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Теорграмматика / Блох М.Я. Семенова Т.Н. Тимофеева С.В. - Theoretical English Grammar. Seminars. Практикум по теоретической грамматике английского языка - 2010

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. is a real

438

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

7."Is a chicken big enough to eat when it's 2 weeks old?" "Of course, not!"

"Then how does it manage to live?"

8."Have you ever seen a man-eating tiger?" "No, but I've seen a man eating herring."

9."In this place you can eat dirt-cheap." "But who wants to eat dirt?"

10."I love you still," said the quiet husband to the chattering wife.

II. Fill in the blanks with the proper substitutes chosen from the given string:

"I'd like to see an overcoat," said a customer.

"Why, certainly," the salesman replied. "We've got a lot of fine ______ . What_______ would you like?"

"The warm _______ ."

The salesman took a ______ from a hanger and said: "Just feel the fabric. Try_______ on. You have never worn ________like________ in all your life."

The customer got into the coat. ____

was much too large. He took

_______ off and handed ____

_

 

back to the salesman.

coat saying: "See how this

The salesman handed him fits."

 

The man put the coat on.

. was a fair fit.

"There's your _______," the salesman said. "How much?" asked the customer.

"Thirty-nine seventy-five," the salesman said. "And .

________ „ „„»„. t mvi ________ is a icai

buy. You can see for yourself. You go right ahead and see if you can find

______ overcoat like ________in town."

ones, it, that, another, coat, kind, one, anything.

III. Use the appropriate form of the verb opening the brackets:

A Night in the Inn

(after Ch. Dickens)

When the dinner (to clear away) Mr. Pickwick (to conduct) through a multitude of windings and stairs to his room.

"This is your room, Sir," said the maid and (to bid) Mr. Pickwick good night left him alone.

Test 11. Revision Tasks

439

Mr. Pickwick began to undress, when he recollected that he (to leave) his watch on the table downstairs. Now this watch was a special favourite with Mr. Pickwick, (to carry) about for a great number of years. The possibility (to go) to sleep unless it (to tick) under his pillow (to enter) Mr. Pickwick's brain. So as it was pretty late, and he was unwilling to ring the bell at that hour of the night, he put on his coat and walked quietly downstairs.

The more stairs Mr. Pickwick went down the more there (to seem, to be, to descend). Passage after passage did he explore; room after room (to peep) into. At last, just as he was on the point of (to give up) the search in despair he opened the door of a room and seeing his missing property on the table seized it in triumph.

If his progress downstairs (to be) difficult, his journey back was far more perplexing. A dozen times did he softly turn the handle of some bedroom door, which resembled his own, when a cry from within of "What do you want here?" caused him to steal away on tiptoe. He was on the verge of despair, when an open door (to attract) his attention. He peeped in - right at last. There were the two beds, which he perfectly (to remember), and the fire still (to burn) in the grate.

Carefully (to draw) the curtains of his bed Mr. Pickwick took off his coat and waistcoat and slowly (to draw) on his nightcap tied the strings under his chin. He was about to continue the process of undressing when he suddenly (to stop) by a most unexpected interruption, the entrance into the room of some person with a candle.

Who could it be? A robber? Some person who (to see) him (to come) upstairs, with a watch in his hand, perhaps. What was he to do?

(To keep) the curtains carefully closed with his hand so that nothing more of him could (to see) than his face and nightcap and (to put) on his spectacles, he looked out.

Mr. Pickwick almost fainted with horror. (To stand) before the look- ing-glass, was a middle-aged lady (to brush) her hair.

"I never met with anything so awful as this," thought poor Mr. Pickwick. "By the self-possession of that lady, it's clear to me that I must (to come) into the wrong room."

He hid behind the curtains and called out very loudly. "Ha-hum."

"What's that!" said the middle-aged lady.

"It's - it's - only a gentleman, Ma'am," said Mr. Pickwick from behind the curtains.

"A gentleman!" cried the lady.

"Ma'am," said Mr. Pickwick, (to thrust) out his head. "Ma'am!" -

J

440

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

The lady was already near the door but the sudden appearance of Mr. Pickwick's night-cap (to drive) her into the remotest corner of the room where she (to stand, to stare) wildly at Mr. Pickwick, while Mr. Pickwick in his turn, stared wildly at her.

"What do you want here?" said the lady (to cover) her eyes with her hand. "Nothing, Ma'am - nothing whatever," said Mr. Pickwick earnestly. "It

is evident to me, Ma'am, now, that I (to mistake) this bedroom for my own." "If this improbable story (to be) true, Sir," said the lady, "you (to leave)

it instantly."

