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Index of Subjects

Abdera, school of, 90, 91, 93, 95, 103 Abhidharma, 216, 218, 220–221, 223, 229, 233, 236, 238, 239, 242, 286,

347, 448, 802, 819, 826 Abstraction, 2, 27, 146, 163–164, 317–

318, 340, 355, 379, 382, 419, 549, 555, 754, 787–791; loss of, 799–800 Academicization, effects on creativity, 320–

321, 519–521, 688–689

Academies, 143, 572, 592, 638, 651–652, 697

Academy, Platonic, 65, 92, 93, 94, 97, 99, 103, 108, 111, 105, 107, 118, 956nn11– 12,18,20, 957n26, 958n37

Advaita (nondualism), 211, 241–242, 246– 252, 257–262, 264–270, 317, 321, 799, 819, 821, 824–825, 836–837, 842

Aesthetics: in China, 169–171, 174–176; in Japan, 323–325, 337–341, 348, 352; in Europe, 523, 603, 633, 635, 661, 732, 755–756, 769, 773

America, 671–683, 686

America, intellectual centers in: BostonCambridge, 380, 531, 645, 672–675; Johns Hopkins, 672, 675–677, 680– 681; Chicago, 672, 681–682

Amida (Amitabha, Pure Land) Buddhism: in China, 168, 278, 283, 288, 289, 291, 295, 296, 306, 332; in Japan, 323, 329, 331–334, 342, 448

Ancient Learning, 243, 358–359, 367, 381, 794

Anti-clericalism: in Japan, 331, 349, 361, 370, 685; in France, 604–606, 757–758, 780

Apatheia, 104

“Apostles,” Cambridge, 530, 670, 733, 735

Aristotelean school, 65, 93, 94, 103, 111, 112, 132, 106–107, 109, 111, 118, 955n9, 956n18

Artificial intelligence, 1–2, 49–51 Asatkaryavada, 236, 244, 821, 844 Asclepiads, 92

Ash‘arites, 409, 411–414, 420, 422, 439, 451–452, 453, 829, 840, 842, 843 Astronomy: Greek, 107, 534, 549, 552; in

Japan, 362–363; Islamic, 404, 408, 421, 427, 431, 440, 453, 546–548, 552; in Europe, 535, 554, 555, 557–561, 563, 610, 722; in China, 549–550, 552; in India, 551. See also Copernicus; Kepler

Ataraxeia, 104

Atheism: in Greece, 93, 103, 835; in India, 243, 836; as imaginery foil, 391; in France, 585, 603, 605–606, 609; Nietzsche’s, 768–769; existentialist, 778– 780

Atomism, 105, 491; Democritean, 112, 841; Epicurean, 112; time-atomism, 398–400, 413, 840

Attention space, intellectual, 38–39, 75– 76, 91; fractionation of, 94, 151; overcrowding of, 99, 150, 783, 813. See also Law of small numbers

Autonomy of intellectuals, 164–165, 329, 364, 616, 638, 643–646, 650, 687, 756 Averroists, 467, 475–479, 487–490, 497–

499, 516, 548, 571, 579

Babylonian star worshippers, 100, 108, 547. See also Sabian star worshippers

1089

1090 Index of Subjects

Bakufu, 348, 349, 353, 354, 356, 361, 363, 365

Being, 86, 261, 419, 480–482, 580, 658, 744, 749–750, 840–841

Bhakti, 188, 189, 266–267, 269, 270, 799, 824

Birmingham Lunar Society, 530

Bloomsbury Circle, 530, 732–733

Britain, 595–603, 609–617, 663–671, 686, 693–694, 705–717; alleged “Anglo” vs. “Continental” contrast, 752–753

Britain, intellectual centers in: Cambridge, 380, 596–597, 664–667, 669–670, 705– 711, 714, 731–735; London, 529–530, 665–666, 705–708; Oxford, 530–531, 664–667; Edinburgh, 707, 710. See also Christendom, intellectual centers in

Buddhism in China, 161–164, 167–168, 281–299, 318; organizational base, 272– 279; conflict with Taoism and Confucianism, 279–281, 310–312; decline of elite Chinese Buddhism, 305–307, 320– 321. See also Amida Buddhism; Ch’an; Hua-yen; Tantric Buddhism; T’ien-t’ai

Buddhism in India, 212–240; political bases, 180–188; origins, 190–193, 199– 208; declines, 256–257

Buddhism in Japan, 322–348; Tokugawa intellectuals desert, 348–352; Kyoto school revives, 374–377

Bushido, 355, 357

Byzantium, 374, 404, 410, 432, 449, 519

Calculus, 542

Calvinism, 570, 572, 575, 577–578, 585– 586; anti-Calvinists, 572, 583

Cambridge Analytical Society, 705 Cambridge (Massachusetts) Metaphysical

Club, 531

Canons and classics, formation and closure of, 388–390; Confucian, 141, 151, 154, 156–157, 339–340, 360–361, 804; Taoist, 157, 167, 279–280; Vedas, 193– 195; Upanishads, 208–209, 228, 250; Ch’an, 297–298; existentialist, 720. See also Mohists: Canon of

