural community had already been formed. The term “Kazakh”, which means “free”, appeared later in the 14th – 15th centuries. As a result of a passionate yearning for defining the position of this culture among other cultures, with which they had something in common and at the same time were different, it became necessary to unite many tribes of the steppe into something integral and united on the basis of the similarity of behavior, language (the Turkic language) and places of residence. So, before the state appeared, a free nomadic culture existed, which was based on the practical knowledge of reality and spiritual concepts in quite difficult conditions of permanent movement in expanse and time.

 Later, this highly developed culture with a multilayered structure was enriched with new knowledge and principles, which were typical of a settled lifestyle. The representatives of the nomadic ethnic groups of the steppe were not the exclusive members of this culture since the representatives of other cultures also entered it. Since that moment, the culture has been developing as an original Kazakh one, which maintains the traditions, customs, language, etc. and as a culture of Kazakhstan, which includes the features of numerous nations (more than 130) residing today in the country.        

Today, the culture of Kazakhstan represents a complex of aesthetic values of the Kazakh people, conveyed in original and different spiritual and material forms. 

As a result of its nature, the culture provides us with the development and enrichment of creative potential and with an individual place in the family of national cultures. 

Kazakh culture at the turn of the 19th and early 20th centuries despite the growing colonial oppression experienced a kind of spiritual uplift, which can be described as a national revival. It was the beginning of the century in Kazakhstan there is a whole galaxy of poets, writers, religious and political leaders, nominated to the fore cultural independence. The reason for such popularity of cultural and educational ideas is the fact that by the time the national liberation movement of the Kazakh people is entering a new phase of its development. Recent attempts to further enslavement of armed resistance ended with a crushing defeat. For national leaders becomes apparent futility and destructiveness of such forms of struggle.

Here we touch upon a very important in the history of the Kazakh culture question of the degree of penetration of Islam into the national consciousness. It should be noted that on this issue today, there is no single point of view. Clearly identifies two: first — the recognition of the development of the Kazakh culture, in the bosom of the Muslim world since the 9th-10th centuries and Kazakhstan’s perception as part of the Muslim world. The second is a statement of weak surface initiation Kazakhs to Islam. Arguments on both sides are very convincing and supported by opinion of large leaders, sufficiently to say that Sh. Ualihanov had the latter point of view




Discuss about knowledge and society in the XIX century. 

The artistic culture of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan incorporated both the innovations created by colonial exploitation and the traditional characteristics of patriarchal-feudal society. Literature and music were the most expressive components. Religious dogmas and bans strongly detained development of the fine arts and theatrical culture.

Literary processes went in two directions: oral traditions and written literature. Oral literature developed in a form of akyns’ (improvising poets and singers) aytys (a song competition between two akyns), dastans (ornate form of oral history), heroic and lyric-epic poems, fairy tales, sayings and proverbs, riddles, and so on. In aytys of the 19th — the beginning of the 20th centuries akyns Zhanak, Shozhe, Akan Sere, Suyunbay, Zhambyl, Sara Tastanbekova, Aset Naymanbayev, Birzhan Sal distinguished by their wit, improvisation, profound knowledge of customs, traditions and language.

At the beginning of the 20th century S. Seyfullin, I. Zhansugurov, B. Maylin, A. Auezov, who became founders of the Kazakh literature of the Soviet period, published their first works.

During the 19th — the beginning of the 20th centuries Kazakh musical culture flourished. Such composers as Kurmangazy, Dauletkerey, Dina Nurpeisova, Tattimbet, Kazangap, Seitek, Ikhlas created their immortal kyuy (traditional musical piece). All Kazakh steppe sang the songs of Birzhan Sal, Akhan Sere, Mit, Abay, Baluan Sholak, Zhayau Musa, Madi, Ibray, Yestay and many others.

In the 19th century the Kazakh press was born. On April 28, 1870 the first issue of the Turkestan Ualayaty newspaper was published. It was in Kazakh and Uzbek languages. Materials about Chokan Valikhanov, rebellion in Mangystau in 1870 and other event were published on its pages.

In 1911 the first Kazakh journal "Aykap" was issued. During four years of its existence 88 issues were published. In 1913 — 1918 the newspaper "Kazakh" was issued. "Aykap" and "Kazakh" told about all aspects of social life. They supported the idea of transition of the Kazakhs to a settled way of life.

Works of Abay Kunanbayev, Chokan Valikhanov, Ibray Altynsatrin, Akhmet Baitursynov, Myrzhakyp Dulatov, Abubakir Divayev and many others were published in St. Petersburg, Kazan, Orenburg and Tashkent.

