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  1. The subject of S. and the problem of the norm.

  2. The subdivision in S.

  3. The connection of S. with other branches of S.

1) One and the same massage or inf-n may be conveyed in dif. forms, and the same phenomenon may be described dif-ly. The dif-ce depends on dif. factors, such as the situation, the attitude to the recepient, but the dif-ce in the expression constitutes Style.

Stylistics comes from the w. “Style”, which is polysemantic in all languages (in Rus. Dictionary – 12 m-gs, in Eng.Oxford – 7 m-gs).


By metonomy the w. “Style” came to be used for the manner of writing, the model of composition (laconic S, floric S, clearcut S...)

  1. Then by some widening of m-ng, come to m-ng “the manner of doing smth”.

  2. Another m-ng is the manner of expression in Art (Classic S, Impressionistic S, Tudor S)

  3. “The manner of speaking” peculiar to some definite sphere of com-n

  4. “The way of writing of some particular writer”.

A lot of definitions of S are given by linguists:

1) Sayce R.A.

Style is the aesthetic use of l-ge in a work of art. This view limits the sphere of investigation to

to literature.

2) R.Fowler (British)

Acc. to Fowler a l-ge is constituted by compulsory features (constants) and optional features (variables\variants). The constants are the features, which are common for all types of speech.

Style – is a property of all texts (not only literal), it is the manipulation of variables or the selection of optional features.

Fowler’s def-n presupposes selection, choice of the part of the speaker. We may speak about dif. styles & dif. writers, because they may choose dif. l-ge means, not only constants, but variables, because they deviate from the norm.

In the literary l-ge, the norm is considered to be the invariant of phonetical, morphological, lexical & syntactical pattern, peculiar to a certain l-ge at a certain period of time (Гальперин).

Variants may deviate from the invariants, but not too much.

There’s not a single text in any sphere of commun-n, consisting only of invariants, because the norm as the invariant is a linguistic abstraction.

Our linguistic competence allows us to see what is acceptable, normal & recognise variants, because we have a set of rules in our mind. But we should speak not only of one single norm, but about a set of norms, because what is acceptable & normal in one part of St-cs is deviated in others.

In literature, deviation from the norm may be great. The Am. linguist Chomsky treated the problem of the norm as the degree of grammaticality or the degree of acceptability.

Acc. to Chomsky, there’re 3 types of structures:

  1. grammatical or marked (a year ago)

  2. unmarked, which don’t exist in l-ge or dictionaries (a the ago)

  3. semi-marked, which were used only once ( a grief ago)

The British linguists developed this idea & made a scale of deviate structures:

- many moons ogo

- 10 games ago

- several performances ago

- a few siggaretes ago

- 2 wives ago

a N + ago (Noun should have some temporal duration, but in our case, we have nouns, which have acquired this m-ng).

2) Stylistics is a linguistic science dealing with the principals of choice and usage of l-ge means for expressing thoughts and emotions under dif.conditions of comm-n. Accord.to the subject matter S.

may be divided into:

1) linguistic S., which studies functional styles and the expressive means of the l-ge, their structure, linguistic mechanism and functions

2) literary S., which studies the manner of expression of peculiar to this or that writer or trand in lit-re (the writer’s outlook, the comparison of a literary work, etc)

They are closely connected and based on each other.

3) comparative S., which is connected with the contrastive study of more than one l-ge. It analyses the stylistic resources of 2 l-ges or 2 lit-res and is linked to the theory of translation.

4) decoding S. is based on information theory (information may be denotative: factual and editional: connotative)

encoder → (literature)→ decoder

Stylostylistics or computational S. dates back to 1851, when disputes about the authensity of some of the writings of St.Paul arose. Nowadays the linguists use computers to establish the authorship and to interprete some texts...

3) S. is based on grammar, lex-gy, phonetics, but gr., lex-gy, phon-s study dif.aspects of the l-ge. S. takes the same material and investigates its fitness and expressiveness in dif. spheres of com-n.

Father - sire

- pater

- pop - lexicology

- dad - my old man

Functional Styles

1. General Classification. Register.

2. Scientific Style.

3. Business or Official Style.

4. Poetical Style.

5. Colloquial Styles.

6. The Problem of the Belle-Letre Style.

7. The L-ge of Lit-re.

1) A functional style – a system of interelated l.means peculiar to a specific sphere of com-n. There are specific features common for all styles:

1. Each FS is char-sed by specific l. means that are used exclusively and prodomenently for the given style.

2. But the basic l. material of any style is made up of l.means common to all styles, while only a smaller part of the l.means is stylistically coloured.

3. FS are constantly interacting, there are no rigid boderline b/w them.

In modern linguistics a new term and notion is often used instead of “FS” – “register”.