Cartesians, 262, 587–589, 599–600 Catholicism, 524; similar organization in

Buddhism, 167–168, 227; Spanish liberals in, 525, 579; and scientific revolu-

tion, 553–556, 561, 571; authoritarianism in, 571–572, 575; in Scotland, 615; modernists and anti-modernists in, 742– 746; existentialist theology in, 779. See also Jansenists; Jesuits; Oratorians; Secularization

Certificates and credentials, 335, 467, 642; inflation of, 223, 297, 303, 341–347, 383, 522, 581–582, 966n36; of Buddhist enlightenment, 333, 341, 344

Ch’an (Zen): in China, 273, 276, 283, 289, 290–300, 307, 312, 320–321, 323, 798; in Japan, 332–337, 340–347, 380, 448; shapes Japanese aesthetics, 337– 341. See also Lin-chi sect; Rinzai Zen; Soto Zen; Ts’ao-tung sect

Ch’eng-Chu school, 313, 314, 316, 359 Ch’i (matter/energy), 308, 309, 312, 313,

355, 358, 359, 787

China, 54–77, 137–176, 272–321, 447– 448, 502–503, 507–8, 533, 549–551; compared to Greece, 146–150; influence in Japan, 322–323, 327, 332–339, 345, 357, 361, 369, 372, 377

China, intellectual centers in, 507; Ch’angan, 62, 153, 283, 286; Chi-hsia Academy, 68, 73, 142–145, 811, 892; Pingyuan, 142–145, 152; Loyang, 153, 160, 283, 292, 475–476, 485, 488–493, 513– 516, 518

Christendom, intellectual centers in, 513– 519; Paris, 380, 445, 464, 467; Oxford, 380, 488, 492–494, 515–516, 518; Chartres, 429, 445, 467

Christendom, medieval, 454–504, 548– 549; compared to Islam, 389–392, 403, 451–455, 459–462; Carolingian, 447; nominalism-realism debate in, 827–828

Christianity, 827–828; early, 115–116, 119–131, 433; in Islamic world, 397, 403, 404, 408, 410, 411, 417; in medieval Spain, 433, 437, 445–446. See also Catholicism; Christendom, medieval; Protestantism; Secularization

Chu Hsi school, 355, 356, 357. See also Ch’eng-Chu school

Circles and groups, intellectual, 3–5, 28, 36–37, 526–532; intersection of, 142– 146, 175, 301–302, 380, 573–574, 583

Cistercians, 456, 457, 467, 472, 487

“Cogito ergo sum,” 129, 246, 248–249, 260, 264, 569, 587, 599, 654, 760–761, 813–818, 823–824, 858–860

Conflict as source of intellectual change, 1, 6, 80–82, 162–164, 173, 572. See also Opposition, division of attention space by

Confucianism, 137–141, 148–149, 152– 159, 161–163, 171–176, 279–281; deification of Confucius, 154. See also Neo-Confucianism

Consciousness-only, 286–290, 316 Conservatism and intellectual change, 243–

244, 299, 322–323, 333, 336, 366–369, 381, 570, 822–823, 831

Cosmology, 82–87, 147, 152–153, 157, 197, 199, 233–236, 500, 549, 555, 788, 800–807

Courts and courtiers: in China, 143–145, 157, 163, 280; in India, 184, 186, 189– 191, 220; in Japan, 326, 336–337, 348, 353–354, 359; in Islamic world, 394, 404, 405, 408, 415, 416, 418, 421, 439, 440, 441, 546; in Europe, 445– 446, 497–499, 554, 605

Creativity, 54–58, 75, 131–133, 250, 321, 379–381, 688, 734, 792; as emotional energy, 44–46, 52

Cultural capital (CC), 30–33, 44–46, 71, 73

Cynicism, 59, 60, 89, 95, 97, 98, 102, 104, 105, 106, 114, 147, 956n20

Cyrenaic school, 92, 93, 98, 99, 100, 104, 105

Cyzicus school, 92, 93, 100

Darshanas, 211, 213, 227, 247, 255, 259, 269, 793, 797, 816, 820, 962n5, 968n48. See also Mimamsa; Nyaya; Samkhya; Vaisheshika; Vedanta; Yoga

Dasein, 483, 748–750

Debate and argument, 38, 60, 145, 163, 184, 195–199, 226–227, 229, 231, 235, 238, 241, 280, 283, 317, 347, 465–466, 479, 797, 811, 845