At this time in the world there were such things:

The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell.[17] Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin, who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea ofevolution by natural selection. Dmitri Mendeleev created the first periodic table of elements. Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor, high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Karl Weierstrass and other mathematicians also carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables; they also began the use ofhypercomplex numbers. But the most important step in science at this time was the ideas formulated by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about.

For a few decades in the 19th century British manufactured goods dominated world trade. Most mass manufactured items were produced more efficiently and competitively in Britain than elsewhere. She also had the commercial, financial and political power to edge out rivals at home and abroad. In some industries, most notably textiles, massive changes took place in technology and in the organisation of production causing dramatic productivity growth. This in turn brought a steep decline in prices. In many other sectors more modest organisational improvements coupled with greater specialisation and the employment of cheap labour brought similar, though less dramatic, results. An unprecedented range and variety of products thus came within the grasp of a new mass market both within Britain and overseas. No other country could at first compete so Britain became the workshop of the world.




Discuss about the madrasas and the Reproduction of Islam in the XIX century.

In the middle of the XIX century was liquidated the political power of nomadic elite. Then began a mass migration to the steppes by Russian peasantry and the Russian authorities sought to control the spiritual processes in the Kazakh society. By the time the Kazakhs already considered themselves Sunni Muslims. During the XIX century, the strengthening of Islam among the Kazakhs increased. This is evidenced by the words Cc Valikhanova and Levshina.

The Kazakhs spread of Islam is closely linked with the Arabic language. Arabic language, Arabic writing symbolized Islam. Kazakhs, like other Iranian and Turkic peoples who converted to Islam, the Arabic language associated with the Islamic ritual and prayer. The Kazakhs have been known two types of religious schools: Mekteb and madrassas. Mektebi task was to train reading and writing texts from the Koran and other religious books. Madrassas was a place of lectures scientists Islamic scholars, interpret questions of Muslim theology and Islamic law. madrasah is not have specific terms of training programs. But that did not stop achieve the main goal - to get religious education and become a Mullah. All madrassas existed mainly through voluntary donations. These donations were "zeket" (annual tax, levied on property and livestock wealthy individuals), "Fitr" (alms given by each member family during Lent "Ramadan" or "Eid"), "seek"(atoning sacrifice for the remission of sins of the deceased). with the strengthening and deepening of the Muslim influence by the end of the XIX century, expressing in particular the appearance of significant number of primary religious schools, increasing the number of Kazakhs trained in religious schools, building of mosques and madrassas in the Kazakh society appear their members of the clergy. All this indicates the important role Islam played the Kazakhs in this period. Kazakhs were not only familiar with basics of the Muslim faith, they taught their children to Muslim schools, secular and religious schools, visited mosques were therefore Muslims without any reservations with pretty intense life, which support the Muslim clergy, in the face of many mullahs, imams and other clergy.




Contributions of the scientists and thinkers of the Turkic period: Al Biruni (973-1048), Ulugh bek (1394-1449). 

Ulugh Beg In 1424, he began building the observatory to support the astronomical study at the madrasah and it was completed five years later in 1429.

Beg determined the length of the tropical year as 365d 5h 49m 15s, which has an error of +25s, making it more accurate than Nicolaus Copernicus' estimate which had an error of +30s.

• Beg also determined the Earth's axial tilt as 23.52 degrees, which remains the most accurate measurement to date.

• It was more accurate than later measurements by Copernicus andTycho Brahe, and it matches the currently accepted value precisely.

Abū Rayhān al-Biruni was borne in 363 (Hijra).




Discuss about political repression in Kazakhstan in 1937-1938.

In 1937 - 1938 - the years of mass repressions. Repressed: S.Seifullin writers, B.Mailin, I.Dzhansugurov, M.Zhumabaev representative Masanchi Dungan, the founder of the historical school S.Asfeidiarov, a prominent scholar and linguist K.Zhubanov in the Solovetsky camps died M.Dulatov. In Kazakhstan worked the camp Karlag, Steplag, Algeria or CHSIR. Messengers of the party in Kazakhstan were repressed L. Mirzoyan and K.Rafalsky. Through the Gulag system was held of 101,000 Kazakhs and 27,000 was shot.

