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Unit 1. What are oil and natural gas?

1.1. Learn the new words and expressions

1. naturally occurring - встречающийся в природе

14. clay – глина

2. hydrocarbon – углеводород

15. to trap – поймать в ловушку; окружать

3. to be made up of – состоять из

16. surface (oil) seepage – нефтепроявление на поверхности земли

4. to absorb – поглощать; впитывать

17. challenging – трудный, сложный

5. to store – хранить; накапливать

18. climatic extremes – экстремальные климатические условия

6. layer - слой, пласт

19. run out – заканчиваться; исчерпываться

7. sediment – осадочная порода; осадочные отложения

20. buried – подземный; залегающий

8. determine – определять, устанавливать

21. coal seam – угольный слой/ пласт

9. light oil – легкая нефть

22. coal tar – каменноугольная смола/ деготь

10. predominantly – преимущественно, особенно

23. oil shale – нефтяной сланец

11. rock – порода

24. reliable – надежный

12. deposit – месторождение, залежь

25. affordable – доступный

13. impermeable – непроницаемый

26. to meet the needs – обеспечивать / удовлетворять потребности

1.2. Study the terms

Oil – a simple or complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons that can be refined to yield gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, and various other products.

Natural gas – a highly compressible, highly expansible mixture of hydrocarbons with a low specific gravity and occurring naturally in a gaseous form. Besides hydrocarbon gases, natural gas may contain appreciable quantities of nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor.

Naturally occurring – found in nature or occurring naturally without the aid of a chemical process.

Rock – a hardened aggregate of different minerals. Rocks are divided into three groups on the basis of their mode of origin: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.

Impermeable – preventing the passage of fluid. A formation may be porous yet impermeable if there is an absence of connecting passages between the voids within it.

Permeable – a porous rock formation in which the individual pore spaces are connected, allowing fluids to flow through the formation.

Hydrocarbons – organic compounds of hydrogen and carbon whose densities, boiling points, and freezing points increase as their molecular weights increase. Although composed of only two elements, hydrocarbons exist in a variety of compounds because of the strong affinity of the carbon atom for other atoms and for itself. The smallest molecules of hydrocarbons are gaseous; the largest are solids. Petroleum is a mixture of many different hydrocarbons.

Pore – an opening or space within a rock or mass of rocks, usually small and often filled with some fluid (water, oil, gas, or all three).

Reserves – the unproduced but recoverable oil or gas in a formation that has been proved by production.

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