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The Business PI Answer Key

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Answer key

1 Living abroad

1.1 About business Working abroad

1

1Anil Basu

2Marika Laanet

3Kiki Yi

4Jean-Marc Sabatier

2

1 d) 2 c) 3 b) 4 a) 5 g) 6 e) 7 h) 8 f)

3

Name and address / education history / work experience / achievements / skills / references

1T

2F

3F

4T

5F

6T

7F

8T

4

1two months

2food

3six months

4Indonesia

5ten months

6one year

5

1Anil

2Marika

3Kiki

4Jean-Marc

5Anil

6Kiki

6

1The answers will depend on each student’s ideas.

2There are many problems. These include language problems, which may affect how they socialize and build up a social life and understanding any legal documents, e.g. contracts. Other areas include finding suitable accommodation; adjusting to the lifestyle and climate; organizing suitable education for children.

3Perhaps working abroad is not essential for a successful career; many people reach the top without working abroad. However, in some areas, e.g. international marketing, promotion may be accelerated if the employee is willing to travel at a certain point in his or her career.

1.2 Vocabulary Living abroad

1

homesickness, loneliness, finding a suitable school for children, pension schemes, whether to continue to pay tax at home, driving-related problems

2

1accommodation

2opening a bank account

3health

4mobile phones

3

1apartment

2contract

3deposit

4bills

5notice

6salary

7overdraft

8credit cards

9national health service

10insurance scheme

11check-up

12number

13top-ups

14contract

15landline

4

1Bank. Opening a bank account.

2Apartment. Trying to find an apartment to rent.

3Doctor’s. Registering with a doctor.

4Shop. Buying a mobile phone.

5

1Open a bank account.

2Her passport and a letter or contract from her company

3Two

41,500

5No

61.65 metres

7She doesn’t know how long her company need her to stay in Copenhagen.

8400 minutes

6

1 d) 2 b) 3 a) 4 c) 5 g) 6 h) 7 f) 8 e)

1.3 Grammar Present simple and prepositions of time

1

1do

2attend

3enjoy

4spend

5like

6creates

7work

8develop

9travel

10spend

11want

12search

13buy

14send

15don’t have

16work

17am

18is

19doesn’t have

20meet

21doesn’t like

22thinks

1human resources manager

2computer programmer

3business student

4architect

2

1in

2on

3in

4at

5on

6at

7in

8at

9in

3

a)26th January (It celebrates the first ship landing in Australia. The prime minister makes a speech and people set fireworks off.)

b)26th December (It is a public holiday. Many sports events take place.)

c)2nd February (Many people believe that if a groundhog sees its shadow on this day, the cold weather will continue for six weeks.)

d)14th July (It celebrates the locals in Paris attacking the Bastille, a prison, in 1789. There are military parades.)

e)1st April (People often play tricks on each other.)

f)29th April (It celebrates the Emperor’s birthday and begins a week of festivals called Golden Week.)

g)1st November (People visit the graves of their families and also build and fly kites.)

4

1Where do you come from?

2What time do you usually start work at?

3What languages can you speak?

4Where do you live?

5How do you come to work / school?

6When do you usually go on holiday?

7Where do you have lunch?

1.4 Speaking Making small talk

1

Small talk is talking about relatively unimportant, everyday things, e.g. the weather, in order to build up a relationship with someone you do not know well.

2

Safe topics – the weather; films and books; whether this is the first time you have been in / at a particular place, etc.

Unsuitable topics – controversial areas, e.g. politics and religion; very personal areas which might include a person’s age, salary, health issues, etc.

1

Answer key

1The weather, sports news and something that you and the speaker have in common.

2Personal information and negative comments about other people.

3Don’t continue talking about something that the other person doesn’t seem interested in and avoid one-word answers.

3

Conversation 1

1at work

2last weekend

3four

Conversation 2

1at a conference

2a recent business trip

3five

Conversation 3

1in a taxi

2job

3four (Where do you want to go to? isn’t small talk)

4

1Did you have good weather?

2Where did you go?

3Did the children enjoy it?

4Was it your first visit there?

5Where did you stay?

6Was it called the Continental?

7Are you here in Paris for work or on holiday?

8What do you do?

9Do you like your job?

10Are you going to visit India?

6

1Sorry, but I have to go now. E

2It’s been nice meeting you. E

3I can’t believe how busy it is. B

4Did you have a good journey here? B

5How was your weekend? B

6Enjoy the rest of the conference. E

7Nice talking to you. E

8It’s lovely weather today. B

How was the flight?

I hope you enjoy the rest of your stay.

Bye for now.

Is this your first time at (an international conference)?

1.5 Writing Formal and informal emails

2

1Lars Oluffson

2Mr Watanabe

3Arrange for somebody to meet him at the airport, make a reservation at a hotel and send copies of the agenda and latest sales figures.

4a conference in Singapore

1.6 Case study Global Recruit

1

Advantages:

The agency saves you time looking for suitable jobs; this is especially useful if there are language issues.

The agency can help with other aspects of employment, e.g. organizing visas and work permits.

Disadvantages:

The agency may charge a fee. You are dependent on the agency.

3

Tomas – Dubai

Panayota – Dubai

Miroslav – Brazil

Francesca - Brazil

4

1worked for a mobile phone company in Germany

2running

3nearly 28

4currently working in family taverna

5sailing and swimming

6diploma in information technology from technological college in Bratislava

7English and Portuguese

8was a senior computer programmer for an IT company in Rome

9being outside, walking in the mountains, cycling

5

Sales Advisor – Dubai

Tomas Visser has worked on mobile phones and had experience with customers, so is arguably the strongest candidate.