"I will, Ma'am, with the greatest pleasure," replied Mr. Pickwick. "I am very sorry, Ma'am, (to be) the innocent occasion of this alarm and emotion."

The lady pointed to the door.

"I am deeply sorry, Ma'am," continued Mr. Pickwick (to bow) very low. "If you (to be), Sir, you at once (to leave) the room," said the lady. "Immediately, Ma'am; this instant, Ma'am," said Mr. Pickwick, (to

open) the door and (to drop) both his shoes with a loud crash.

"I trust, Ma'am," resumed Mr. Pickwick, (to gather up) his shoes, and (to turn round) (to bow) again. "I trust, Ma'am," but before Mr. Pickwick could finish the sentence, the lady (to thrust) him into the passage and (to lock) the door behind him.

IV. To maintain the atmosphere of growing fear culminating with uncontrollable terror, the given extract creates, complete the unfinished sentences so as to express either hypothesis or supposition. Account for the choice of the forms used.

The Accursed House

(after E. Gaboriau)

The Vicomte de B. was peacefully enjoying an income of 30,000 livres yearly, when unfortunately for him, his uncle died, leaving him all his wealth. But for his uncle's death, he ... (to go in for business).

The Vicomte learned that he was the owner of a house in the Rue de la Victoire. He learned also, that the building, bought for 300,000 francs, now brought in 82,000 francs a year.

"Too much, too much," thought the generous Vicomte. "My uncle was too hard. I will begin to lower my rents and my tenants will bless me."

With this excellent purpose the Vicomte sent at once for the concierge of the building.

"Bernard, my friend," said the Vicomte, "go at once and notify all your tenants that I lower their rents by one-third."

That unheard-of word "lower" fell like a brick on Bernard's head. But he quickly recovered himself; he had heard badly: he had not understood.

Test 11. Revision Tasks

441

"Low ... er the rents!" said he. "Monsieur de Vicomte likes to joke. Monsieur, of course, means to raise the rents? If the lodgers ... (to learn of it), what ... (to think of Monsieur)? What people ... (to say in the neighbourhood)?"

"I was never more serious in my life, my friend," the Vicomte interrupted, "and I prefer, when I give an order, to be obeyed without reply. You hear me - go!"

Staggering as if he ... (to be a drunken man), Bernard went out of the house. All his ideas were upset, overthrown. Maybe he was the plaything of a dream, a ridiculous nightmare? Was he himself or something else? "Lower the rents!" repeated he. "It is not to be believed. If indeed the lodgers ...

(to complain); on the contrary, they are all good payers. Ah, if his uncle ...

(only to know), he ... (to rise from the tomb)! His nephew behaves as if he

... (to go mad)! This young man will finish badly! Who knows - after this - what he will do next? He lunched too well, perhaps, this morning." And Bernard was so pale and excited with emotion, that on seeing him enter, his wife exclaimed "Goodness! What has happened to you now?" "Absolutely nothing," said he.

"You're deceiving me, you are concealing something from me," said Madame Bernard. "Don't spare me; speak; I am strong - what did the new owner tell you? Does he think of turning us out?"

"If it... (to be) only that! But just think, he ordered me to notify all the tenants that - he lowered their rents by one-third!" She too was thunderstruck.

Next morning, Bernard, putting on his best coat, made the rounds of the 23 flats to announce his great news. Ten minutes later the house was in a commotion impossible to describe. "Why had the owner lowered his rents? What motives has this strange man?" they all wondered. For, certainly, he

... (to have grave reasons) for a step like this! An intelligent man, a man of good sense, ... (to never deprive himself) of good revenues for the simple pleasure of depriving himself. One ... (not to conduct himself) thus without being forced to by powerful or terrible circumstances. And each said to himself: "There is something behind all this! But what?"

Every tenant looked as if he ... (to try to solve) an impossible cipher. "This man ... (to commit a crime); remorse pushes him to philanthropy,"

thought one of them. "The house, perhaps, was badly built?" questioned another anxiously. "Maybe it was the roof?" suggested a tenant on the fifth floor and the gentleman on the first floor was inclined to believe that the owner intended to set fire to the house with the sole object of getting great sums from the insurance companies. From disquietude it had come to fright; from fright it quickly passed to terror. So, that the gentleman of the first floor 29-3548

: PRESSI ( HERSON )

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Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

who had valuables in his rooms, made up his mind to go, and sent in notice by his clerk. Next day a tenant of the second floor imitated the gentleman beneath him. From that moment it was a general rout. By the end of the week, everybody had given notice. Everyone awaited some terrible catastrophe. They slept no more. They organized patrols. Bernard was no more than the ghost of himself; fear had turned him into a shadow. Meanwhile 23 "To let" placards appeared on the facade of the house.

