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XXXV. A) Read and retell the text. B) Say what meals you have in your country.

Meals in Britain

A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal – sausages, bacon, eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms… But nowadays many people just have cereal with milk and sugar or toast with marmalade, jam, or honey. Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges and jam is made from other fruit. The traditional breakfast drink is tea, which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee, which is made with just hot water. Many visitors to Britain find this coffee disgusting!

For many people lunch is a quick meal. In cities there are a lot of sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread they want – brown, white, or a roll, – and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to go to the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food, both hot and cold. Schoolchildren can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack from home – a sandwich, a drink, some fruit, and perhaps some crisps.

“Tea” means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have afternoon tea with sandwiches, cakes and, of course, a cup of tea. Cream teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and jam.

The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whole family eats together.

On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat, either beef, lamb, chicken or pork with potatoes, vegetables and gravy. Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juices.

The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian, French, Chinese and Indian. People often get take-away meals – you buy food at the restaurant and then bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain is quite international!




Names of seasons are used without articles if they show a certain time of the year.

e.g. It was spring. I like spring.

The definite article is used when these nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes them definite.

e.g. It happened in the spring of 1930.

The spring was cold and rainy.

The indefinite article is used when these nouns are modified by a descriptive attribute.

e.g. It was a cold spring.

When names of seasons are modified by the adjectives early or late, no articles are used.

e.g. It was early spring.

I. Insert articles where necessary.

1. ____ winter was bitterly cold. 2. It was ____ early autumn. 3. ____ summer is my favourite season. 4. October is ____ rainy month. 5. There are many wonderful verses about ____ winter. 6. In ____ spring ____ days become longer and ____ nights grow shorter. 7. ____ children have ____ long vacations in ____ summer and ____ short vacations in ____ winter and ____ spring. 8. ____ summer is ____ good time for sports. 9. It is pleasant to go to ____ country on ____ hot day in ____ summer. 10. It was ____ cold rainy autumn. 11. What is ____ weather like in Siberia in ____ winter? 12. ____ Russian winter is famous for its frosts. 13. Look at ____ sky. It is covered with ____ dark clouds. 14. When it is ____ winter in one part of our country it is already ____ summer in another. 15. It was ____ winter, and ____ night of bitter cold. 16. You see, ____ winter was ____ very bad time for me. 17. It is ____ very dark evening for ____ summer. 18. ____ summer drew to ____ end, and ____ early autumn. 19. I wondered if ____ autumn would come upon us two months before her time. 20. It was ____ lovely evening in ____ spring time of ____ year; and in ____ soft stillness of ____ twilight, all ____ nature was very calm and beautiful. 21. ____ day had been fine and warm; but at ____ coming on of ____ night, ____ air grew cool. 22. It was pretty late in ____ autumn of ____ year when ____ declining sun, struggling through ____ mist which had obscured it all day, looked brightly upon ____ little Wiltshire village. 23. There was going to be ____ election soon, we all knew: this was ____ spring of 1955. 24. It was ____ cold fall and ____ wind came down from ____ mountains. 25. It was ____ fine day, early in ____ spring, and we were in ____ good humour. 26. In ____ winter they used to plan what they would do on ____ warm day in ____ summer. 27. Have you got enough wood for ____ winter? 28. It was ____ wild and snowy winter. 29. When ____ First World War broke out in ____ summer of 1914, Otto Waltz imagined that the fancy dress ball was to become a fancy dress picnic. 30. And somewhere in there, in ____ autumn of 1916, to be exact, ____ old rascal August Gunther died under most mysterious circumstances.

II. Translate it into English.

1. Была поздняя осень. 2. Мое любимое время года — лето. 3. Была дождливая, холодная осень. 4. Зима 1941 года была очень суровой. 5. Осень была исключительно теплая; стояла ясная, солнечная погода. 6. Летом мы всегда живем на даче, а зимой — в городе. 7. Наступила весна. Ярко светит солнце. 8. Пушкин очень любил осень. 9. Какая сегодня великолепная погода! Настоящая весна. 10. Я люблю бывать за городом ранней весной. 11. Лето было очень жаркое, и все стремились уехать из города. 12. Иногда осенью бывает очень хорошая погода.