Web Analyst – Brazil

Miroslav has worked with the appropriate client base – boutiques, and designs websites; Francesca has experience of managing people, but her experience is as a computer programmer, so is arguably not so relevant.

6

Tomas: left previous job after a complaint from a customer Panayota: no professional reference

Miroslav: often late for work

Francesca: was very unpopular with colleagues in previous position

7

Each candidate has a weakness revealed. The question is whether the weakness is serious enough to mean they should not get the job. Thomas Visser may have trouble handling complaints; there are no references for Panayota Mitropoulis. It is unlikely that Panayota would get the job because she doesn’t have particularly relevant experience or qualifications.

Francesca is unpopular with other employees; Miroslav is often late. Perhaps Miroslav’s weakness can be changed.

3

Thank you for your email received / Thanks for your message. With regard to / Re

I would be very grateful if / Can you Would it be possible for you to / Can you Could you possibly / Can you please Please accept my apologies / I’m sorry but

I look forward to meeting you / See you next month With best regards / All the best

4

1 c) 2 b) 3 d) 4 a) 5 f) 6 g) 7 h) 8 e)

6

Subject: Art and design conference Date: May 13th

Dear Ms Calo

Thank you for your email received 11th May. With regard to my visit to São Paolo, I need to tell you that I will not be able to stay for all three days of the conference. I will have to leave on the morning of 21st June.

Thank you very much for the agenda. Could you possibly book me into the following two sessions: New design methods and The future of art? Many thanks.

I’d also like to thank you for your kind offer to book a hotel. Would it be possible for you to make a reservation for four nights, from 17th until 20th June? I would really appreciate it.

I will arrive at the airport at 19.00 on 17th June. I would be very grateful if you would arrange for a taxi to meet me at the airport as this will be my first trip to Brazil.

I do not believe I need any further assistance.

I am very much looking forward to attending the conference. With best regards

Laura Della Rocca

2 Dealing with customers

2.1 About business The shopping experience

2

Facilities: customer parking, private fitting rooms, beauty salon, hairdresser’s Services: childcare, alteration services, gift wrapping, home delivery Financial benefits and services: money-off voucher, store card, special offers, refunds

3

1Breuninger has a store in Stuttgart and thirteen other locations across Germany.

2Soap and shampoo: cosmetics Coffee cups: household goods Handbag: accessories

Yoga mat: sport and leisure

3Customer parking, store card, money-off vouchers, hairdresser’s, child care, private fitting rooms, alteration services, gift-wrapping.

4Fashion shows, cosmetic workshops, café, piano bar, made-to-measure services, taking clothes home to try on, goods carried to car and home delivery.

4

1send measurements and colour and style preferences so that clothes can be chosen for you

2use the children’s room, use the in-store café

3have purchases taken to your car, take clothes home to try on

4Students’ own answers.

5

1reliable

2personal attention

3value for money

4come back again and again

2

Answer key

6

Special day for Christmas shopping where the shop is open only for cardholders; free flights when you have made a certain number of purchases; a free sports massage; free fitness assessment; personal attention of a specialist sports shoe / trainer fitter; free trial membership to local gyms; opportunities to have free seven-day home trials of fitness equipment, e.g. exercise bikes; corporate hospitality invitations / reduced entry rates to top sporting events, etc.

2.2 Vocabulary Telephoning and customer care

2

1answer

2deal with

3call, back

4put, through

5interrupt

6lose your temper

7discount

8exchange

9agree on a solution

10hang up

3

Conversation 1

1A new computer the customer has bought is missing some parts.

2The assistant didn’t ask for the customer’s contact details or whether the customer would like to hold while the assistant tries to get to the bottom of the problem (Step 2).

Conversation 2

1The customer has not received printer paper that they ordered.

2The assistant blames the driver (Step 5).

Conversation 3

1The customer is calling a hotel to cancel a room booking.

2The assistant interrupts (Step 3).

4

1 a) 2 e) 3 b) 4 f) 5 c) 6 d)

5

The first advertisement is for a job for a healthcare company and the second for a bank or insurance company.

6

1persuade

2interpersonal skills

3sympathetic

4telephone manner

5listening skills

6reassuring

7outgoing personality

2.3 Grammar Countable & uncountable nouns, requests and offers

1

Countable: company, customer, phone call, helpline, employee Uncountable: money, news, information, accommodation, progress, research, equipment, overtime

2

1many employees

2a lot of money

3much overtime

4much progress

5a lot, research

3

1can

2help

3Can

4put me through

5Can

6ask

7Would you mind

8calling back

9Can

10give

4

1Do you want me / Would you like me to shut the window?

2Do you want me / Would you like me to order (some) more?

3Do you want me / Would you like me to carry them for you?

4Do you want me / Would you like me to fetch it for you?

5Would you mind making us some coffee?

6Would you mind driving us to the station?

5

questionnaire, ask, complete, fill in

1

answering

9

many

2

some

10

some

3

much

11

some

4

take

12

many

5

many

13

many

6

some

14

any

7

many

15

many

8

give

16

any

2.4 Speaking Telephoning – handling complaints

1

Airline – late or cancelled flights / lost luggage Ad agency – falling numbers of consumers Bank – wrong figures / bank charges / security

Mobile phone – wrong bills / cost too high for phoning abroad Computer manufacturer – error message / technical problems

2

 

 

Paul, engineer

supplies do not arrive / technical problems

Bruna, finance

missing money / too little money

Mr Langenburg, businessman

travel problems / no profit

Ingrid, production

factory problems / accidents / technical

 

 

problems

1delivery of 500 head cleaners hasn’t arrived – 10% discount on the delivery

2Bruna can’t access the accounts for the Asia group – program needs to be installed again

3food served in a restaurant cold and waiter unhelpful – free table for eight people in VIP area on Friday night

4new machine hasn’t arrived yet – Jon will call back

3

1I’m sorry about that Mr Rossi.