Soon everybody left. From top to bottom, from foundations to garret, the house was empty of lodgers. The rats, themselves, finding nothing to live on, left it also. Only the concierge remained, grey-green with fear, in his room. At last, one morning, after a terrible nightmare, Bernard, too, took a great resolution. He went to the owner, gave up his keys and went away.

And now on the Rue de la Victoire stands the abandoned house "The Accursed House." Dust thickens upon the closed doors and windows, grass grows in the court. And in the quarter, where stands the Accursed House, so funereal is its reputation, that even the neighbouring houses on either side of it have also depreciated in value. Lower one's rent! Who ... (to think of such a thing)?!!

V. Comment upon the grammatical features of the forms ending in "-ing".

Tit for Tat

An American lady, travelling in England some years ago, got into a smoking compartment where an Englishman was smoking a pipe. For a short time she sat quietly expecting the Englishman would stop smoking. Then she began to cough and sneeze, trying to show him that she objected to his smoking. At last seeing that the man took no notice of her and did not put out his pipe she said:

"If you were a gentleman you would stop smoking when a lady got into the carriage."

"If you were a lady," replied the Englishman, "you wouldn't get into a smoking-carriage."

"If you were my husband," said the American lady angrily, "I would give you poison." The Englishman looked at her for a moment or two. "Well," he said at last, "if I were your husband, I wouldn't refrain from taking it."

VI. Fill in the blank spaces with appropriate words which constitute the lexi cal paradigm of nomination based on the stems "agree" and "disagree".

-Jim thinks that Betty is a ... person.

-Why?

Test 11. Revision Tasks

443

-Because she never ... with him. Whatever he suggests she is all against it, he says.

-Perhaps Jim's idea of an ... person is a person who ... with him.

"A gentleman is a man who can ... without being

VII. Group the italicized nouns according to their numerical differential properties.

At Bertram's Hotel

It just is old England! And the people who stay there! People you'd never come across anywhere else. Wonderful old Duchesses. They serve all the old English dishes, there's a marvelous old-fashioned beef-steak puddingl You've never tasted anything like it; and great sirloins of beef and saddles of mutton, and an old-fashioned English tea and a wonderful English breakfast. And of course all the usual things as well. And it's wonderfully comfortable. And warm. Great long fires.

"I suppose," said Luscombe, "that the restoration was quite expensive?" "Oh, yes. The place has got to look Edwardian, but it's got to have the modern comforts that we take for granted in these days. Our old dears - if you will forgive me referring to them as that - have got to feel that nothing has changed since the turn of the century, and our travelling clients have got to feel they can have period surroundings, still have what they are used

to having at home, and can't really live without!" "Bit difficult sometimes?" suggested Luscombe.

"Not really. Take central heating for instance. Americans require - need, I should say - at least ten degrees Fahrenheit higher than English people do. We actually have two quite different sets of bedrooms. The English we put in one lot, the Americans in the other. The rooms all look alike, but they are full of actual differences - electric razors, and showers as well as tubs in some of the bathrooms, and if you want an American breakfast, it's there - cereals and iced orange juice and all - or if you prefer you can have the English breakfast."

"Eggs and baconT'

"As you say - but a good deal more than that if you want it. Kippers, kidneys and bacon, cold grouse, York ham, Oxford marmalade."

"I must remember all that tomorrow morning. Don't get that sort of thing any more at home."

Humfries smiled.

"Most gentlemen only ask for eggs and bacon. They've - well, they've got out of way of thinking about the thing there used to be." 29*

444

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

VIII. In response to the husband's remark build up a sentence making use of the following phrases:

"Why do you feed every tramp who comes along? They never do any work for you," said the husband angrily. "No," said the wife, "but..."

1) to be a satisfaction;

2) to see a man;

3) to eat

a meal;

 

 

4) to find faults with the cooking.

IX. Build up a stimulating remark with seven predicative centres making use of the following language units:

"I ...," explained a lady to an applicant for a post in the household. "You are looking for a husband, ma'am, not for a servant!" said the seeker for work.

1)

to want a man;

5)

to be always ready;

2)

to do odd jobs around the house;

6)

to do;

3)

to run errands;

7)

to bid.

4)

to never answer back;

 

 

Glossary of Linguistic Terms

5)

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

absolute generali-

the highest degree of generalization

absolute

zation

working on the level of notions

abstraction

 

Cf.: relative generalization

 

 

 

 

Actant

semantic entities representing participants

semantic role

 

in a situation defined by their abstract

 

 

semantic function - the function of Agent,

 

 

Patient, Experiencer, Beneficient,

 

 

Instrument, etc. (L. Tesniere, A. Greimas)

 

 

 

 

to actualize

to realize, to embody; to make a language

 

 

element part of evolving speech

 

 

 

 

adjunct

1. a qualifying word, phase, etc., depending

a dependent

 

on a particular member of a sentence;

unit

 

2. a secondary word in a junction (O.