Deep troubles, 200, 251–252, 318, 728– 730, 821, 837, 841–846, 880–881

Deism, 524, 600–609, 625, 628, 630, 633

Index of Subjects 1091

Dominicans, 462, 469, 472–475, 487,

515, 518, 579

École Normale Supérieure (ENS), 698, 761, 775, 776, 777

École Polytechnique, 697–698, 705, 757, 760, 761

Economics, 614, 617, 646, 660, 694, 708– 709; Japanese, 360, 362–363

Educational institutions. See Academicization, effects on creativity; Certificates and credentials; Examinations; Schools; Universities

Eleatics, 94, 102, 107, 400; Eleatic metaphysics, 97, 98, 108

Elis, 92, 93, 101; Phaedo’s school at, 99 E-mail, 73

Emotional energy (EE), 33–37, 39, 40, 73– 74, 379 ; stars, 420, 626

Encylopedia (Encyclopédie), 605, 608, 639 Encyclopedists, 529, 604, 606, 608, 639,

758

Enlightenment, Buddhist, 206, 208, 223, 292–293, 335, 341–342, 344–346, 966n36

Enlightenment, European, 349, 361, 363, 603–609, 622, 643, 645, 649, 693, 831

ENS. See École Normale Supérieure Epicurean school, 89, 93, 99, 100, 103–

105, 107, 111, 112–114, 115, 116, 146, 812, 955n10, 956n11–12, 957nn26–27 Epistemology, 7, 148, 150, 163, 222, 231– 232, 238, 244–246, 255–256, 264–265, 466, 486, 523, 555–556, 574, 600, 613, 652–653, 691, 720, 807–811, 851–852

Eretrian school, 93, 956n20 Eristics, 98

Ethics, 97, 146–149, 353, 363, 579–580, 585, 602–603, 667, 731–732, 817, 826

Evangelicals (Anglican), 664, 666–667, 733 Evolutionists, 708, 717

Examinations, 227, 380, 381, 509, 642, 665, 762; for Chinese bureaucracy, 163, 280–281, 301–304, 309–311, 314–316, 320–321, 507, 520; for Buddhist monks, 291–292, 520. See also Certificates and credentials

Existence. See Being

Existentialism, 531, 621, 688, 695, 740, 743–750, 756, 764–782

1092 Index of Subjects

Falasifa (philosophers), 395, 408, 409, 411, 417, 439, 828, 840

Falsafa (Greek philosophy), 395,404, 408, 423, 452, 454, 814, 818

Fermat’s last theorem, 32 “Flying Man” of Ibn Sina, 419

Forms, 87, 99, 102, 106, 107, 111 France: 582–589, 594, 603–609, 754–764,

772–782. See also Paris

Franciscans, 462, 471, 472–475, 479, 515 Free will, 263, 397–399, 411–412, 589,

656, 674, 777–778, 837–839

Freien, die, 530, 765–766

Germany, 618–663, 686, 688–697, 697– 705, 737–756, 768–770, 783; influence in Russia and France, 770–773

German-speaking intellectual centers: Vienna, 73, 492, 518, 531, 693, 717–730, 736; Göttingen, 368, 606, 632, 636, 641, 648–649, 657, 725, 738, 741–742, 1015n18; Jena-Weimar, 380, 530–531, 606, 624–637, 641–642, 649, 704; Berlin, 380, 530–531, 606, 623–624, 628, 631–633, 635–637,660, 737, 765; Berlin Academy, 528, 592, 625, 632, 638, 650–653, 697; 765; Berlin university founded, 618, 632, 642, 647–650; Leipzig, 518, 591–592, 646, 651, 691; Königsberg, 530, 623–626, 630, 632, 642, 649, 651. See also Marburg school

Gnosticism, 114, 115, 957n31, 120–128, 957n31

God, proofs of, 119, 131, 254, 260, 391, 413, 474, 479, 482, 832–837, 1030n19, 1031n20; Anselm’s, 465–466; Frege’s criticism, 702

Gödel’s proof, 727–729

Greek religious cults, 82–83, 87, 89–92, 100, 103, 104, 108, 147–148, 801 Greek and Roman world, 54–60, 62–78, 80–133, 446–448, 502–503, 533–534,

543–546, 549, 552

Greek and Roman world, intellectual centers in, 505–506; Athens, 74, 75, 87, 92, 93, 94, 115, 380; Rhodes, 74, 94, 109, 110; Alexandria, 93, 106, 115

Hadith, 388, 397, 398, 401–402, 413– 415, 434 413, 451–453, 455, 465

Haecceitas, 483–484, 486, 593, 828, 829.