2I understand Mr Rossi and I am very sorry.

3Can we do anything to help you with this?

4That must be very frustrating.

5I’ll look into it straight away.

6What we could do is…

7I’m sorry to hear that.

8Let me see what I can do.

4

1 c) 2 a) 3 d) 4 b) 5 h) 6 g) 7 f) 8 e)

5

2 (office)

A:Excuse me – I think we booked this room for 15.00.

B:Oh dear, there must be a mistake. Let me call Reception and see if we can find another room.

3 (man at computer)

A:I cannot seem to get anything on the monitor at all.

B:OK, let’s turn it off and start the computer again, shall we? 4 (invoices)

A Oh dear – look; the date on this one is totally different.

B You’re right. We’ll have to do a credit note for the second invoice. 5 (package with invoice)

A Look, I ordered 500 and we have been invoiced for 500. However, only 250 were delivered.

B Please give me a few minutes to try and find the invoice on the computer. What did you say the number was?

6 (man at departures board)

A Are you saying there are no trains leaving tonight at all?

B That’s right, but we can give you information on the bus service.

6

1 a) 2 d) 3 e) 4 b) 5 f) 6 c)

2.5 Writing Dealing with an email of complaint

2

1Alison had been charged twice for tickets for the International Car Exhibition.

2She wants an immediate refund on two of the tickets.

3

e, f, d, c, b, g, h, a

4

Introducing: Thank you for your email regarding…; I am writing on behalf of…

Apologizing: We apologize for any inconvenience that this caused; I am very sorry to hear that…

Explaining: The reason for this problem was…; We have been experiencing problems with…

Promising action: We will be happy to exchange the items; We can offer you a (10%) discount (on your next order); We will look into this problem immediately.

3

Answer key

2.6 Case study The Panorama conference

3.2 Vocabulary Trends and planning

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

1Students’ answers will depend on their individual experience.

2The facilities and services in an ideal hotel could include sauna; sports, e.g. golf, tennis, water-sports, etc.; free wi-fi for guests; a range of DVDs and a DVD machine in the room; a free bottle of champagne or sparkling wine in the room.

2

18

25th – 8th February

3No.

4Two people could share one room.

3

1Perhaps it is not an ideal solution, since many business people would not like to share a room with a colleague. Nevertheless, given there are kingsized beds, it is not a bad solution in the circumstances.

2It might have been possible to book the extra delegate into a nearby luxury hotel.

3Perhaps he could ask for a discount on the bill.

4

not enough rooms available; hotel was too noisy; some rooms smelled of smoke; some rooms were too cold; the conference centre was too far away from the hotel; prices on display at reception were cheaper than Internet prices

3 Operations

2.1 About business Lean manufacturing

1

1home

2market

3manager

4Subcontractor

51769

6quicker

7Technology

8check

2

Section 1: Chaos

Section 2: TPS

Section 3: Lean manufacturing

Section 4: JIT

Section 5: The employees

Section 6: The result

Section 7: Beyond the Japanese car industry

3

1 F 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 F 6 T 7 T 8 F

4

1 c) 2 a) 3 b)

5

1The TPS wasn’t successful in the company.

2The employees weren’t used to working in that way.

6

1workshops

2Eastern Europe

3Faith

4strike

7

1One advantage of lean manufacturing is that it can save money invested in stock; there is no need to have a lot of ‘dead’ stock, but simply to order when necessary. One disadvantage is that if there is a sharp increase in popularity of a product, it will sell out quickly and the customer may have to wait. A human mistake in ordering can lead to delays.

2Lean manufacturing could work in any industry where goods are assembled, e.g. the automotive industry. Or for a shop selling computers and televisions – when one is sold, another is ordered from the factory. Lean manufacturing may not work in making bread, since fresh ingredients are needed daily. There will not be enough time to order ‘on demand’.

3The company may need to employ fewer people in a shop, and more people in the production factory. Lean manufacturing may annoy customers in a shop if what they want is not in stock. Computer systems will be necessary. Smaller premises are needed, and stock can be held in a warehouse.

aSmall airlines are growing, driving prices down.

bLarge airlines are having to react and become more competitive.

cPassenger numbers are increasing.

dThe environment is suffering due to carbon emissions.

eAirline staff are reportedly working longer hours.

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 a)

2 e)

3 c)

4 b)

5 d) 6 f)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ï

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ó

increase

 

 

 

 

decrease

grow

 

 

 

 

 

shrink

go up

 

 

 

 

 

go down

rise

 

 

 

 

 

fall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fall

 

fell

 

 

 

 

decrease

decreased

 

 

 

go down

went down

 

 

 

grow

 

grew

 

 

 

increase

increased

 

 

 

go up

 

went up

 

 

 

rise

 

rose

 

 

 

shrink

 

shrunk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 c)

2 e)

3 d)

4 b)

5 a)

6

Problem: aircraft noise, and the fact that noise will get worse as the aviation industry grows

Solution: a ‘silent’ plane with engines above its wings

7

1increasing

2rising

3goes down, goes up

4decrease

5growing, shrinking

6increase, decrease

7grow

9

 

 

 

 

GRAPH 1 TOURISTS

 

 

 

 

10000

 

 

 

 

9000

 

 

 

 

8000

 

 

 

 

7000

 

 

 

 

6000

 

 

 

 

5000

 

 

 

 

4000

 

 

 

 

3000

 

 

 

 

2000

 

 

 

 

1000

 

 

 

 

January

April

July

October

January

3.3 Grammar Present continuous, adverbs, present simple passive

1

1is going

2is growing

3are changing

4are reducing

5are, realising

6is growing

7are going up

8is improving

9are falling

10are increasing

2

1slowly

2quickly

3sharply

4slightly

5well

6steadily

4

Answer key

3

are manufactured, are used

4

1are involved

2are grown

3are stored, are sent

4are made

5is distributed, is sold

5

1The market share is increasing every year.