 

 

Jespersen)

 

 

Cf. : subjunct

 

 

 

 

adnex

a secondary word in a nexus

 

 

(O. Jespersen)

 

 

 

 

Agent (as a

the person or other being that instigates

 

semantic role)

the happening denoted by the verb, e.g.:

 

 

Jenny has written me a letter.

 

 

 

 

allomorph

a concrete manifestation of a morpheme, a

 

 

variant, an alternative of a morpheme

 

 

 

 

allo-term

a variant language unit actualized in a

 

 

concrete speech string

 

 

Cf.: erne-term

 

 

 

 

aspective gram-

differential grammatical meanings describing

categorial

matical meanings

the inner character of the verbal process in

aspective

 

terms of its beginning, duration, iteration,

meanings

 

termination, intermination, or its

 

 

instantaneous, supercompleted, undercom-

 

 

pleted character, etc.

 

 

 

 

aspective seman-

semantics describing the inner character-

 

tics

istics of the verbal process; it can be

 

 

expressed lexically or grammatically

 

 

 

 

Beneficent (as a

a person or other being for whose sake an

 

semantic role)

action is performed

 

 

 

 

: PRESSI ( HERSON )

446

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

binding

syntactical relationship of clauses of

 

 

different ranks (of an independent and a

 

 

dependent clause) Cf.: linking

 

 

 

 

bound morpheme

a morpheme that cannot form a word by

 

 

itself Cf. : a free morpheme

 

 

 

 

case

a nounal category showing the relation of

 

 

the referent to some other referent

 

 

 

 

cleft sentence

a construction in which a simple sentence

 

 

is divided into two clauses so as to give

 

 

prominence to a particular language unit

 

 

and the information it carries, e.g.: // was

 

 

the players who/that objected to the delay.

 

 

 

 

collocation

a habitual association between particular

 

 

words, such as "to" with "fro", the uses of

 

 

"to" after "answer" and before "me" in

 

 

"You'll answer to me!"

 

 

 

 

comment

something said about (predicated of) the

focus

 

topic

 

 

Cf: topic

 

 

 

 

common gender

nouns able to actualize either masculine

 

nouns

or feminine gender properties of the

 

 

referent depending on the context

 

 

 

 

complement

an obligatory dependent language unit

 

 

Cf: supplement

 

 

 

 

complementary

relation of formally different morphs

 

distribution

having the same function in different

 

 

environments, e.g.: cows - oxen

 

 

Cf: contrastive distribution, non-contras-

 

 

tive distribution

 

 

 

 

complementive

a verb taking an obligatory adjunct, a

 

verb

verb having an obligatory valency Cf:

 

 

uncomplementive verbs

 

 

 

 

componential

an approach which makes use of semantic

compositional

analysis

components. It seeks to deal with sense

analysis

 

relations by means of a single set of

 

 

constructs. Lexical items are analyzed in

 

 

 

 

Glossary of Linguistic Terms

447

 

 

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

 

 

 

terms of semantic features or sense compo-

 

 

 

nents, treated as binary opposites distin-

 

 

 

guished by pluses and minuses: [+ male]/ [-

 

 

 

male]. It has been argued that projection

 

 

 

rules can combine the semantic features of

 

 

 

individual words to generate the meaning

 

 

 

of an entire sentence and to account for

 

 

 

ambiguity and anomaly (e.g.: *He painted

 

 

 

the walls with silent paint).

 

 

 

 

 

 

conceptual

information centred around some concept

 

 

domain

 

 

 

concord

the relationship between units in such

agreement

 

 

matters as number, person, and gender.

 

 

 

The two related units should both be

 

 

 

singular or both plural, feminine or

 

 

 

masculine, etc. Cf.: government

 

 

 

 

 

 

consecutive

a phrase based on logical domination of

 

 

phrase

one member over another Cf.: cumulative

 

 

 

phrase

 

 

contextualization

establishing the context in which language

 

 

 

units are typically used, i.e. finding out who,

 

 

 

when, where, why and what for one can be

 

 

 

expected to use this or that language unit

 

 

 

with a certain meaning (J.R. Firth)

 

 

 

 

 

 

continuous

an uninterrupted string of phonemes

uninterrupted

 

morpheme

building up a morpheme Cf:

morpheme

 

 

discontinuous morpheme

 

 

 

 

 

 

continuum

a set of language units interpolated

 