See also Tathata

Hanbalis, 402, 403, 420–423, 425, 428

Hegelians, 662, 680, 687

Hinduism, 188–191, 208–212, 241, 270–

271. See also Bhakti; Shaivism; Vaish-

nava theism

House of Wisdom, 404, 439

Hua-yen, 63, 274, 283, 286–290, 295,

318, 322, 332, 337, 448, 797–798,

844

Humanism, 59, 463, 493, 497–501, 519,

581, 816, 830, 831

Idealism, 3, 61, 525; Platonic, 100, 109, 125–126, 288; in India, 195, 217–218, 220, 239, 251; in China, 286–290, 313, 315–317, 319; German, 618–619, 622– 638, 646–660, 661–664, 666, 687; in Britain, 663–671, 731; in Italy, 683– 685; in Scandinavia, 685; in Japan, 685– 686; revolt against, 686–688, 691, 713– 714. See also Advaita; Secularization: Idealism as halfway house to; Yogacara

Idéologues, 529, 757–758

Imports, idea, 382, 387–388, 404; into China, 283, 285–286, 447–448; into Japan, 340, 449–450; into Islamic East, 403–405, 408; into Rome, 446–448; into Spain, 448; into Christendom, 447, 449, 467

India, 177–271, 551; influence in China, 272, 283, 286, 447–448; overview of philosophical sequence, 818–826

India, intellectual centers in, 226, 508; Nalanda, 184, 203, 224, 226–227, 240– 241, 245, 250, 286, 339, 380; Varanasi (Banaras), 197, 226, 241; Mithila, 226, 241–242, 258

Indra’s net, 289, 658, 844

Intentionality of consciousness, 216–217, 222, 265, 693, 777

Interaction ritual (IR), 20–30, 73 Internal conversation, thinking as, 46–53,

858–859

Invisible College, 529, 553

Islam. See Islamic world; Kalam; Shi’ites; Sufis

Islamic world, 387–428; 451–455; compared to Christendom, 389–392, 403,

451–455, 459–462; overview of debate on contingency, 839–840. See also Spain

Islamic world, intellectual centers in, 510– 513; Baghdad, 380, 394–397, 401–408, 415–418, 420–422, 425, 429, 547; Basra, 380, 395–397, 399, 406, 408, 411, 416, 417, 429; Nishapur, 408, 421– 423, 426, 429

Italy, 683–685

Jainism, 180, 187–188, 200–204, 212, 238, 253–255

Jansenists, 524, 528, 554, 585–586 Japan, 322–387, 447–450, 685–686,

996n23

Japan, intellectual centers in, 508–510; Mt. Hiei, 327, 330, 331, 332; Kyoto (Heian), 329, 330, 338, 348, 350, 353, 355, 356, 359, 363; Edo (Tokyo), 330, 347–349, 353, 355, 356, 358, 363, 364; Osaka, 330, 348, 355, 363–363

Jesuits, 524, 528, 554, 561, 567–569, 571– 572, 577–580, 582–584, 586, 587, 604, 640, 654

Ju (scholars), 141, 143, 152, 154. See also Confucianism

Judaism: diaspora, 120, 433; compared to Hindu decentralization, 212; in Muslim world, 407, 408, 417, 433–434; in Spain, 432–446, 571; migrates into Christian Europe, 477–448, 496–497; in European secularization, 524, 627; in Holland, 589–591

Kabbalah, 206, 478, 496–497, 501, 579 Kaitokudo, 362–363

Kalam (rational theology), 395, 397, 398, 402, 411, 413, 419, 422, 425–427, 439, 444, 451–454, 465, 808, 814, 839

Karaites, 413, 434, 436, 444. See also

Kalam

Kashmir Shaivism, 241

Knowledge, theory of. See Epistemology Koan, 297–298, 320, 325, 332–335, 342–

345, 349

Kulturkampf, 370, 743 Kyoto School, 450

Language, 9–10, 486, 714–717, 725, 729, 858–859, 869, 947n2; Bhartrihari’s the-

Index of Subjects 1093

ory of, 230–231, 821–822; ordinary, 719, 731–734, 750

Law: Greek and Roman rhetors, 118–119, 129; Hindu, 190, 209–211; in Japan, 363; Islamic, 401–402, 414, 455, 460, 461, 511–512, 801; in Europe, 455, 458–459, 475, 516, 577, 582, 641, 660, 664, 665. See also Hanbalis, Malikites,

‘Ulama

Law of small numbers, intellectual, 38, 42, 81–82, 380–382, 791–792, 876, 880; fractionation of strong positions, 81, 87, 131–133, 213, 587; synthesis and syncretism of weak positions, 81, 116–119, 131–133, 255–257, 279, 306, 335; crises of, and realignment of intellectual factions, 90–91, 93, 97; in Greece, 91, 93, 103, 128, 137; in China, 146, 149, 151, 283, 296, 299, 312; in India, 177, 191, 195–202, 213–215, 216, 220, 255, 263; in Japan, 353; in Islam, 408, 432, 439, 446; in scientific revolution, 524, 534, 537, 563; in modern Europe, 587, 619, 621, 632, 637, 720, 783

Legalists, 148, 149, 151, 153, 155

Li (principle), 308, 309, 312, 313, 355, 358, 363, 364, 367, 787

Libertins Érudits, 529, 590

Libraries, 953n21; Alexandria, 93, 955n9, 956n19; Pergamum, 94; Rhodes, 94; Chinese, 156, 158, 169; Nalanda, 227; Córdoba, 439