2The share prices are falling rapidly.

3Efficiency of production is improving.

4Sales of widgets are going up every year.

5The price of petrol in Australia is increasing slowly.

6

Trees are cut down. / Three trunks are cut into logs.

The logs are transported to the saw mill.

Chairs are made from the wood.

Chairs are sold in furniture shops.

3.4 Speaking Presentations – signposts and stepping stones

1

1There are many kinds of presentations, including: sales or product presentations; academic presentations about a project; a presentation at a job interview, etc.

2The answer to this question will enable you to distinguish those students who have never given a presentation and those who have a lot of experience. It is useful to ask students who has given a presentation in English; and who will give a presentation in the future. If students have never given a presentation, they can share their experiences of being part of the audience in a good and bad presentation.

3A huge range of answers are possible here: prepare; research the audience first; use notes; don’t read aloud; divide the presentation into 3 / 4 / 5 parts; use prompt cards; do not speak too quietly; use graphics, etc. If presentations are very important for your group, collate the answers to question 3 on the board and encourage students to write them down.

2

1I’d like to start by ...

2First of all ...

3Moving on to …

4Let’s go back and look at …

5I’d like to finish by …

6Are there any questions?

7Thank you for coming.

4

1Sales manager at DMC Wood

2June

3May

4GTQ Luxury model

5

1 c) 2 e) 3 a) 4 b) 5 f) 6 d)

3.5 Writing Instructions and procedures for an exhibition stand

1

1Students will have their own ideas as to why they would or wouldn’t like to attend this convention. Maybe they collect comics, or collect something else (coins, stamps, etc.) as a hobby. Maybe they are not interested in comics.

2A convention is a good place to find rare examples of something; to network and make contacts with others in the industry.

2

1display racks

2video screens

3banners

4counter

5groups of tables and chairs

6a raised floor

7reception area

8pavement sign

9comfortable chairs

3

This is a good opportunity for students to come up with their own ideas, e.g. for marketing.

One issue to consider would be the proximity of the stand to competitors

– is it better to be near them or far away?

A stand can be made to stand out with a gimmick, such as a large model of the product; many stands have PowerPoint presentations running, or large flat-screen monitors displaying a product.

4

1Firstly

2Secondly

3Then

4Make sure

5Don’t forget

6After that

7Finally

3.6 Case study ScotAir

2

cost has fallen; speed of aircraft has increased; security issues; size of airports has increased; number of flights has increased; number of airlines higher, etc.

Flights are getting cheaper, but levels of comfort are getting worse / standards are falling.

3

1How long has Judith worked for EvanAir?

2How much does she have to pay for her uniform?

3How long does Robin spend flying per day?

4When did he start work?

5What type of people could fly in the past?

6What’s EvanAir like?

7What’s important when flying?

8When is most fuel used?

119 months

2£25 per month

312 hours

45 o’clock in the morning

5rich

6cheap

7security

8take off

4

Group A (for starting a budget subsidiary)

Staff: more business, so more money – better for staff

Passengers: more choice and cheaper flights which is what the public wants Environment: people who fly do not use other forms of transport, e.g. cars

Group B (against starting a budget subsidiary) Staff: lower salaries

Passengers: time taken to go to the airport and to go to the destination from the airport can be long

Environment: short-haul flights will damage the environment; noise

4 Success stories

4.1 About business Business leaders and success stories

2

Revlon, Clinique , Donna Karan (DKNY), Hugo Boss, Armani, Calvin Klein, Tommy Hilfiger

11908 in Queens, New York

21940s

3face creams, cosmetics, perfumes

4over 130 countries around the world

5over 6 billion dollars

62004

3

1T

2F. Estée’s parents were Hungarian and Czech immigrants.

3F. The first Estée Lauder counter was opened at Sak’s on Fifth Avenue in 1948.

4T

5T

6T

4

1 d) 2 b) 3 e) 4 a) 5 c) 6 j) 7 i) 8 h) 9 g) 10 f)

5

1Good saleswoman: she knew how to make a sale (example, Galleries Lafayette).

2Belief: she believed in herself and her products.

3A hands-on technique: she believed in getting personally involved in staff training and in touching customers.

4Image: stylish and sophisticated packaging, keeping certain things secret, e.g. details about her life and the ingredients used in the products. The image also helped customers believe they were buying a dream which could keep them looking young.

5Innovative marketing ideas: free makeovers, free samples and gifts with purchases.

6Hard work: she was always hard working, dedicated and ambitious.

5

Answer key

6

1 b) 2 c) 3 a)

7

Students’ answers will vary. The idea of the free gift is an important marketing ploy today.

4.2 Vocabulary Describing yourself and being successful

1

positive:

negative:

calm

stressed

generous

mean

honest

dishonest

hard-working

lazy

helpful

unhelpful

ambitious

lacking in drive

organized

disorganized

hands-on

hands-off

cooperative

uncooperative

3

1used to smoke

2used to call

3used to live

4didn’t use to like

5didn’t use to do

6used to be

4

1 c) 2 a) 3 d) 4 b) 5 g) 6 e) 7 f)

4.4 Speaking Appraisals

1

1Galina thinks her strengths are that: she’s hard-working, she’s a teamplayer, she’s a friendly and sociable person, she’s calm and good at working under pressure.