A register – is a variety of l. distinguished accord.to use, as – social variety of l.(Church E., Advertising l., the E.of Journalism, written instructions...). E.linguists state that every speaker has at his command a certain range of registers and almost uncontionasly changes his manner of speaking depending on the situation, interlocuter.

Ex.2) met that full John today. What’s his yoke back? (to his wife)

3) Do you remember John Jokes? I met him today and he said he would like his yoke back. I think he is optimistic, don’t you? (to collegues)

4) I met Mr Johns today, sir, who used to work here, if you remember? He asked me to enquire if his poast was still open and if there was any chance of his taking it up again. I said I would put the meesage on, sir (to his boss)

We can distinguish social, regional and occupational l.variations.

1. Regional l.variation of E.provides a geographical answer to the question “Where are you from?”

2. Social l.variation provides and answers to the question “Who are you?” and “What are you in the eyes of the E.-speaking society to which you belong?”. People may acquire several identities as they paticipate in the social str-re. One and the same person may belong to dif.social groups and perform dif.social roles. A person may be at a same time described as a parent, architect, citizen, thetre-goer and so on.

3. People in dif.professions developed jargon and prof.slang which set them apart from outsiders.

The highly distinguished l-s of law, government and religion have unique grammar and vocabulary.

All FS in modern E.may be divided into 2 classes: formal and informal.

Formal styles are used in public speech, in the adressing of one person to many (to the public). It may be a lecturer, an architect, a reporter. In formal speech the conditions of com-n are such, that there is no feedback (обр.связь). In this one-way com-n everything is well-thought, the voc-ry is exact and rich, the w-s are used in their literal m-ng. There are many terms.

Informal style is a char-c of a personal two-way everyday com-n.

A dialogue is assisted by gestures and voice. The listener may interrupt the speaker and ask for additional inf-n. There is constant feedback. That’s why the ling.forms are free, rich in emotions, concretisism and emphatism, in pronouns and generic terms.

2) The aim of scientific style is to prove a hypothesis, to formulate laws of existance, to introduce new concepts, to show the relations b/w phenomena. This S. is very logical and it appeals to the mind of the intellocuter. It’s also stereotyped and objective (impersonal).

Linguistic features:

1. Terminology – is a specific part of voc-ry, when the w-s give exact names to the things they denote, one name for one notion. They are never emotional.

2. Literary and bookish w-s. Multiplicity, heteroginious. Most w-s have abstract or generalized m-ng.

3. Set of phraseology, which is common to all branches of science: “to raise questions”, “the field of anquiery”, “all that may be safely claimed”.

4. Lexical suppletion is when a str-ly neutral noun of native origin is correlated with a borrowed relative adj. Such w-s as sun-solar, mind-mental, lip-labial.

5. The w-building means. The majority of affixes are borrowed from Greek, Latin and French (philological existance; pancronistic – free to all times)

6. The use of attributive nouns: anty-aircraft, fire-control system

7. Subordination over coordination

8. A peculiar use of conjunctions (compound conj-s): moreover, thereupon...

9. A wide use of Passive voice

10. A frequent use of Verbals (Inf...)

11. SS is char-sed by some regularities in the composition (Galperin – 3 s-ce patterns: postulatory, argumentative, formulative)

12. Exact figures (цифра), quatations, references, foot-notes.

3) BS shares many features of scientific S. It’s also exact and it’s governed by tratitions. The aim of the BS is to reach agreement b/w 2 contracting parties, to state conditions binding 2 parties in an undertaking (сделка).

The most prominant features of the BS:

1. Very long and complicated s-ces

2. Some traditional formulars of archaic or foreign origin: in wittness whereoff (в подтверждении чего), status quo

3. Abbriviations: MA – Master of Art...

4. Complicated syntax with many dependant and paranthetic clauses, verbal constructions

5. Complete enumeration

6. The use of figures, symbols: $ - dollar

7. A definite fixed compositional pattern of documents and business letters to make them impersonal, without a mark of individual authership.

8. Complete absence of emotionally coloured and syntectical expressive means (heteroginious).

4) PS may not be called a FS because it’s limited historically. PS is the style of the 18-19th c. poetry, but since the 19th c. it has fallen into disuse. Still there is a set of l.means which may be contrasted with all others, because having been traditionally used only in poetry, they have poetic connotations and call up poetic atmosphere, when used in other contexts.

Features of Grammar:

1. Pronouns “though”, “tha”, “thee”;

2. Poetic voc-ry:

- nouns: Albian - England, woe – sorrow,

- verbs: behold – see, to dwell - to leave,

- adverbs: ne – never, save – except

- adj-s: fair – beutiful

- conj-ns: ere – before

This lexical layer is recognized and marked in the dictionaries with the w-d “poet.”, but must be used with a great caution.