Literature: in Greece, 82–83, 92, 95, 98, 102; in India, 212, 220, 227, 241; in China, 301–302, 311, 316; in Japan, 350, 354, 364; in Islamic world, 425– 426, 434; in Europe, 493, 529, 530, 562, 565–566, 601–602, 605, 606, 608, 612, 626–627, 631, 636, 637, 640, 645, 661, 755, 775

Lin-chi sect, 296, 298. See also Rinzai Zen Logic, 148, 486, 492, 493, 676, 700–701, 706–707, 713–714, 797, 808–810, 797; Megarian, 98, 228, 811; Aristotelean,

102–103, 108, 118, 119, 228, 812; Stoic, 106, 108–109, 126–127, 150, 701, 812; Epicurean, 114; Mohist, 145, 502, 832; Buddhist, 229–232; Jaina, 255; Islamic, 407, 408, 416, 418–419, 422–425, 426, 428, 809; Abelard’s,

1094 Index of Subjects

Logic (continued)

466–467; nominalist, 486; Port-Royal, 586; mathematical, 676, 680, 695–696, 701–704, 710–712, 715–716, 725–728. See also Nyaya; Positivism, logical

Logos, 86, 89, 104, 358 Lyceum. See Aristotelean school

Madhyamika, 220, 221–224, 236, 237, 239, 242, 244, 252, 256, 448; Three Treatise school, 283

Mahavihara universities, 219, 227, 250, 380

Malikites, 402, 439, 452, 512

Manicheans, 122, 397, 958n36

Marburg school, 692, 700, 745, 746, 718, 719

Materialism: in Greece, 77, 89, 107, 111, 113; Christian, 122, 129; in India, 199, 227, 968n49; in China, 316; in Japan, 358; in Europe, 568, 596, 597, 605, 629, 661, 666, 717, 830; as repudiation of German Idealism, 619, 689–691, 721; in Russia, 771

Mathematics: Greek, 99–100, 106, 113– 114, 118, 956nn17–18, 957nn21–22; Chinese, 149, 301, 502, 847, 863–864; Islamic, 404–405, 418, 429; becomes discovery-making machine, 538–543, revolution in Europe, 557–559, 566– 568; source of Kant’s synthetic a priori, 553–554, 851–852; and anti-mathemati- cal philosophies, 659–660, 854–855; higher abstract, 694, 697–700, 705– 708; foundations of, 704, 709–714, 724– 728, 737–738; as communicative operations, 862–870; and distinctiveness of European philosophy, 845–856; in Japan, 847, 996n23. See also science and mathematics networks

Medicine: in Greece, 92, 93, 95, 107, 111– 112, 119, 549, 956n20; in Islamic world, 239, 404, 408, 418, 426, 453, 546; in Europe, 559, 561–562, 577, 597, 674

Meditation, 204, 205–206, 216, 218–219, 223, 272, 276, 290, 295, 315, 332, 336, 337; Neo-Confucian, 308, 310, 315, 318, 794; techniques and results, 964n25, 965n26

Megarian school, 87, 92, 93, 97, 98, 101, 102, 107, 811, 892, 956n20

Metaphysics, 80, 146, 150, 163, 171–174, 176, 309, 312–321, 523, 574, 580, 810, 818–845

Mimamsa, 188, 228, 231–233, 241–249, 257, 259, 264, 269–270

Mimamsakas. See Mimamsa Mind, 2, 7, 676. See also Idealism

Mind-body problem, 588, 593, 652. See also Occasionalism

Mishnah, 389, 433, 443

Mohists, 138, 140–141, 143–145, 832, 890; Canon of, 58, 148–149, 151, 317, 886, 891

Monarchians, 127

Monasteries: Chinese Buddhist, 161–162, 167–168, 272–281, 291–297, 306; Indian Buddhist, 182–186, 203–204, 211; Hindu, 219, 226, 250, 268; Christian, 273, 455–456, 462, 472–473, 501, 574; Taoist, 280, 306; Japanese, 327–329, 332–333, 338, 341, 343; absence in Islam, 459–460

Monophysites, 127, 404 Moral philosophy. See Ethics

Museum of Alexandria, 955nn8–9, 956n13, 956n19

Mu‘tazilites, 396–401, 403, 407, 411–413, 417, 439, 448, 833, 839, 840, 843

Mysticism, 206–208, 454, 494–496, 828. See also Ch’an; Enlightenment, Buddhist; Kabbalah; Meditation; Sufis; Yoga

Naiyayikas. See Nyaya

Names, school of, 150, 799, 809, 812, 826 Name and form, 272, 822

National Learning, 243, 357, 364, 366, 381, 794

Naturphilosophie, 619, 626, 633, 634, 637, 656, 659–660, 689, 768

Negation, 221, 232, 239, 244–246, 261– 262, 481, 750, 777–779, 819

Neo-Confucianism, 28, 58, 60, 68, 70, 73, 165, 273–274, 299–321; in Japan, 323, 339–340, 343, 348, 359–372