 

 

between any two polar units made up by

 

 

 

units having intermediary features; a

 

 

 

space of transition between poles

 

 

 

 

 

 

contrastive

relations of different morphs in the

 

 

distribution

identical environment Cf : non-contrastive

 

 

 

distribution, complementary distribution

 

 

 

 

 

 

coordinative

a phrase based on coordination and

 

 

phrase

consisting of elements of equal rank

 

 

 

Cf.: cumulative phrase

 

 

 

 

 

448

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

corteme

a unit of language having no semantic

 

 

content, e.g. phoneme (M. Blokh)

 

 

Cf.: signeme

 

 

 

 

Counteragent

entity (or force) against which the Agent

 

 

acts

 

 

 

 

covert morpheme

an implicit morpheme, i.e. a morpheme

zero mor-

 

having no explicit representation in the

pheme

 

actual expression

 

 

Cf.: overt morpheme

 

 

 

 

cumulative

a phrase whose elements are not equal in

 

phrase

their rank

 

 

Cf.: coordinative phrase, consecutive phrase

 

 

 

 

deep structure

the formal syntactical construction

 

 

represented by dummy symbols replaced

 

 

by lexical entities in ways determined by

 

 

their feature content

 

 

Cf. : surface structure

 

 

 

 

derivational

referring to the formation of language

 

 

units

 

 

 

 

derivational

a suffix which may be followed by other

 

suffix

suffixes (W.N. Francis)

 

 

Cf.: inflectional suffix

 

 

 

 

"descriptive"

the plural form of the noun having a

 

plural

pronounced stylistic colouring due to the

 

 

usage of the uncountable noun in the

 

 

function of the countable noun, e.g.:

 

 

sands, snows

 

 

 

 

diachronic

dealing with study of language changes

historical

 

over a period of time

 

 

Cf.: synchronic

 

 

 

 

dichotomy

division into two parts or categories

 

 

 

 

dicteme

an elementary topical unit fulfilling the

~ supra-

 

functions of nomination, predication,

sentential

 

topicalization, stylization (M. Blokh)

construction

 

 

 

differential

distinctive feature of a categorial form

distinguishing

feature

 

feature

 

 

 

Glossary of Linguistic Terms

449

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

discontinuous

a morpheme built up of an interrupted

 

morpheme

string of phonemes, e.g.: be ... -en

 

 

Cf.: continuous morpheme

 

 

 

 

distribution

the contextual environment of a language unit

 

 

Cf.: contrastive, non-contrastive, comple-

 

 

mentary distribution

 

 

 

 

dominational

a phrase based on the relationship of the

subordinative

phrase

modifier and the modified

phrase

 

Cf.: equipotent phrase

 

 

 

 

elementary unit

a unit indivisible into minor constituents

minimal element,

 

 

smallest unit

erne-term

a generalized invariant language unit

 

 

Cf.: allo-term

 

epistemic modality

modality expressing the degree of

 

 

commitment the speaker has to the truth

 

 

of the proposition expressed in the

 

 

utterance. It ranges from uncertainty

 

 

through possibility to probability

 

 

 

 

equipollent

an opposition whose members have

 

opposition

different positive categorial features

 

 

Cf.: privative opposition, gradual opposition

 

 

 

 

equipotent phrase

a phrase based on logical succession of

 

 

elements having an equal rank

 

 

Cf.: dominational phrase

 

 

 

 

etymon

the earliest traceable form from which a

 

 

later word is derived

 

 

 

 

Experiencer

the person enduring a certain state, e.g.:

 

 

He wants to eat.

 

 

 

 

extensional

an approach which is concerned with

 

semantics

establishing the character of the corre-

 

 

spondence between a sign-function and a

 

 

given state of the world Cf.: intensional

 

 

semantics

 

 

 

 

finite verb

a verb explicitly expressing predication on

predicate verb

 

the basis of the categories of tense and

 

 

mood, verb of complete predication

 

 

Cf.: non-finite form of the verb

 

 

 

 

: PRESSI ( HERSON )

450

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

formative phrase

a phrase consisting both of notional and

 

 

functional verbs

 

 

Cf.: notional phrase, functional phrase

 

 

 

 

function

special purpose of a unit, its ability to

 

 

serve a certain aim; sometimes equivalent

 

 

to some abstract syntactic meaning

 

 

 

 

functional part of

a part of speech having a partial nomina-

form word

speech

tive value

 

 

Cf.: notional part of speech

 

 

 

 

Generative

a grammar which precisely specifies the

 

Grammar

membership of the sets of all the grammat-

 

 

ical sentences in the language in question

 

 

and therefore excludes all the ungrammati-

 

 

cal sentences. It takes the form of a set of

 

 

rules that specify the structure, interpreta-

 

 

tion, and pronunciation of sentences that

 

 

native speakers of the language are

 

 

considered to accept as belonging to the

 

 

language

 

 

 

 

genitive case

a term in grammar marking possession and

possessive

 

analogous relations in the case system of

case

 

Latin and other inflected languages

 

 

 

 

Goal

entity towards which an action is directed,

Addressee,

 

e.g.: He gives a book to Jean.