2Suki agrees with everything except ‘team player’.

3Galina thinks her weaknesses are that: she’s not very creative, she’s not focused, she needs to improve her time management.

4Suki disagrees that Galina is not very creative, but otherwise agrees.

2

1 D 2 A 3 D 4 A 5 A 6 D 7 A

3

2

1calm

2disorganized

3dishonest

4ambitious

5generous

6lazy

7hard-working

8unhelpful

9hands-off

10stressed

3

positive, helpful, calm, organized

1That’s right. You certainly are! Oh, definitely. Absolutely. You sure are!

2That sounds about right.

3I can’t agree with that. That’s just not true.

4Well no, not completely. I’m not sure. You probably are, but …

4

I’m sorry, but I can’t agree with you.

I agree with you up to a point.

I don’t really see it that way.

The problem is that …

I’m afraid I don’t completely agree with you.

Well, maybe, but …

5

4

Positive: When the sales department in his last job was reorganized, he saw it as a chance to learn more.

Helpful: He volunteered for a mentoring system four times in his last position.

Calm: He does yoga and he meditates.

Organized: He uses an online personal organizer and never misses meetings or deadlines.

5

1ambition

2decision

3finance

4flexible

5organization

6pioneer

7successful

8stress

6

1financial

2adventure

3organized

4stress

5pioneering

6decisions

7ambitions

4.3 Grammar Past simple, past continuous and used to

1

a)Past continuous (He was working at the University of Chittagong in the 1970s.)

b)Past simple (Muhammad Yunnus founded Grameen Bank in 1977.)

2

1launched

2was working

3discovered

4were living

5met

6was visiting

7lent

8didn’t ask

9changed

10were

11received

2 f) 3 d) 4 b) 5 c) 6 a)

6

1, 4, 6, 9

7

I do think that I’m …

I think I’m good at …

People say that I’m …

I’d say that I’m …

I would like to …

I often find (that) …

4.5 Writing Profiles of business leaders

1

3 set up sewing workshop

5won first prize at the World Exhibition

1contracted polio

2went to school

6named a bear after a US president

4 made a toy elephant

2

1currently, at the moment

2in the end

3although

4furthermore, in addition

5then, after that

6unfortunately

3

1 C 2 B 3 D 4 B 5 B 6 B 7 A 8 B

4

Pierre Omidyar was born in Paris in 1967, but his father, a doctor, moved the family to Maryland, USA while Pierre was still a child.

After graduating from an American university in 1988 with a degree in computer science, he worked for Claris, a subsidiary of Apple Computer. Although he was happy developing software for Claris, he left the company in 1991 and founded Ink Development Corp with three friends. After setting up eBay in 1995, Pierre ran an online company called Auction Shop. Then / after that, in 1996, Ink Development Corp, which included an Internet shopping section, was sold to Microsoft. After that / then, in 1998, eBay went public and as a result Pierre became a billionaire.

Then / After that in 2005, Pierre gave $100 million to the university that he graduated from to launch the Omidyar-Tufts Microfinance Fund. Currently/ Now, eBay is one of the most successful e-companies in the world.

6

Answer key

5

Correct order is: h, b, i, c, g, e, a, f, d.

Zhang Yin was born in Heilongjiang province in the north east of China in 1957. There were eight children in her family and she was the eldest daughter.

In 1976 she got her first job as an accountant and after that she moved to Shenzhen, in the south of China, where she worked for a paper trading company. After that she moved to Hong Kong, where she opened her own paper trading company in 1985. Although she was successful there, she soon found that Hong Kong was too small for her ambitions and so in 1990 she moved to Los Angeles. Whilst there she founded the American Chung Nam Company. Unfortunately, at that time, China ‘s economy was facing shortages of materials, e.g. paper. The American Chung Nam Company shipped huge containers of paper and steel back to China for recycling. Demand grew very quickly and in 1995 Zhang Yin returned to Hong Kong and founded Nine Dragons Paper, furthermore, she opened her first paper making facility in Dongguan. In 2006 shares in Nine Dragons Paper floated on the Hong Kong stock exchange, Zhang Yin however still owns 72% of the company.

Currently Nine Dragons Paper has more than 5,000 employees and in addition the company market value is 37.5 billion yen. At the moment they are also building another huge facility close to Shanghai. In 2006, Zhang Yin was named China’s richest self-made person and also the world’s richest self-made woman.

4.6 Case study The English Academy

1

cost, quality of teaching, pleasant learning environment, friendly staff, good facilities, good location, good material

2

1It’s on one of the main streets in the centre of the town.

2Internet connection is very slow and there aren’t enough computers.

3One of the receptionists

4On an industrial estate outside of the town centre.

3

Strengths:

-good location

-spacious facilities – library and computer laboratory

-high standard of teaching

-well-qualified staff

-good results

-well-established (15 years)

Weaknesses:

-needs a facelift – classrooms and corridors are shabby

-not enough seating in the library

-not enough computers

-slow Internet connection

-more expensive than new school

-some teachers are not qualified

-receptionists are unfriendly

-old-fashioned teaching material / methods

4

-redecorate the whole school – perhaps getting suggestions from students

-employ new, friendlier receptionists

-get more computers

-get a faster broadband Internet connection

-get more tables and chairs for the library

-offer discounts to returning students / those who have studied at the academy for longer than a year

-make sure only appropriately qualified teachers work at the school

-get teachers to use more up-to-date teaching materials

-rebrand the Academy by giving it a more meaningful name

5

The students’ examples will probably include local areas. Other ideas include:

John Lennon airport, Liverpool / JFK airport (John F. Kennedy), New York. Many school’s in the UK are named after kings and queens, e.g. Kind Edward VII School / Queen Anne’s School.

