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Теорграмматика / Блох М.Я. Семенова Т.Н. Тимофеева С.В. - Theoretical English Grammar. Seminars. Практикум по теоретической грамматике английского языка - 2010

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458

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

relative generali-

relative degree of abstraction, working on

abstraction

zation

the level of broad or general concepts

 

 

Cf: absolute generalization

 

 

 

 

relevant

pertinent, applicable, bearing on the issue

 

 

in question

 

 

 

 

"repetition" plural

a specific plural form of the noun which

 

acquires a pronounced stylistic marking

 

 

due to the repetition of the noun in the

 

 

singular, e.g.: He smoked cigarette after

 

 

cigarette.

 

 

 

 

replacive mor-

a morpheme built up on the basis of root

 

pheme

(or vowel) interchange; usually a root

 

 

vowel that replaces another in a categori-al

 

 

form, e.g.: sing - sang

 

 

Cf: additive morpheme

 

 

 

 

representamen

the type to which a coding convention

 

 

assigns a certain content by means of

 

 

certain interpretants; type-expressions

 

 

conventionally correlated to a type-content

 

 

by a given culture, irrespective of the fact

 

 

that they can be used in order to

 

 

communicate effectively something to

 

 

somebody (Ch.S. Peirce)

 

 

Cf.: interpretant, sign

 

 

 

 

Result (as a

entity that emerges due to some action,

Factitive (Ch.

semantic role)

e.g.: She has written a letter.

Fillmore)

 

 

 

retrospective

establishing relation between the given

 

coordination

action and some prior action or moment

 

 

 

 

root

the element left after all affixes have been

 

 

removed from a complex word, carrying

 

 

the basic lexical meaning of the word

 

 

Cf.: nucleus, stem, affix

 

 

 

 

secondary

predication expressed by potentially

potential pre-

predication

predicative complexes with non-finite

dication, in-

 

forms of the verb and verbal nouns

complete/par-

 

Cf.: primary predication

tial predica-

 

 

tion, implicit

 

 

predication,

 

 

semi-predica-

 

 

tion

 

 

 

 

 

 

459

 

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

I

Equivalent terms

segmental

a morpheme made up by phonemes

 

 

morpheme

Cf.: suprasegmental morpheme

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

semantic feature

(in componential analysis) an elementary

 

 

 

component of meaning. Their aggrega-

 

 

 

tion makes up the integral meaning of a

 

 

 

language unit

 

 

 

 

 

 

semantics

the study of meaning of words and

 

 

 

sentences, their denotations, connota-

 

 

 

tions, implications, and ambiguities

 

 

 

 

 

 

semes

meanings differentiated by the opposition

 

semantic

of signemic units

 

feature

 

 

sememe

a generalized element of meaning

 

lexico-seman-

 

tic variant

 

 

 

semi-notional

words which have a complete nominative

 

 

words

meaning but fulfil syntactic functions

 

 

 

typical of functional words. Cf. : notional

 

 

 

words, functional words

 

 

 

 

 

 

semi-predicative

a construction made up by a non-finite

 

potentially

construction

form of the verb and a substantive

 

predicative

 

element denoting the subject or object of

 

construction,

 

the action expressed by the non-finite

 

propositional

 

form of the verb Cf. : fully predicative

 

construction

 

construction

 

 

 

 

 

 

semi-proper

proper nouns with mixed, identifying and

 

semi-names

nouns

typifying, meanings

 

 

 

 

 

 

sense

1. = meaning; 2. paradigmatic (intensional)

 

 

 

 

meaning. Cf: reference; 3. actual meaning

 

 

of a language unit;

 

 

 

4. a submeaning, e.g: various senses of the

 

 

 

word "mark"

 

 

 

 

 

 

sign

a material designator of a meaning, a con-

 

 

 

crete token element used in the concrete

 

 

 

process of communication and reference.

 

 

 

Cf: symbol, icon, index, representamen,

 

 

 

interpretant

 

 

 

 

 

 

30*

460

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

sineme

a unit of language having a semantic con-

 

 

tent, e.g.: morpheme, word (M. Blokh) Cf.:

 

 

cor t erne

 

 

 

 

significative

suggestive of a meaning

 

 

 

 

signifie

meaning

 

 

 

 

Singularia

nouns having only the singular form

absolute sin-

Tantum nouns

Cf.: Pluralia Tantum nouns

gular nouns

 

 

 

 

 

Source (as a

smth. which gives rise/origin to another

 

semantic role)

entity, cause of some action, e.g.: He sells

 

 

books.