Dative

 

 

 

government

a kind of concord in which one term

 

 

controls or selects the form of the partner

 

 

Cf.: concord

 

 

 

 

gradual opposi-

an opposition whose members are

 

tion

characterized by the expression of a

 

 

certain degree of one and the same

 

 

categorial feature

 

 

Cf.: privative opposition, equipollent

 

 

opposition

 

 

 

 

half-gerund

a form having mixed, participial and

participial

 

gerundial, features

gerund

 

 

 

heterogeneous

differing in kind; having dissimilar or

dissimilar

 

incongruous elements

 

 

Cf.: homogeneous

 

 

 

 

Glossary of Linguistic Terms

451

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

lierarchy

organization of elements based on

 

 

ranking

 

 

 

 

lomogeneous

of the same kind or nature; essentially

similar

 

alike; uniform in structure; composed of

 

 

)arts all of the same kind

 

 

Cf.: heterogeneous

 

 

 

 

icon

a highly motivated sign, visually (or

 

 

acoustically) resembling what it represents

 

 

'a photograph, hologram, onomatopoeia)

 

 

(Ch.S. Peirce) Cf.: symbol, index, sign

 

 

 

 

identification

the act of singling out a referent

individualiza-

 

Cf.: classification

tion

 

 

 

 

 

idiom

an expression unique to a language, esp.

 

 

one whose sense is not predictable from the

 

 

meaning and arrangement of its elements,

 

 

e.g.: "kick the bucket" (= to die)

 

 

Cf.: free word combination

 

 

 

 

illocutionary act

an utterance which has a certain conven-

 

 

tional force, e.g.: informing, ordering,

 

 

warning, undertaking, etc. Cf.: locutionary

 

 

act, perlocutionary act

 

 

 

 

immanent

a category expressing the inherent

inherent

category

features of a part of speech (M. Blokh)

category

 

Cf.: reflective category

 

 

 

 

immediate

constituent elements immediately entering

 

constituents

into any meaningful combination

 

 

 

 

implication

information which is not given explicit

 

implicit, implied

verbal expression to, but which is entailed

 

(deriv.)

by some other elements of the context Cf.:

 

 

explication, verbalization

 

 

 

 

inchoative

a kind of aspective meaning consisting in

Ingressive

meaning

the indication of an action which is shown

 

 

as just starting, e.g.: Let 's get going.

 

 

 

 

index

a partially motivated sign (to the extent

 

 

that there is a connection, usually of

 

 

 

 

452

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

 

causality, between sign and referent, e.g.:

 

 

smoke is indexical of fire) (Ch.S. Peirce)

 

 

Cf.: symbol, icon, sign

 

 

 

 

indicative verbal

verbal forms expressing the categorial

mood forms

forms

meanings of the indicative mood and

of reality

 

describing the denoted action in terms of

 

 

absolutive time

 

 

Cf.: subjunctive forms, oblique verb forms

 

 

 

 

infix

an affix inserted into the root (sta-n-d:

 

 

stood)

 

 

Cf.: prefix, suffix, root

 

 

 

 

inflectional suffix

a suffix which must always come at the

grammatical

 

end of the morpheme groups to which

suffix

 

they belong

 

 

Cf.: derivational suffix

 

 

 

 

instrument (as a

the physical stimulus of the action, e.g.:

 

semantic role)

to strike with a knife

 

 

 

 

intensional

a branch of semantic studies concerned

 

semantics

with the analysis of the content (i.e.