Neo-Kantianism, 375, 619, 687, 689–696, 717–724, 737–738, 741–746, 764, 780 Neo-Nyaya, 229, 242, 259–260, 262, 267–

268, 270, 794, 970n69

Neoplatonism, 108, 116, 124, 127, 130, 430–432, 435–437, 440–445, 449, 596, 796, 799, 828, 829, 958n34, 958n37

Neo-Pythagoreans, 109, 111, 114, 125, 126, 128, 442, 448, 847

Netherlands, 496, 529, 567, 575, 585, 589–591, 598

Networks, theory of, 2, 5–6, 64–68, 71– 76, 379

Neutral monism, 724

New Text School, 157–158, 794–795, 806, 884

Nominalism, 221, 238, 259, 269, 465– 466, 487–490, 497, 518–519, 555, 820, 821, 826–830. See also Names, school of; Name and form

Non-Euclidean Geometry, 699 Numerology, 101, 109, 312, 416, 550,

552, 798–799

Nyaya, 188, 228–233, 244, 257, 262, 269– 270. See also Nyaya-Vaisheshika

Nyaya-Vaisheshika, 226, 232, 237, 241– 242, 249, 252, 256, 259–262, 266, 822, 836

Occasionalism, 398–401, 411–413, 587, 612, 652, 821, 840, 842–843

Occultism and spiritualism, 805–807; in Greece, 120–127; in China, 152–158; in Europe, 610, 669, 731, 748. See also Numerology

Ockham’s razor, 485–486

Old Text School, 157–158, 169–170, 173, 794–795, 884

Ontology, 89, 97, 125, 236–240, 244– 245, 255, 263–267, 419, 469, 555, 654– 655, 713, 720, 810

Opposition, division of attention space by, 6, 137, 379, 792, 811

Oratorians, 524, 583

Organizational bases of intellectuals. See Academies; Courts; Libraries; Medicine; Monasteries; Patronage; Publishing; Religions (specific entries); Schools; Translation bureaus; Universities

“Oriental logic,” 375

Papacy, 445–446, 455–458, 460, 462–463,

479, 497, 518, 743

Index of Subjects 1095

Paris, 73, 528–529, 531, 583; critical mass for intellectual market, 774; as international literary center, 1023n13. See also Christendom, intellectual centers in

Pascal’s wager, 586

Patronage: in Greece, 88, 95, 113; in China, 169; in India, 180–191; in Islamic world, 410, 434, 453; in Europe, 497, 554, 585, 595, 598, 601–602, 605, 608, 638–640, 754–755

Peripatetics, Peripatos. See Aristotelean school

Phenomenology, 688, 737–751, 777–779, 831

Philosophical Radicals (London), 530 Pietism, 625, 639, 650–652, 654 Platonism, 59, 101, 109, 596–597, 500,

600, 610, 675, 716, 957n28; Middle Platonism, 125, 128, 812, 827, 958n34. See also Neoplatonism

Pneuma, 106, 107; Pneumatist physicians, 112

Political philosophy, 152–153, 523, 525, 596, 608–609, 660, 803. See also Legalists

Port-Royal, 529, 585–586

Positivism, 684, 688, 693, 690, 696; logical, 262, 268, 717–730, 750

Postmodernism, 10–13, 789, 750, 756, 834, 845

Potentiality, 236–237, 820–821, 841 Pragmatism, 675, 678–683, 718 Presocratics, 82–87, 95, 147, 319, 744,

804

Protestantism, 524; similar organization in Taoism, Hinduism, and Japanese Buddhism, 167–168, 227, 323; and scientific revolution, 553–554, 570–571; early authoritarianism in, 570–572, 575; liberal, 746–748, 769. See also Calvinism; Evangelicals; Pietism

Psychology, experimental, 669, 670, 674, 681–682, 689–693

Publishing, 72, 355, 370, 528–531, 601– 602, 608, 627, 639, 645, 754, 770, 773– 774, 775; textual commentaries as form of, 793–794

Pugdalavadins, 215, 253

Pure Brethren, 410, 415–418, 420

1096 Index of Subjects

Pythagoreans, 60, 83, 85, 87, 89, 90, 91, 93, 99–102, 118, 120, 610, 956n17; number philosophy, 87, 125

Rabbanites, 413, 434–436

Realism, 221, 240–242; 820, 826–830; of universals, 466, 515; sociological, 858– 862. See also Abhidharma; Materialism; Platonism; Vaisheshika

Reflexivity, 321, 379, 380–383, 787–791, 809, 877–881; in higher mathematics, 848–856

Reification, 379, 788, 866

Religion of reason: in Spain, 441–442, 555; in medieval Christian universities, 475–476; in European secularization, 574; Spinoza’s, 589–591; Judaism as, 627. See also Deism