Names of meals are used without articles.

e.g. When did you have dinner?

The definite article is used when the nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes them definite.

e.g. The dinner we had was very substantial.

The dinner is a success.

The indefinite article is used if the name of a meal is modified by a descriptive attribute.

e.g. After a hearty breakfast the four gentlemen walked to Gravesand.

I. Insert articles where necessary.

A) 1. Is ____ dinner ready? 2. Mother is cooking ____ supper. 3. While they were at ____ breakfast, ____ letters were brought in. 4. I have finished ____ breakfast, ring the bell. 5. We have ____ breakfast at 8. 6. When ____ lunch was over they went upstairs to rest a little. 7. We all agreed that it was ____ very pleasant dinner. 8. It is not good to smoke before ____ breakfast. 9. Nobody objected to ____ light supper. 10. At ____ dinner we sat far from each other and could not talk. 11. All that made ____ excellent breakfast. 12. When I came down to ____ tea all had already gone. 13. ____ dinner was marvellous. 14. She was not sure whether she should order ____ supper herself. 15. It all happened at ____ official luncheon. 16. When ____ dinner was over she decided to talk to him. 17. As for ____ supper itself it was ____ very tasty one. 18. ____ breakfast was bacon and eggs and coffee. 19. We must organize ____ little dinner to celebrate the event. 20. If you come half an hour before ____ supper you will always find him at home. 21. After ____ dinner sit a while, after ____ supper walk a mile. 22. That night we had ____ lonely little dinner. 23. She came down to ____ breakfast. 24. I shall speak to him at ____ dinner. 25. He said he had letters to write and if I would allow him, would remain in his room till ____ dinner was ready. 26. He came in one morning when I was having ____ breakfast on ____ terrace of ____ hotel and introduced himself. 27. I saw to it that he had ____ good dinner. 28. We had cold bacon for ____ lunch that day. 29. ____ dinner was very sound. 30. Come and have ____ tea on ____ deck.

B) 1. They had ____ supper in ____ silence. 2. In ____ tiny dining-room, we were having ____ excellent dinner, cooked by Mary Osbaldiston. 3. She began to dress for ____ dinner to which she had been invited. 4. When they arrived and mounted ____ stairs, Stephan behaved as usual, and soon they were eating ____ supper which Jan had prepared. 5. He assisted her in setting forth ____ neat luncheon, consisting of ____ cold chicken, ____ ham and ____ tarts. 6. ____ dinner was ____ grand one. 7. I shall be glad to see you at ____ lunch at half past one. 8. He had given me ____ dinner, and ____ good one. 9. They had ____ breakfast of bread-and-butter and an omelette. 10. They had ____ filling but not-too-nourishing breakfast. 11. I made his acquaintance at ____ official dinner. 12. ____ dinner is served.

II. Translate it into English.

1. Мы обедаем в 3 часа. 2. Если ужин холодный, подогрей его. 3. Он никогда не опаздывает к обеду. 4. По утрам, до завтрака, мы ходим купаться. 5. Что у нас сегодня на ужин? 6. Они отказались даже от легкого завтрака. 7. За обедом все говорили о новом директоре. 8. Очень полезно прогуляться после ужина. 9. В конце завтрака я обычно пью кофе. 10. Мой руки, ужин готов. 11. Какой вкусный обед! 12. Садись к столу, обед стынет. 13. Завтрак состоял из хлеба с маслом, сыра и кофе. 14. Наши знакомые пригласили нас на обед. 15. Он пригласил меня в ресторан и угостил дорогим обедом. 16. После великолепного представления они сели ужинать.


The noun town, when used with prepositions, does not take an article:

a) when we mean the nearest town (if we live in the country) or the town we live in.

e.g. You cannot go to town tomorrow.

b) when the noun town is opposed to the noun country.

e.g. He was not used to country life, having spent twenty years in town.

Otherwise the noun town is used with the definite or indefinite article.

e.g. I want to go to the town where I was born.