St Jame’s Park, London / Gorky Park, Moscow

5 Selling

5.1 About business Advertising

1

1Yes – ‘word of mouth’ advertising can be very effective.

2A good ad should be memorable, or perhaps get people talking.

3Encourage students to describe the advertisements, giving the following information: type, description, what you liked about it; why it is effective, use of photographs; slogans; technical details, etc.

2

1Advertising is necessary to position the product, reach the right target group, persuade people to buy and to create brands.

2The AIDA model

3This is a benefit or feature which only your product has and means that it is better than / different to other products on the market.

3

1 F 2 F 3 T 4 T 5 T 6 T 7 T

4

TV and radio advertising, print advertising, walking billboard, normal billboard, product placement, sponsorship, merchandising, word-of-mouth, viral advertising, guerrilla or covert advertising (where the target audience is left unaware they have been advertised to), free samples, body art, newspapers and magazines, at the cinema, mail-shots

It is difficult to say whether one method is more effective than another; effectiveness is often linked to a product.

5

 

 

 

 

1

500

3

Boxers

2

$37, 378

4

Toyota, Vodaphone and Dunkin’ Donuts

6

1The wearer of the tattoo and the company the wearer wants to advertise profit from this type of advertising.

2Foreheads and bald heads are the most effective parts of the body.

3One disadvantage is that when sports people sweat, the tattoo begins to run.

4TV is not as effective as in the past because of media fragmentation and because consumers are channel hopping during the commercial breaks.

5Some people might not find this type of advertising very tasteful, or they may not find the body parts on show very attractive. There may also be cultural reasons why some people don’t like this type of advertising.

6College kids agreed to stick Dunkin’ Donuts logos on their foreheads during an NCAA basketball tournament; Toyota used body art to start a word-of-mouth campaign for the Scion car line.

7

1 c) 2 e) 3 a) 4 b) 5 f) 6 g) 7 d)

5.2 Vocabulary Buying and selling

2

pushy (extremely determined to get what you want, even if it annoys other people), arrogant, ignorant, poor at listening, sarcastic

3

1Are you interested in a new or used car?

2Which make would you like?

3Which model do you like?

4Do you want a petrol or diesel engine?

5How many doors would you like?

6How much money would you like to spend?

7What do you need your car for?

8What optional extras would you like?

9What about the colour?

10Would you like leather seats?

4

Which model?

Do you want a new car or a used one?

What about the engine?

Are you planning to travel long distances?

Two or four doors?

What do you want to spend?

5

The first salesman is more effective because he is friendly and he makes small talk. He seems interested in the customers. He asks questions and he listens to the answers. The second salesman doesn’t sound friendly. He

doesn’t seem interested in the customers especially when he hears they don’t want to spend very much. He doesn’t make any small talk and he doesn’t spend much time talking to them.

6

1low running costs

2competitive prices

3interest-free loan

4good value for money

5discount

6going rate

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

c)

2 d)

3

e)

4

f)

5 a) 6 b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

b)

2 c)

3

e)

4

a)

5 d)

7

Answer key

10

 

 

online

+ cheaper / can do it from home

 

 

- can’t see or feel the goods

supermarket

+ cheaper than local shops

 

 

- busy / can only buy what the supermarket stocks

local shops

+ personal experience

 

 

- more expensive than supermarket

market

+ cheaper for fruit and vegetables

-limited choice

5.3Grammar Comparatives, superlatives and asking questions

1

3

1travel agent’s – couple are negotiating where to go on holiday

2house – buyer and seller are negotiating over the sale of a house

3shop – agent and shop owner are negotiating model fees

4

1negotiation is lose-lose (neither speaker is going on holiday because neither will accept a compromise)

2negotiation is win-win (both get something that they want)

3negotiation is win-lose (the shop owner ends up paying more than he wanted to)

5

1 c) 2 f) 3 b) 4 d) 5 e) 6 a)

1more reliable

2cheaper, more attractive

3easier

4more reasonable

5more simple

6longer

7crunchier, tastier

8better, more effective

9more stylish

10worse

2

1the best

2the most popular

3the most comfortable

4the most accurate

5the freshest, the highest

6the most sophisticated

7the purest

8the lowest

9the silliest

10the sharpest

3

1How much does the laptop cost?

2What time does the bank close?

3Who is your most successful salesperson?

4Why do you use telebanking?

5What do you think about the service?

6(Excuse me,) where is women’s clothing?

7How often do you buy a new car?

8Do you always buy the same brand?

4

1Easy Navigator (3)

2NewTech (1)

3NewTech (1)

4Easy Navigator (3)

5Route Finder (2)

6NewTech (1)

7Easy Navigator (3)

8Students’ own answer

6

1She uses it because it’s the closest to her house.

2Yes, she goes shopping on her own.

3She is not completely satisfied.

4No, she doesn’t think the store is tidy.

5Yes, she goes shopping at other supermarkets.

6What she likes the most is that it’s open 24/7.

7

1How often do you go shopping here?

2What do you think about parking facilities?

3How about the display of products? Can you easily find things and reach them?

4May I ask you how much you normally spend?

5What time do you normally go shopping?

6What do you like the least?

5.4 Speaking Negotiating

2

1This is not true, since ‘win-win’ is an outcome which is positive for both parties.