The last third of the 30-ies. marked by a new wave of political repression, assumed a mass character. Strengthening of Stalin's personality cult and impatience of dissent led to the elimination of all the leaders that could make the opposition, ie of the leading Party and Soviet workers. In the years 1937-1938. "nationalism" were accused T.Ryskulov, N.Nurmakov, O.Isaev,, A.Asylbekov, Zh.Sadvakasov,, T.Zhurgenov and many others. Repression of culture and science - A.Bokeyhanov, A.Baytursunov, M.Dulatov, A. Ermekov, H.Dosmuhameduly, M.Tynyshbaev, M.Zhumabaev, S.Seifullin, I.Zhansugurov, B.Mailin, S.Asfendiyarov, Zh.Shanin and many others. they declared guilty of the crisis of agriculture, uprisings 20-30th , relations with Japanese intelligence, etc. The number of those arrested in 1937 in Kazakhstan has reached 105,000 people, of whom 22,000 were killed

The object of fierce critics Steels "History of Kazakhstan", published in 1943. Evaluation of anti-colonial uprisings in Kazakhstan, caused a heated debate the scientific community. At the same time published a monograph E. Bekmakhanov "Kazakhstan in the 20-40ies XIX century. "Dedicated to the uprising Kenesary Kasymov 1837-1847 gg. The views of the author, are declared the development of the concept of bourgeois nationalists, and a monograph E. Bekmakhanov was recognized as politically harmful. Then was fabricated so-called "case of Bekmakhanov." Then he was expulsion from the University, the exclusion from the party, deprivation of academic degrees and titles. “Case of Bekmakhanov” was submitted to the court. The Court of the KazSSR Bekmakhanov was sentenced to 25 years in prison.




Analyze the causes, economic and demographic consequences of the famine of 1931-1933.

The earliest and most disastrous was the experience of Kazakhstan. In fact, as a national group, proportionately the Kazakhs suffered most the consequences of the “revolution from above” in the rural sector: according

to the most recent and reliable estimates, S. Maksudov concludes that the number of Kazakh deaths directly attributable to the famine of 1931-1933 was, 1450000 or, approximately 38% of the total population, the highest percentage of any nationality in the USSR.


 Traditionally a land of pastoral nomadism, Kazakhstan was yet differentiated from other zones in the USSR where nomad-pastoral peoples lived;

 In 1916 in the six Kazakh provinces – Turgai, Akmolinsk, Uralsk,Semipalatinsk, Syr Darya and Semirechie – just under 1.4 million colonists from the European part of the empire were present;

 Kazakhstan was a Soviet republic in which nomadic or semi-nomadic herdsmen constituted an exceptionally large percentage of the population: according to data from the Kazakh Buerau of Statistics, in the late 1920s, only 23% of Kazakhs were entirely sedentary


 In 1923-1924 a large part of the USSR was hit by a drought that led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people;

 In February 1924, starvation was widespread in many zones in the Aktubinsk and Kustanai gubernias;

 The following June, in the Akmolinsk gubernia a census found between 50000 and 60000 people suffering from hunger.


1. In 1928 there were a campaign to requisition the wealth and livestock oh the “grat bais”;

2. Young Kazakhs became for the first time subject to the military draft, beginning in the autumn of 1928;

3. “Crimes based on traditions” and banned many of the Kazakhs’ cultural practices;

4. The region was opened in April 1929 to European colonists.


 In Kazakhstan, during the first year of the collectivization campaign, the mail objective had been the incorporation of European peasants;

 Large-scale revolts, the rapid entry of peasants into the kolhozes during winter, and their exodus en masse in the spring after Stalin’s letter “Dizzy with Success” was published in Pravda on 1 March 1930.


 By the autumn of 1931 the famine was already widespread among nomads;

 Large numbers of people devastated by malnutrition, died in epidemics of typhus, scurvy, and smallpox;

 Cannibalism became widespread;

 1931-1933 the situation was equally tragic throughout Kazakhstan


 Encyclopædia Britannica estimates that 6 to 8 million people died from hunger in the Soviet Union during this period, of whom 4 to 5 million were Ukrainians.

 Robert Conquest estimated at least 7 million peasants' deaths from hunger in the European part of the Soviet Union in 1932–33 (5 million in Ukraine, 1 million in the North Caucasus, and 1 million elsewhere), and an additional 1 million of deaths from hunger as a result of collectivization in Kazakhstan.

 In his 2010 book Stalin's Genocides, Norman Naimark estimates that 3 to 5 million Ukrainians died in the famine.

 A further consequence of the situation was the abandonment of children.

 In Kazakhstan in 1933 there were approximately 61 000 destitute children, either orphans or children abandoned by parents who could longer feed them;

 In late 1931 and early 1932, thousands of people had already died in the cities and industrial zones where refugees were concentrated;

 For ex., during the winter on the site of the cooper mining complex on Lake Balkash, at least 4000 corpses of Kazakhs were buried in the snow



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