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Oe Phonetic Structure

Vowels

Monophthongs

Diphthongs

Short

i e æ a å o u y

ea eo io ie

Long

ī ē ǣ ā ō ū ӯ

e ͞a e ͞o ı ͞o ı ͞e

Consonants

Phone mes

Spel

ling

Comments

Phone mes

Spel ling

Comments

Labial

p

b

m

w

f

v

p

b

m

w

f

f

at the beginning & the end [f]: wīf

in the intervocal position [v]: wīifes

Dental

t

d

r

l

n

s

z

θ

ð

t

d

r

l

n

s

s

þ, ð

þ, ð

at the beginning & the end [s] sǣ, mūs

in the intervocal position [z] ce ͞osan

at the beginning & the end [θ] þr e ͞o ,se ͞a þ

in the intervocal position [ð] se ͞oþan

Velar

and

palatal

k

h

g

γ

j

c

h

ʒ

ʒ

ʒ

initially before cons. and back vowels; in the middle after ‘n’= ʒleo, ʒōd, sinʒan

after back vowels and the sonorants ‘r’ & ‘l’daʒas, sorʒ, swelʒan

in the presence of front vowels – ʒe ͞ar ,dæʒ, ʒiefan

Phonetic changes in oe vowels

Phonetic changes in OE vowels

k’ > ʧ cild > c’ild> child

sc’> ʃ scip > sc’ip > ship

g’ > ʤ brycg > bricg’ > bridge

fricatives

f – v

s – z

θ – ð

New Consonant letters for

(cw) [kw]

Spelling changes in Middle English

New Vowel letters for

Changes in stressed vowels in Middle English (1)

qualitative

rising of new phonemes

ā > ǭ hām >hǭm

ō > ọ̄ tōþ > tọ̄th

ǣ > ę̄ sǣ > sę̄

ē > ẹ̄ mētan > mẹ̄ten

growth of new diphthongs

(i or u as the second element)

1.Vocalization of ʒ [j] & [ɣ]

a) vowel + ʒ[ j] > diphtong (digraph)

æ +ʒ[ j] > ai dæʒ > day

e + ʒ[j] > ei weʒ > wey

b) vowel +ʒ [ɣ] > diphtong (digraph)

a + ʒ[ɣ] > au laʒu > lawe

ā + ʒ[[ɣ] > ou āʒen > ǭwen

2. Vowel + h > diphthong (diagraph)

o+h > [ou](ough) brohte > [brouhtǝ] (broughte)

3. Vowel + w > diphthong (diagraph)

ǭ+w > [ou] (ow) flōwan > [flouǝn] (flowen)

monophthongiztion

e̅a > ę̄ be̅am>[bę̄m] beam

e̅o > ẹ̄ de̅op>[dẹ̄p] deep

ı ͞o & ı ͞e> i̅ li̅ehtan > līghten

io &ie> i nieht > niht; hierde>herd

ea > a earm > arm

eo > e heorte > herte

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