 

 

meaning) of a given expression, but not

 

 

the relations of signs to the objects of the

 

 

real world

 

 

Cf.: extensional semantics

 

 

 

 

intralinguistic

concerning relations of units within a

internal

 

particular language system

 

 

Cf.: extralinguistic

 

 

 

 

irrealis

semantic category the differential mean-

 

 

ing of which is denotation of imagined,

 

 

projected or otherwise unreal situations

 

 

Cf.: "realis"

 

 

 

 

junction

relationship of two elements which is so

 

 

close that they may be considered to be

 

 

one composite name for what might in

 

 

many cases just as well have been called

 

 

by a single name (O. Jespersen)

 

 

Cf.: nexus

 

 

 

 

lexeme

word taken as an invariant unity of form

 

 

and meaning

 

 

 

 

Glossary of Linguistic Terms

453

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

lexical paradigm

an interclass system of four-stage deriva-

derivational

of nomination

tive part of speech correlative constitu-

paradigm of

 

ents, reflecting regular part of speech

nomination

 

correlations in the notional part of the

 

 

lexicon (M. Blokh)

 

 

 

 

limitive verb

a verb expressing a potential limit in the

terminative

 

development of the denoted action

verb

 

Cf.: non-limitive verb

 

 

 

 

linking

syntactic relationship of clauses of the

 

 

same rank (either both independent or

 

 

both dependent)

 

 

Cf.: binding

 

 

 

 

locutionary act

uttering of a certain sentence with a

 

 

certain sense and reference (J. Austin)

 

 

Cf.: illocutionary act, perlocutionary act

 

 

 

 

loose sentence-

sentences in which no element can be

~ coordinate

groups

considered as the leading (or main)

sentence

 

element (E. Kruisinga)

 

 

 

 

mental paradigm

systemic principles of analysis

 

 

 

 

modality

the way in which proposition is modified in

 

 

terms of reality/non-reality (possibility,

 

 

necessity, desire, obligation, belief, hope,

 

 

hypothesis, etc.). It shows the relation of the

 

 

nominative content to reality (M. Blokh) Cf. :

 

 

predication

 

 

 

 

mononomination

naming a single referent

 

 

Cf.: poly nomination

 

 

 

 

morph

a repeated segment of phonemic string; a

 

 

combination of phonemes that has a

 

 

meaning which cannot be subdivided into

 

 

smaller meaningful units (W.N. Francis)

 

 

Cf.: allomorph, morpheme

 

 

 

 

morpheme

the smallest meaningful part of a word

 

 

expressing a generalized, significative

 

 

meaning. It's a group of allomorphs that

 

 

are semantically similar and in comple-

 

 

mentary distribution

 

 

Cf.: morph, allomorph

 

 

 

 

: PRESSI ( HERSON )

454

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

morphophoneme

1 . a phoneme in semasiologo-morpholog-

 

 

ical function (Z. Harris);

 

 

2. H.C. : «

 

 

,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.,

 

 

- : - )»

 

 

 

 

narrative

the telling of stories

narration

 

 

 

neutralization

a type of oppositional reduction by which a

 

 

neutralized language unit becomes fully

 

 

functionally identified with its counter-

 

 

member

 

 

Cf.: transposition

 

 

 

 

nexus

a predicative (and semi-predicative)

 

 

relation between words (O. Jespersen)

 

 

Cf.: junction

 

 

 

 

nomination

naming a referent

 

 

Cf.: predication

 

 

 

 

non-contrastive

relations of different morphs having the

 

distribution

same function in the identical environ-

 

 

ments, e.g.: learnedlearnt

 

 

Cf.: contrastive distribution, complementary

 

 

distribution

 

 

 

 

non-limitive verb

verb not expressing a potential limit in

unlimitive verb,

 

the development of the denoted action

non-terminative

 

Cf.: limit ive verbs

verb, durative,

 

 

cursive

 

 

 

non-personal

a verb which doesn't agree with a subject,

impersonal

verb

the doer of the denoted action

verb

 

Cf. : personal verbs

 

 

 

 

notional part of

a part of speech of full nominative value

 

speech

Cf.: functional part of speech

 

 

 

 

 

 

nucleus (of a

a root or a combination of roots includ-

 

morphological

ing possible non-roots, attributive to

 

construction)

respective roots

 

 

Cf.: root, stem, affix

 

 

 

 

Glossary of Linguistic Terms

455

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

Object (as a

entity (thing) which is relocated or

 

semantic role)

changed; whose existence is at the focus

 

 

of attention, e.g.: to break the window.

 

 

Sometimes O. is identified with patient,

 

 

.e. entity which is the victim of some

 

 

action: to kill a fox.