 

 

 

 

stem

a term in grammar and word-formation for

 

 

a root plus the element that fits it into the

 

 

flow of speech

 

 

Cf.: root, nucleus, affix

 

 

 

 

structure

1 . the set of relations between

 

 

the elements of a system;

 

 

2. construction

 

 

 

 

stylization

the function of a dicteme which consists in

 

 

referring it to a particular style (M. Blokh)

 

 

 

 

subjunct

a tertiary word in a junction

 

 

(O. Jespersen)

 

 

Cf.: adjunct (2)

 

 

 

 

substance

1 . the essence or material part;

 

 

2. the essence which underlies all phenom-

 

 

ena;

 

 

3. that which is real;

 

 

4. that which has qualities and character-

 

 

istics

 

 

 

 

substantive

a noun

 

suffix

an affix added at the end of a word, base,

 

 

or root to form a new word or form of the

 

 

word

 

 

Cf.: prefix, infix, root

 

 

 

 

supplement

a non-obligatory adjunct

optional

 

Cf.: complement

adjunct

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary of Linguistic Terms

 

461

 

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

j

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

suppletivity

the formation of word-forms from different

 

 

roots Cf.: affixation, inner inflection, outer

 

 

inflection

 

 

 

 

 

 

suprasegmental

an element accompanying the realization of

 

 

unit

utterances and expressing different modifica-

 

 

 

tional meanings, such as accent, intonation

 

 

 

contours, pauses, patterns of word-order Cf.:

 

 

segmental unit/morpheme

 

 

 

 

 

 

surface structure

the resultant syntactic construction

 

 

 

derived through transformations of the

 

 

 

deep structure Cf.: deep structure

 

 

 

 

 

 

symbol

1. smth. that represents smth. else, smth.

 

 

 

concrete or material used to represent

 

 

 

smth., abstract or non-material; 2. the

 

 

 

most arbitrary kind of sign: the word in

 

 

 

language, the rose representing love in

 

 

 

literature, etc. (Ch.S. Peirce)

 

 

 

Cf.: icon, index, sign

 

 

 

 

 

 

synchronic

referring to a certain stage in the develop-

 

 

 

ment of a phenomenon; coexistent

 

 

 

Cf.: diachronic

 

 

 

 

 

 

syntagma

a word-group consisting of two or more

 

word combi-

(syntactic)

notional elements

 

nation, phrase

 

 

 

 

syntagmatic

connected on a linear basis

 

 

 

Cf.: paradigmatic

 

 

 

 

 

system

a structured set of elements connected by a

 

 

common function

 

 

topic

something about which something is said

 

 

 

(predicated) Cf.: comment

 

 

 

 

 

 

topicalization

1 . process whereby knowledge of certain

 

 

 

things/individuals is "foregrounded", i.e.

 

 

 

taken from long-term memory stores to

 

 

 

some working memory, in which the

 

 

 

established information may be combined

 

 

with the incoming new information (T.A.

 

 

van Dijk);

 

 

 

 

 

 

: PRESSI ( HERSON )

462

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

 

2. the formation of the informative

thematization

 

content of text (M. Blokh)

 

 

 

 

transformation

transition from one syntactic pattern to

 

 

another syntactic pattern with the

 

 

preservation of its notional parts

 

 

 

 

Transformational-

a type of generative grammar, first intro-

 

Generative

duced by N. Chomsky ("Three Models for

 

Grammar

the Description of Language", 1956). It

 

 

holds that some rules are transformational,

 

 

i.e. they change one structure into another

 

 

according to such prescribed conventions as

 

 

moving, inserting, deleting, and replacing

 

 

items. It stipulates two levels of syntactic

 

 

structure: deep structure (an abstract

 

 

underlying structure that incorporates all the

 

 

syntactic information required for the

 

 

interpretation of a given sentence) and

 

 

surface structure (a structure that incorpo-

 

 

rates all the syntactic features of a sentence

 

 

required to convert the sentence into a

 

 

spoken or written version)

 

 

 

 

transitivity

the ability of a verb to take a direct

 

 

object

 

 

Cf.: objectivity

 

 

 

 

transposition

the use of a language element in the

 