- to create poetic atmosphere

- to create humorous/ironic effect

5) CS include the following substyles: oratory (public speech), radio/TV commentaries, articles, essays, newspaper S.

The aim of the CS:

1. to give inf-n and to conviense, wether it’s the only correct one (it’s done by the logical argumentation)

2. to exact a constant and deep influence on public opinion (through emotional appeal)

The combination of the two dif.features brings it close to the style of scientific prose, on the one hand, and to the lit-re, on the other.

1. Scientific S: cohierant logical syntactical str-re, expanded system of connectives, careful paragraphing, many facts, figures, quotations and references.

2. Literary S.: connotative voc-ry, emphatic syntax, imagery.

The aim of the oratory S. is posvasion, it contains the combination of written and spoken variety of l. – standard pronunciation with variations of inf-n:

1. direct adress: “Ladies and gentlemen”, “Honorable members”

2. the use of the 2nd person pr-n “you”

3. contractions “I’ll”, “isn’t”, “you’re”

4. the use of colloquial voc-ry alongside elevative, bookish w-ds to rouse the audience and keep them in suspence.

The oratory uses stylistic devices:

  • parallel constructions often combined with repetitions, gradation, antithesis,

  • rhetorical questions,

  • simile, metaphor (traditional),

  • quotations, allusions

Essay – is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, esthetic or literary subjects (Priestly Clondike). It never goes deep into the subject and is char-zed by personal approach and the naturalness of expression. It presents a series of personal and witty comments.

The l.char-cs:

1. bravity of expression

2. 1st person sing. “I”

3. the expanded use of connectives

4. emotive voc-ry

5. similes and metaphors – sustained (развернут.) and original

6. paradoxes, epigraphs, aphorisms (epigraph – statement, which is very original and wetty)

Journalistic article is char-zed:

1. bookish and rare w-ds

2. neologisms

3. traditional w-d-combinations

4. complex syntax, including paranthesis and non-finats.

Newspaper S. dates back from the 17th c. It gives inf-n and evaluates the facts.

It includes:

1. brief news items

2. press reports/parliamentary, court

3. articles

4. advertisments and announcements

5. editorials

Main features:

  • special political and economic terms (gross-out-food, by elevation)

  • non-terminological political voc-ry (public, progressive opinion)

  • new paper cliches (vital issue, war histeria)

  • abbriviations (EEC – European Economic Community)

  • neologisms (splash-down – приводнение кораблей)

  • complex s-ces with the developed system of clauses

  • syntactical complexes with complex subjects

  • attributive noun-groups (income and expandative figures)

  • a special w-order (5 wh-questions: who, what, why, how, when)

Advertisments, Announcements and Editorials – elliptucal pattern, neutral and emotional voc-ry, plag on w-s, abbriviations, allusions.

Aim – to influense the reader by interpreting things. They appeal not only to the mind but to the feelings of the reader. They use emotionally coloured l. alongside political w-ds and even slang and profesionalisms.

Colloquial Styles are subdivided into: Literary CS and Familiar CS.

Literary CS is reserved, polite, spoken by educated people used in more or less formal situations.

It’s char-sed by:

1. polite convers-al forms (my pleasure, nice to see you)

2. the majority of w-ds are neutral

3. it doesn’t contain slang vulgurisms or dialectisms

4. contracted forms, ellipses (You know him)

5. synt-ly correct sent-ces, abbreviations, socially accepted (fridge, ice, CD)

6. prevelence of active and finate w-ds, verb-forms

7. extensive use of intensifiers and gap-fillers (so to speak, I mean, actually, etc)

8. the use of interjections (Why? Hey God!)

9. phasal verbs, verb/adv. combinations (to let smb down, to stand smb up)

10. idioms and set-phrases

Familiar CS is used in intimate convers-s; it’s expressive, emotional and is char-zed by:

1. the use of vulgar/semi-vulgar w-ds (“damn”, “lausy” – вшивый)

2. rich use of interjections (hi, cool, bab)

3. col-l way of calling people (chap, old man, duets, kid – чувак)

4. the use of demunitive suffixes (“sweety pie - )

5. tautology (our dean, he’s a wonderful person)

6. slang and low-col-l w-ds (crade-snatcher – старый ч-к, гоняющийся за девочками, to chew the fat – жевать жир, to play hockey – прогуливать уроки, to pull an all-nighter – учить всю ночь)

7. the use of onomotopoetic w-ds (oops, gum, wow, whosh, yoke)