 

 

 

 

objectivity

the ability of a verb to take an object of

 

 

any kind Cf.: transitivity

 

 

 

 

objective verb

a verb taking an object of any kind

 

 

Direct, indirect, prepositional)

 

 

Cf.: transitive verbs

 

 

 

 

oblique verbal

the form of a verb which expresses the

non-real mood

form

categorial meanings of irreality Cf.:

form of a verb,

 

indicative verbal form

Subjunctive

 

 

 

 

 

opposition

correlation of categorial forms having a

 

 

certain function

 

 

 

 

oppositional

the process of curtailing an opposition of

oppositional

reduction

categorial forms Cf.: neutralization,

substitution

 

transposition

 

 

 

 

overt morpheme

an explicit morpheme, not zeroed

 

 

Cf.: covert morpheme

 

 

 

 

paradigmatic

referring to language system on the basis

systemic

 

of invariant-variant relations, connected

 

 

on a non-linear basis

 

 

Cf.: syntagmatic

 

 

 

 

part of speech

a class of words distinguished by a

 

 

particular set of lexico-grammatical

 

 

features

 

 

 

 

Participant (as a

a person acting together with the Agent,

 

semantic role)

but who is somehow "overshadowed" by

 

 

him: You have me to ride with. Cf.: Agent

 

 

 

 

particle

a functional part of speech which actual-

 

 

izes limiting and specifying meanings

 

 

 

 

persona] verb

a verb which agrees with a subject

 

 

denoting the doer of the action

 

 

Cf.: non-personal verb, impersonal verb

 

 

 

 

30 - 3548
category
verb system (M. Blokh) Cf: immanent
question, e.g.: person and number in the
which are not inherent in the referent in
reflective category a category expressing categorial meanings secondary category, noninherent category

456

Seminars on Theoretical English Grammar

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

Equivalent terms

 

 

 

phoneme

the smallest constituent of a word having

 

 

no meaning but fulfilling the function of

 

 

differentiating morphemes

 

 

 

 

phatic commun-

language used more for the purpose of

 

ion

establishing an atmosphere of maintaining

 

 

social contact than for exchanging informa-

 

 

tion or ideas: in speech, informal comments

 

 

on weather, or an enquiry about health at the

 

 

beginning of a conversation (B. Malinowski,

 

 

1923)

 

 

 

 

phraseme

a combination of two or more words as a

phrase, word-

 

representative of the corresponding

group, word-

 

language level

grouping,

 

 

syntactic

 

 

syntagma

 

 

 

Pluralia Tantum

nouns having only the plural form

absolute

nouns

Cf.: Singularia Tantum nouns

plural nouns

 

 

 

 

 

pragmatic factor

a factor relevant for the actualization of a

 

 

message in a concrete communicative

 

 

situation

 

 

 

 

predicate calculus

the logical calculus in which the expressions

 

 

include predicate letters, variables and

 

 

quantifiers, names and operation letters, as

 

 

well as expressions for truth functions and

 

 

the prepositional variables of the preposi-

 

 

tional calculus

 

 

 

 

predication

the act of referring the nominative content

 

 

of the sentence to reality (M. Blokh) Cf.:

 

 

nomination

 

 

 

 

prefix

a term in word-formation for an affix

 

 

added at the beginning of a word or base

 

 

to form a new word, e.g.: re-write Cf.:

 

 

suffix, root

 

 

 

 

prepared sen-

a clause introduced by connectives

 

tence/clause

Cf: unprepared sentence/clause

 

 

 

 

 

 

presupposition

a proposition whose truth is necessary for

 

 

either the truth or the falsity of another

 

 

statement. It stays intact under negation and

 

 

modal operators, e.g.: John is divorced

 

 

 

 

Glossary of Linguistic Terms

457

 

 

 

Entry

Definition

equivalent terms

 

 

 

 

(presupposition: John was married) - John

 

 

is not divorced (presupposition: John is

 

 

married] Cf: assertion

 

 

 

 

primary predica-

predication expressed in a sentence which

complete pre-

tion

has as its predicate a finite form of the verb

dication, ex-

 

Cf: secondary predication, potential

plicit predica-

 

tion, actual

 

predication

 

predication

 

 

 

 

 

privative opposi-

an opposition based on the principle of

 

tion

presence/absence in its counter-members

 

 

of one and the same feature Cf: gradual

 

 

opposition, equipollent opposition

 

 

 

 

proposeme

a language unit expressing a thought

~ sentence

 

 

 

proposition

the content of a declarative sentence, that

judgment

 

which is proposed, or stated, denied,

 

 

questioned, etc., capable of truth and falsity

 

 

 

 

prepositional acts

acts of referring and predicating

 

 

(J.R. Searle)

 

 

 

 

to qualify

1. to ascribe qualities to smth., to charac-

to describe

 

terize; 2. to limit

ranking clause

a nonembedded clause (M.A.K. Halliday)

to modify

 

 

Cf. : embedded clause

 

reference

1 . mentioning someone or something,

 

 

either directly or indirectly; 2. (logic, ling.)

 

 

the activity or condition through which one

 

 

term or concept is related to another or to

 

 

objects in the world

 

 

Cf: sense (2)

 

 

 

 

referent

the denoted object of the world

 

 

Cf: sign

 

 

 

 

: PRESSI ( HERSON )

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