 

contextual conditions typical of its •

 

 

oppositional counter-member by which it

 

 

fulfils two functions simultaneously Cf.:

 

 

neutralization

 

 

 

 

unit

a constituent of a system

element

 

 

 

utterance acts

uttering words and sentences (J.R. Searle)

 

valency

the ability of a language unit to take an

 

 

adjunct, potential combinability of a

 

 

language unit

 

 

 

 

verbal

a non-finite form of the verb

verbid

 

Cf.: finite verb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary of Pragmalinguistic Terms

Entry

Definition

 

 

alerter

an opening element preceding the actual request (i.e., term of

 

address, attention getter, endearment term, offensive term,

 

etc.)

 

 

appealer

an element used by a speaker when he wishes to appeal to

 

the hearer's benevolent understanding. It functions to elicit a

 

hearer's signal, and occurs in a syntactically final position,

 

and may signal turn-availability (e.g.: Will you? O'key?

 

Aren't we?)

 

 

beneficiary

the one who benefits from the performing of the act re-

 

quired by the speaker

 

 

cajoler

conventionalized speech item whose semantic content is of

 

little transparent relevance to the discourse meaning. It

 

commonly doesn't enter into syntactical structures, but is

 

interspersed to increase, establish, or restore harmony be-

 

tween interlocutors, which may be endangered through the

 

request, etc. (e.g.: You know,...)

 

 

coerciveness

imperative force

 

 

cognitive load

(= locution, proposition) the literal content of a sentence,

 

the situation denoted

 

 

commitment

an upgrader serving to indicate the speaker's heightened

indicator

degree of commitment (involvement) vis-a-vis the state of

 

affairs referred to in the proposition (e.g.: I'm sure, cer-

 

tainly, etc.)

 

 

communicative

an ability to employ speech acts to achieve the desired com-

competence

municative end

 

 

communicative risk

a potential breakdown in communication, a failure to

 

achieve the desired communicative result

 

 

conventionality

thesis formulated by J. Searle, according to which certain

thesis

forms tend to become conventionally established as the

 

standard idiomatic forms for indirect speech acts

 

 

cultural transposi-

transfer of native speech categories to the target language

tion

 

 

 

directness

the degree to which the speaker's illocutionary intent is

 

apparent from the locution. In this sense it is a pragmalin-

 

guistic category which leads itself to psycholinguistic vali-

 

dation. It is related, but by no means coexistive, with po-

 

liteness

 

 

464

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

Entry

Definition

 

 

downtoner

a sententional or prepositional modifier which is used by a

 

speaker in order to modulate the impact his speech act is

 

likely to have on the hearer (e.g.: possibly, perhaps)

 

 

hedge

an internal modifier used by the speaker to avoid a precise

 

prepositional specification and, consequently, the potential

 

provocation of such precision (e.g.: somehow, kind (sort)

 

of)

 

 

illocutionary point

the purpose of communication, or of a particular speech

 

act; the speaker's intent = illocutionary intent

 

 

indirectness

an intended exploitation of a gap between the speaker's

 

meaning and the utterance's meaning: the hearer identifies

 

an utterance as a hint. As a result of this belief he assigns

 

the speaker some hidden intention

 

 

intensifler

an upgrader used to intensify elements of the proposition

 

(e.g.: a terrible/frightful man )

 

 

interactional style

a method (or a complex of methods) employed by the

 

speaker to achieve a particular illocutionary point and char-

 

acterizing him this or that way

 

 

interactive con-

fundamental concerns influencing the choice of strategies in

straints

a message. They are:

 

1. appropriateness: "be polite"; 2. efficiency

 

(effectiveness): "be clear, direct"; 3. concern for

 

minimizing imposition; 4. concern for avoiding negative

 

evaluation by the hearer;

 

5. likelihood of use (of a strategy within a specific request

 

situation)

 

 

internal modifiers

elements within the utterance proper, the presence of which

 

is not essential for the utterance to be potentially under-

 

stood as, for example, a request. They serve as indicating

 

devices used to signal pragmatic force, and as socio-prag-

 

matic devices meant to affect the social impact the utter-

 

ance is likely to have (downgraders and upgraders)

 

 

interpersonal end

the purpose of maintaining relationship between the speaker

 

and the hearer

 

 

locution

aspect of an utterance which consists in its cognitive load

 