Religions. See Buddhism; Christianity; Confucianism; Gnosticism; Greek religious cults; Hinduism; Islam; Jainism; Judaism; Mysticism; Religion of reason; Sabian star worshippers; Secularization; Shinto; Taoism; Vedic cults; Zoroastrianism

Rhetoric, 102–103, 116–118. See also Schools, of rhetoric

Rinzai Zen, 323, 324, 333–335, 337–341, 343, 348, 350

Romantic Circle, 3, 530, 618, 631, 637 Royal Society, 43, 529

Russell’s paradox, 703, 712–713, 728, 810 Russia, 770–772

Sabian star worshippers, 404, 408, 410, 416, 417. See also Babylonian star worshippers

Sadducees, 433

St. Louis Hegelians, 531, 672 Samkhya, 228, 233–238, 241–242, 244,

257, 259, 264, 269–270, 821, 841, 966n39

Sarvastivadins, 215–217, 220, 222, 236, 242, 248, 249, 256, 820

Satkaryavada, 236, 237, 249, 821, 841 Sautrantikas, 217, 220, 222, 238, 283,

448, 820

Scandinavia, 613, 685, 765–768 Scholasticism, textual, 793–796 Schools, 65; in China, 65, 145, 304; in

Greece, 89–97, 95, 103–104, 109–110, 115–118; of rhetoric, 82, 95, 115, 118; in India, 194–196; Hindu maths, 226, 250, 264, 265, 268–269, 520; in Japan, 337, 339, 343, 348–350, 352–353, 356– 359, 363, 366; Islamic madrasas, 421, 423, 428, 453–454, 460–462, 510–511, 520, 688; Jesuit, 577–578; in Germany, 640–642; in America, 671–672, 683; in Italy, 683–685; in France, 757–758, 761– 762. See also Universities

Science: in China, 305, 319; rapid-discov- ery, 382, 532–538, 559–562, 807, 830; in medieval Christendom, 488–493; revolution in, 523–524, 556; anti-scien- tific intellectuals, 609, 611–613; and cosmology, 804; and occultism, 805–807; reality of its objects, 870–875

Science and mathematics networks: in Islamic world, 396, 404–405, 409, 418, 424, 431, 438, 440, 546–549, 552; in China, 533, 549–551; in Greece, 533– 534, 543–546, 549, 552 in Europe, 543, 553–556; in Christendom, 548–549;

in India, 551; Scotland, 595, 614–617, 639

Scotists, 490, 497, 504, 519, 580, 581, 815,

Secularization, 263, 524–526; Idealism as halfway house to, 316–317, 618, 646, 650, 663–667, 674, 680–681, 683–686, 778, 825–826; in Tokugawa Japan, 362, 369–370, 378; via stalemate, opportunism and compromise, 369, 573–574, 584–587, 600–603; exhaustion in religious wars, 594–596, 598; of universities, 618, 640–641, 644–645; Christianity abolished in revolutionary France, 661; struggle over secular education in Italy, France, and Germany, 683–684, 743; cycles of secularization and religious revival, 747–748. See also Anti-clerical- ism, Deism

Semiotics, 676–677, 679 Sense and reference, 47, 703

“Seven Sages” (Greek), 69, 148

Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, 73, 165, 168, 171, 174, 206, 296

Shaivism, 188–189, 191, 241, 250, 257, 259, 260, 262, 264–265, 269, 969n62

Shinto, 323, 326–327, 348–349, 356–357, 361, 364–367, 373

Shi’ites, 392, 410, 411, 414–416, 427, 433

Shramanas, 196, 199, 203, 204, 207, 811 Sincerity, 586–587, 1029n18

Skepticism, 19, 146, 202, 221, 380, 467, 568, 615, 617, 654, 668, 814, 817, 818, 819; Greek, 60, 87, 97, 98, 102, 105, 107, 108, 111–112, 119, 657; omni-, 222–223, 812, 814, 815–816, 824, 835; fideist, 568, 572, 587, 617, 655, 813; as catalyst to epistemology, 811–813

Society for Psychical Research, 530, 531, 669, 731

Sophists, 86–89, 145, 146, 148, 787, 802, 811, 826, 847

Soto Zen, 323, 324, 335–337, 343–344 Spain, 428–448, 453–454, 575–582, 585,

594

Spain, intellectual centers in, 512; Toledo, 429, 435–441, 445, 467, 579; Córdoba, 434–441; Lucena, 434, 435, 437, 438, 440, 988n36

Stratification of intellectuals, 42–46, 54–64 Structural crunch, 74–76

Stagnation, intellectual, 501–504; in China, 162–165, 319–321, 502–503, 507–508; in medieval Christendom, 501– 504; in Greece, 502–503; in Islamic world, 510–513; in late twentieth century, 521–522. See also Scholasticism, textual