8. the use of nonce-w-ds (hankie-powkie – обман, проделки; halter-scalter – суматоха, беспорядок; ockey-dockey – O’K)

9. casual or careless pronunciation (gonna, whatch, would ya)

Lex. Pecularities of CS:

1. the use of ready-made lex.formulars of everyday, usage in FC they’re emotional and categorical, in LC they’re polite (LC: “Right you are”. “I’m afraid you are wrong”

FC: “Sure”. “Hell know”. “No fucking way”)

2. the use of intensifiers, which are employed accord to dif.standards, norms of com-n (FC: stone dead, dead tired, dead slow, stuck mad; LC: mad, cool, wrong, you’re dead)

3. the use of emotional w-ds

4. the use of empty w-ds

5. the use of some w-ds in dif.m-ngs, which may not possess (“some” in the m-ng of “good”: some game = good game)

6. tautological substitution of names and personal pr-ns by other names (Johny-boy, you-baby)

Gram.features of CS:

1. ellipsis – the norm of CS

2. exclamatory, interrogative, abrobed, disconnected s-ces

3. asyndeton

4. pr-ns, which are employed dif-ly (“me” instead of “he”, “I” instead of “me”)

5. echo-questions, rhetorative responces

FORMAL: scientific (exact scientific, ...), poetic, business (military, commercial, legal, diplomatic), public, oratory; INFORMAL: literary col-l, familiar col-l

6) The problem of Literary S. is one of the mood problems in the theory of FS. Some scientists don’t consider it equire to the other FS, they say that it’s a cat-ry of dif.level. The reasons for such point of view:

- l. is the reflection of other life (a mirror of our life), it reduces our life with its dif.styles and types of speech, both written and oral/formal and informal.

- every writer has his own manner of writing, every trand and gganre has its own pecularities; its too complicated to be a unified style.

This point of view is supported by St.Petersburg scholars (Arnold, petrovskii and others). Some Moscow scientists (Juri Stepanov) and other linguists consider it of equal importance with other FS and is regarded as one of the formal S. (Galperin and others).

Galperin speaks about the following types of LS:

  • emotive prose

  • drama

  • poetry

7) The L-ge of Lit-re

Many Eng.and Rus.scientists solve the problem of B-L S. by opposing of the l-ge of lit-re to the l-ge of non-lit-re: Lit :: non-lit

The l-ge of non-lit-re includes all the uses of the l-ge: oral and written outside the lit-re in our life.

Lit-re includes elements of all FS and subjects them to the estnatic function.

The distinctive features of the l-ge of lit-re:

1. the use of l.in non-lit-re has become atomotized, while in lit-re it becomes detualized or forgrounded, the opposition here b/w habitualization :: defamiliarization (familiarization)

By automatization (habit-n) we mean such a use of l., when the expression itself doesn’t attract attention. By forgrounding (defam-n) we mean the use of l. in such a way, that the use itself attracts attention and is perceived as uncommon, unusual, deautomatized, forgrounded.

Forgrounding – is the term translated by garvin from the Check term “актуализация”, used by the Prague school ling-ts. It means a figure against the background. In fact the notion of F. derives in the first place from the work of the Rus.formalist – notably Wirtok Shklovski (Шкловский) for whom the main function of art was to see the world in a new way through fam-n or ..... . If experience is habitual, perception becomes automatic.

Habitualization – is stateness (стабильность) of thought and l., lit-re employes uses of l., which dif-ze experience restoring freshness and aloteness.

Tomoshevski wrote “the old’s familiar must be spoken of as if it were new and unusual”. Mayakovski was fond of forgr-g: “раздувать из мухи слона и продавать слоновые кости”, “нервы расходились”.

2. So, lit-re brings new significants to things usual, ordinary, accepted as automatic background. The present life phenomena is a new light, to give a new and unexpected image of the familiar obj. Lit-re shows likeness in disimilar obj. and brings out contrast in objects simingly similar.

Ex. The train gasped and moaned to the stop.

Broken neck, broken hearts, broken lines and all because they won’t learn any l. but

broken l.

3. Things which are not equivalent in life are made equivalent in lit-re. Lit-re breakes many of the restrictions of the rules of the l. The elements incompatable in l. are brought together.

Ex. All the seen long; he’s hungry ribs and shoulders.

Мостовая стлалась все булыжней (Цветаева)

Мясомясая быкомордая орава (Маяковский)

4. There’re many convensions of lit-re. They’re so called “rules of laws of the game”.

5. Lit-re is char-zed by integrity. It’s highly organized and finished. The effect of literary work is determined by the sinthesis of all the elements into the whole.

The Stylistic Properties of the Eng.Voc-ry

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