 

Glossary of Pragmalinguistic Terms

465

 

 

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

locution derivable

(= obligation statement) the illocutionary intent which is

 

 

directly derivable from the semantics of the locution

 

 

 

 

 

locutionary force

the act of speaking, the form and content of the utterance

 

 

 

 

negative politeness

(=deference politeness, concern for minimizing imposition)

 

 

the degree to which an utterance avoids imposing on the

 

 

hearer's freedom of actions; means of protecting the hear-

 

 

er's negative face

 

 

 

 

 

performative

a verb that characterizes the relationship between the speaker

 

 

and the addressee explicating the illocutionary force of the

 

 

utterance

 

 

 

 

 

performative

a structure that involves the speaker's attempts to get the

 

structure

hearer to perform some action by virtue of the hearer hav-

 

 

ing recognized that such an attempt is being made

 

 

 

 

 

 

perlocutionary

the effect of the utterance on the addressee

 

 

force

 

 

 

 

 

 

politeness marker

an internal modifier added to a request to bid for cooper-

 

 

ative behaviour (e.g.: you know, please, etc.)

 

 

 

 

 

politeness theory

pragmatic theory formulated by G. Leech, according to

 

 

which the speaker may be willing to save the hearer's face

 

 

by means of a polite and tactful behaviour in a context of a

 

 

face-threatening request

 

 

 

 

 

pragmatic error/

failure to convey or comprehend the intended illocutionary

 

deficit

force or politeness value

 

 

 

 

 

pragmatic opacity

(= indirectness) lack of transparency specifically and in-

 

 

tentionally employed by the speaker to convey a meaning

 

 

which differs, in some way, from the utterance meaning

 

 

 

 

pragmatic transfer

transfer of native procedures and lingual means of speech

 

 

act performance to interlanguage communication

 

 

 

 

 

Principle of

"make your conversational contribution such as required,

 

cooperation

at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or

 

 

direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged"

 

 

(Grice)

 

 

 

 

 

 

- of manner

"be clear, brief, avoid obscurity" (Grice)

 

 

 

 

 

 

- of quality

"speak only the truth" (Grice)

 

 

 

 

 

 

- of relevance

"speak to the point" (Grice)

 

 

 

 

 

 

- of politeness

"save the addressee's face, be polite" (Grice)

 

 

 

 

 

: PRESSI ( HERSON )

466

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

Entry

Definition

 

 

- of effective means

(= rationality principle) "Given a desired end, one is to

 

choose that action which most effectively, and at least cost,

 

attains that end" (Kosher)

 

 

prepositional

the cognitive content of an utterance (= locution); one of

content

the components, alongside of the pragmatic component,

 

of the semantics of an utterance

 

 

sentence meaning

standard interpretation assigned by a particular lingual

 

structure only

 

 

sociopragmatics

sociological interface of pragmatics that studies the ways

 

in which pragmatic performance is subjected to specific

 

social conditions

 

 

sociopragmatic

a factor determining the specific character of communica-

factor

tion: age, sex, relative status of the interlocutors, situational

 

constraints, degree of familiarity, etc.

 

 

sociopragmatic

the error learners commit when they assess the relevant

failure

situational factors as the basis of their native socioprag-

 

matic norms

 

 

speech act

a form of interpersonal communication which is distin-

 

guished by a specific communicative intention of the speaker

 

and its own linguistic markers

 

 

subjectivizers

elements by which the speaker explicitly expresses his sub-

 

jective opinion vis-a-vis the state of affairs referred to in

 

the proposition, thus lowering the assertiveness of the re-

 

quest (e.g.: I'm afraid, I wonder, I think)

 

 

supportive move

a unit external to the request which modifies its impact by

 

either aggravating or mitigating its force

 

 

understater

an internal modifier by means of which the speaker under-

 

represents the state of affairs denoted in the proposition (a

 

bit, a little)

 

 

upgrader

an element which functions to increase the impact of a re-

 

quest: intensifier, commitment indicator, expletive, time

 

intensifier, lexical uptoner, determination marker, repeti-

 

tion of request, orthographical (supersegmental) emphasis,

 

emphatic addition

 

 

utterance meaning

meaning rendered in a specific context by having the hearer

 

recognize the intention of the speaker

 

 

want statement

a statement which contains the expression of the speaker's

 

volition, desire

 

 

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