2True. It’s a good idea to have something to give, and not to only take.

3It depends. An agenda is a good idea, but it depends how long and complex your negotiation is.

4It depends. Small talk is good for the atmosphere, but it depends in which country you are negotiating.

5True. It’s always good to be well-prepared.

6False. It’s not a good idea to promise what you know you can’t deliver. Your negotiating partner won’t trust you again.

7False. It depends on the culture of the country you’re in.

8True. It’s always a good idea to make sure that your negotiating partner understands what has been agreed.

6

1about

2provided, as long as

3Done

4of, question

5half way

6along with

7saying

5.5 Writing Negotiating by email

1

1The term ‘fit for purpose’ is useful here – an email to a colleague you know well need not be accurate, but a proposal to an important client needs to be accurate.

2Typical examples of email etiquette are: reply within 24 hours, even if you can’t deal with the email then and there; do not ‘flame’ – write an email when angry; do not use capitals, as it seems that you are shouting.

Younger students may be able to supply information about emoticons.

Subject lines: it is useful to make these explanatory, due to the amount of spam around e.g. ‘Re. Next Wednesday’s meeting: an email from John Roberts’.

Students may wish to compare ideas on the formality / informality of openings (Dear vs. Hi John) and closings (Very best wishes vs. atb).

2

1 c) 2 e) 3 d) 4 b) 5 f) 6 a)

3

1delivery lead time

2gross price

3trade discount

4trial order

5net price

6bulk order

4

1 d) 2 c) 3 a) 4 e) 5 b) 6 i) 7 h) 8 j) 9 g) 10 f)

5

1place

2trade price

3discount

4payment

5delivery

6supply

7reply

6

Dear Mr Bradshaw

Many thanks for your enquiry.

Further to your email, I am pleased to advise you that we have 300 dictionaries in stock at the moment. Delivery of the other 200 would be in one month.

With reference to the price, the catalogue is now out-of-date. The current price is 16.00

We can guarantee a discount of 7% for payment within seven days. We look forward to receiving your order.

Yours sincerely Helen Noonan

5.6 Case study Coolhunters

1

1Students will have a range of answers about what is trendy to wear, where they live, current music, etc. MP3 players are a popular trend; hybrid cars may be popular. What does being ‘trendy’ mean for the students in respect of clothes, where they eat, life-style, possessions, holidays, etc? How would they describe themselves?

2The Internet; magazines; friends and colleagues.

2

1Marketers don’t know what young people want to spend their money on because they have stopped responding to traditional forms of advertising.

2Products that are up-to-date but also individual.

3They use the Internet.

8

Answer key

4The products that they liked, anything from shoes to shampoo.

5A very short time, a few seconds

6Identify a new trend.

3

1laggards: 16%

2innovators: 2.5%

3early majority: 34%

4late majority: 34 %

5early adopters: 13.5% (Note: Gabriella Cortez says 13%)

4

1try out and accept new products

2anything new

3buy new products and services

4see if the product works

5see if the product works

5

1 d) 2 c) 3 b) 4 a)

6

1empty-nester

2full-nester

3DINKS

4bachelor

6 The organization

6.1 About business Entrepreneurs

1

brave; someone who starts their own business; crazy; someone who takes risks, etc.

2

1Yes, we all have the potential to be entrepreneurs.

2Most people don’t want to take risks.

3Countries where there is only a basic social security system, e.g. America.

3

1Energy is important because you will have to work hard to get what you want.

2A basic social security system is important because it means the individual is responsible for finding and keeping a job.

3A legal system is important because it makes it easy to set up a business.

4

1She organizes celebrations for other people.

2She set up a Ltd company because it’s quick, easy and cheap.

3No, she doesn’t.

4Because the European Court of Justice now allows cross-border use of business legal forms in the European Union.

5

1 d) 2 c) 3 a) 4 b) 5 g) 6 h) 7 e) 8 f)

6

1Students could consider whether or not she should expand the business. Could she apply for a loan? If so, for how much? Elicit feedback. Encourage students to consider Ingrid’s options and to justify their ideas.

2Some students may feel that she is not a true entrepreneur, as she discovered the business in an almost accidental manner. However, she does have some attributes of being an entrepreneur.

7

housework, walking the dog, shopping, cleaning the car, gardening, the ironing, organizing weddings, looking after small children and babies, etc.

Advantages include: you can work in an area which appeals to you, i.e. follow your ‘dream’; you do not have to answer to anyone; you can choose when and where you work; you can decide on the amount of profit you keep through paying yourself a bonus.

The disadvantages include: you have the responsibility of whether the company is a success or a failure; you may find that a work-life balance is hard to maintain; you have to deal with tax, employment, property issues; you need to worry about promotion of product and service.

6.2 Vocabulary Types of companies

1

staff training, quality, low prices, great leader, always developing new products, etc.

1False. A small profit is sometimes acceptable. Companies have to grow.

2False. Companies do not have to share profits, although many do.

3True. Although many companies simply continue to do what they do well.

4It depends. Some do but some don’t and are still successful.

5False.

6It depends. Some do.

7False, but there is more pressure on companies to take care of the environment.

8False. Only some companies have mission statements.

2

1accountants

2share

3capital

4liability

5shareholders

6agreement

7investment

8accounts

9shares

10capital

11fall

12shareholder

13Meeting

14trading

15boss

16profit

17debts

3

1Partnership

2Private limited company (Ltd)

3Public limited company (PLC)

4Sole trader

4

1 c) 2 d) 3 a) 4 b) 5 h) 6 g) 7 f) 8 e)

5

1F

2T

3T

4T

5F The owners have to be in agreement.