Stoic school, 89, 98, 103–110, 115, 118, 132, 146, 448, 812, 892, 956n11, 957n24

St. Louis Hegelians, 531, 672

Sturm und Drang, 625, 626, 628, 639, 641 Substance, 584, 587–591, 594, 599, 641, 652, 654, 665, 680–681, 746, 767, 778– 779; and relation, 249, 260, 261, 592–

593, 839–845

Sufficient reason, principle of, 414, 580 Sufis, 405–407, 424–426, 448, 451–454,

459, 206, 496, 814

Syncretism, 332, 335, 337, 366; distinguished from synthesis, 132, 799–800. See also Law of small numbers

Synthetic a priori, 653

Index of Subjects 1097

Tantric Buddhism (Shingon, Vajrayana), 256–257, 296, 324, 327, 329, 836

Tao, 150, 151, 157, 804, 838

Taoism: Taoist church, 64, 160–163, 165– 168, 176, 275–281, 284; philosophical, 147, 156–157, 168–174, 299; syncretism with Buddhism, 306. See also Tao Te Ching

Tao Te Ching, 58, 64, 69, 138, 146, 150– 152, 156–157, 296, 317, 794, 803, 809, 811, 812, 886, 890

Tathata (suchness, thusness), 217, 221, 483, 820, 826, 829. See also Haecceitas

Tel Quel circle, 78

Tendai school, 324, 327–331

Theology, 366, 460, 451–454, 461, 473, 475, 477, 487, 488, 555, 557, 788, 1031n23; as source of metaphysical issues, 263; neo-conservative or neo-ortho- dox, 366, 746–748; Romanticist, 632– 633; liberal, 746–748, 769; distinguished from philosophy, 966n33. See also Catholicism; Kalam; ‘Ulama

Thomists, 490, 497, 518–519, 571, 580, 581, 592, 815

Tibet, 184, 256–257, 347

T’ien-t’ai, 274, 276, 283, 285–289, 295, 296, 797

Time, 336, 669, 670, 748–749

Tractarians, Oxford, 531, 664 Transcendentalists, 531, 645, 672 Translation, 279, 429; misinterpretation of

Aristotle as Neoplatonist, 429–432 Translation bureaus, 283, 286–187, 404, 439, 447–448; 467. See also House of

Wisdom; Imports, idea

Truth, 7–8, 19, 24–25, 39, 267, 336, 858, 877–878. See also Epistemology

Ts’ao-Tung sect, 291, 298. See also Soto Zen

Types, theory of, 513, 713, 716, 725, 753, 787, 810

Two-step causality of intellectual change, 191, 380

‘Ulama, 394, 401, 403, 404, 410, 423 Universities: in China, 154, 158, 158, 304,

310, 507; in India, 184, 219, 226–227; in Japan, 339, 349, 371–374, 381, 685– 686; in medieval Christendom, 455,

1098 Index of Subjects

Universities (continued)

458–459, 467, 473–476, 488, 495–500, 515–519; in Spain, 574, 577–579, 581– 582; in Scotland, 616–617, 639; German university revolution, 618–663, 783; in Britain, 663–666, 693–694; in America, 672–674; in Scandinavia, 685; in France, 757–758, 761

Upanishads, 27, 194–199, 200, 201, 208– 209, 233, 250

Utilitarianism, 361, 525, 603, 645, 661, 664–5, 666, 667, 694, 708, 709, 717, 731, 732, 756, 771

Vaisheshika, 231–238, 242, 257, 269, 820, 821. See also Nyaya-Vaisheshika

Vaishnava theism, 189, 191, 193, 241, 250, 262–267, 269, 380

Value theory, 89, 523, 603, 614, 616. See also ethics

Vedanta, 193, 247–248, 250–251, 259, 262–263. See also Advaita

Vedas, 193–195

Vedic cults, 178–182, 191–196, 380, 818, 823

Vienna Circle, 28, 32, 80, 222, 531, 621, 693, 695, 712, 717–730, 736, 751, 752, 783, 1016n23

Vijñanavada. See Yogacara

Vitalism, 619, 717, 742, 746, 747, 754–

764, 768

Wang Yang-ming school, 355

White Deer Hollow Academy, 65, 304 Women intellectuals, 73, 76–78, 496, 530,

579, 585, 669, 732, 775, 948n7, 956n16, 1104n9, 1005n13, 1021n2; in Japan, 329

Writers’ market. See Publishing Writing, 25, 27, 71–72, 196

Yi Ching, 154, 155, 156, 159, 171–172, 289, 307–308, 313, 319, 804, 893, 891

Yin-yang, 143, 146, 151–157, 171, 307, 787, 803

Yoga, 198–199, 209, 237, 256, 257, 269, 968n48. See also Yogacara

Yogacara, 220, 222–224, 236, 238, 242, 244, 246, 248, 252, 256, 270, 287, 317, 448, 820–821; in China, 239, 283

Zen. See Ch’an

Zoroastrianism, 397, 404, 410, 417, 426,

427, 433, 547

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