6T

7F You can lose money if share prices fall.

6

1consumer

2employee

3politician

4environmental activist

5shareholder

6supplier

7

1customer

2employee

3politician

4environmental activist

5shareholder

6supplier

6.3 Grammar Reported speech

1

1She said that the headquarters were in New York.

2She said that the company employed 65,000 people worldwide.

3She added that they had made a profit of $100 million the year before.

4She continued that they could increase their market share by 3%.

5She explained that they invested a lot of money in R&D.

6She mentioned that the company would build a plant in India.

7She said that they had two main competitors.

8She said that no business could ignore its customers.

2

1after

2through

3with

4up

5into

6up

7for

8away

9

Answer key

3

1 c) 2 a) 3 b) 4 d) 5 g) 6 f) 7 h) 8 e)

4

1 First meeting

4Talking about business

2Names

6Interrupting

7Written contracts

3Business cards

5Presents

5

1She said that you should shake hands with the most senior person first.

2She added that you should use the family name, not the given name.

3She stressed that people didn’t talk business straight away.*

4She commented that sometimes people brought a present.*

5She pointed out that a good choice of present was an expensive cognac.*

6She explained that the Chinese preferred face-to-face meetings.*

7She said that people didn’t like to say ‘No’.*

8She stressed that you shouldn’t interrupt people in meetings.

6

1 d) 2 b) 3 c) 4 a) 5 h) 6 f) 7 g) 8 e)

6.4 Speaking Interrupting in meetings

2

Positive: raise awareness of importance of being healthy / staff benefit / convenience

Negative: needs staffing / employees may spend too long there / cost

Mary and Tom are expert listeners, Lisa is an average listener and John is a terrible listener.

3

1F It’s a possibility.

2T

3F

4T

5T

6F

4

1If I could just finish what I was saying?

2Sorry to interrupt, but I’d like to come in here.

3Stop right there!

4Could we get back to the first point?

5I’d like to make two points before we all start talking.

6I’ve got something to say here.

5

3Details of production

4Finance

3

a)What are the qualifications and experience?

b)What are the general aims of the business?

c)What is your USP? Who is your target group? What competitors do you have?

d)How many people do you need to do the work / employ?

4

1 c) 2 e) 3 a) 4 b) 5 d)

5

1The main differences are: the owner of Gourmet to Go is younger, and has a degree in Business Studies. He also has experience of the food industry. The owner of the Soup Kitchen appears to have no business background.

The mission statement of Gourmet to Go is more ambitious than Soup Kitchen’s. They also aim to sell more products.

Soup Kitchen plans to sell locally, probably mostly to students. Gourmet to Go are prepared to provide sandwiches for all sorts of events. Gourmet to Go have more staff than Soup Kitchen.

Gourmet to Go have more start-up capital but would like to borrow much more money than Soup Kitchen.

2It’s difficult to say which company is more likely to succeed. Soup Kitchen has one owner and must make enough money to support this person and pay back the bank loan so it’s quite possible that the company could succeed in doing this.

Gourmet to Go must support one full-time and three part-time staff. They are in a good location and they could well and become the market leaders.

7 The stock markets

7.1 About business Keep it in the family

1

1Asking for money from friends may be an option for small family companies. On the other hand, ‘never mix business and friendship’.

2The bank has systems in place and has a traditional role in helping set up new businesses; however, rates of interest can be high.

3Venture capitalists may provide the money needed, but usually demand too high a share in the eventual profits.

A company can find money for new projects or ideas by:

borrowing the money from banks, asking venture capital groups to invest in the company, issuing bonds or other fixed-interest papers, going public and offering shares in the company to the public, selling part of the company, finding new partners who can bring money into the company.

2

1 d) 2 c) 3 b) 4 e) 5 f) 6 a)

6.5 Writing Agendas and action minutes

1

names of attendees (the ‘circulation list’); date; time; venue; list of numbered items; AOB (any other business)

2

1 F 2 T 3 F 4 T 5 F 6 T 7 F

3

1Firat

2Write a report

38th September

4Draw up schedule for building work

5Firat

6next meeting/11th September

7Check schedule

8Lena

911th September

1011th September

4

1 d) 2 a) 3 c) 4 b) 5 h) 6 g) 7 e) 8 f)

 

 

Advantages

Disadvantages

Bank loan

- fixed interest rates for a

- not always prepared to

 

 

fixed number of years

lend money to new or small

 

 

- no surprises

companies

 

 

 

- loan may have to be

 

 

 

secured

 

 

 

 

Venture

- prepared to lend to small

- want 2% for management

capital

start-up companies

fee + 20% of the profits

 

 

 

 

Shares

- no interest to pay

- can be taken over

 

 

 

- listed companies have to

 

 

 

pay a lot to meet financial

 

 

 

reporting standards

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

1 b) 2 d)

3 a) 4 c) 5 h) 6 f)

7 g) 8 e)

4

1a media company

2a financial group

5

1 F 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 F 6 T

6.6 Case study Soup Kitchen vs Gourmet to Go

1

How much will you put into the new company? How much do you need? When will you start to make a profit? When would the loan need to be repaid? How else are you raising capital? What happens in the case of failure?

2

Company name; product; amount of loan requested; possible rival products; when you expect to pay back the loan, etc.

1Name and type of business

2Objectives

6

Arguments in favour of paying the money are: keeping total control of the group and being able to run it as the Mohns wanted to.

Arguments against include: loss of $4.5 billion; having to sell their stake in Sony (and subsequent loss of profits) and damage to their reputation.

10

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