I. Insert articles where necessary.

1. Maycomb was ____ old town. 2. Dolores said nothing all ____ way to ____ town. 3. In all probability he was already in ____ town. 4. Among other public buildings in ____ certain town, there is one anciently common to most towns, great or small – ____ workhouse. 5. I’m going to be out of ____ town for a few days. 6. Everybody in ____ town had heard about the kinds of trouble we were in. 7. I have invented an explanation of why Will Fairchild’s ghost is likely to be seen roaming almost anywhere in ____ town. 8. “Do you know Ilium at all?.. It’s ____ family town.”

II. Translate it into English.

1. Почему вы так рано вернулись из города? 2. Я провела все лето в городе. 3. Мы провели несколько дней в маленьком городке на Кавказе. 4. Мы живем на даче, но часто приезжаем в город. 5. Не бери Лору и Сьюзан в город. Они будут постоянно ссориться.


When material and abstract nouns are used in a general sense, no article is used.

e.g. Blood is thicker than water.

Time flies.

Here also belong such uncountable nouns as: work, advice, information, permission, knowledge, weather, news, progress, business, money, poetry, luck, mud, music, pleasure.

e.g. Work first, pleasure afterwards.

When a definite part of the substance is meant (when the noun is modified by a particularizing attribute or is made definite by the situation), the definite article is used.

e.g. She sighed for the air, the quiet, and the liberty of the country.

The beer they were drinking tasted bitter.

Note 1. Abstract nouns modified by an attribute in pre-position are used without articles unless they are modified by a particularizing attribute.

e.g. English literature, Russian art

but: the English literature of the XXth century, the Russian art of the Middle Ages.

Note 2. The abstract noun weather is never used with the indefinite article.

e.g. What fine weather!

It is nasty weather.

When the noun weather is used in a general sense, the definite article is used.

e.g. There are people who say that the weather can influence people’s mood.

When an indefinite part of the substance is meant, some is used.

e.g. We took some bread and cheese with us.

Give me some information on this subject.

Abstract and material nouns can be used with the indefinite article. In this case:

1) the noun denotes a certain kind of a quality, feeling or state, or a certain sort of material or certain amount of it.

e.g. In her eyes there was an eagerness, which could hardly be seen without delight.

Here is a wine you’ve never tasted, I’m sure.

Seventy franks for a beer?

2) The noun nearly always has a descriptive attribute.

e.g. He is a national pride.

3) The indefinite article gives the meaning of something peculiar, narrowing the meaning of the noun.

e.g. “Tess,” he said in a preparatory tone after a silence...

Soon he saw a light in the distance.

4) The indefinite article is used with the nouns period, population, distance, height, salary, etc., followed by “of + numeral + noun”.

e.g. Simpson was out of the city for a period of ten days.

Note 3. Abstract and material nouns are uncountables. Often such one and the same word can be used as a mass noun and as a count noun when it refers to one separate unit composed of the substance or to one occurrence of the phenomenon. As a countable noun it is used with an indefinite article.

e.g. All plants need light. Do you have a light by your bed?

Houses were built of stone. Wait! I have a stone in my shoe.

I will come with pleasure. It will be a pleasure to see you.

Have pity! Have you no shame? What a pity! What a shame!

This is the age of science. Physics is a science.

A city without art is dead. Painting is an art.

Honour must be satisfied. It is an honour for me to be here.

Most men want success. Your play was a great success.

George was a great success in it.

Words that can be used in both those ways include:

bone noise fire duty activity injustice

brick sound pain history agreement justice

cake space war hope decision language

hair time worry thought kindness virtue

Dress (mass noun) = clothing, for either sex, usually for a special occasion; a dress = a frock for a woman or girl.

A justice is a man who administers justice; an injustice is one example of injustice.

I. Insert articles where necessary.

1. She hurried in again and found ____ water almost boiled away. 2. ____ blood is thicker than ____ water. 3. It is such ____ weary work. 4. Rosa tasted ____ wine. It was harsh but refreshing. 5. I had seldom heard my friend speak with such ____ intensity of ____ feeling. 6. You must learn to face ____ life seriously, Stephen. 7. She looked with ____ eager, hungry eyes at ____ bread and ____ meat and ____ beer that ____ landlady brought her. 8. And then, one day, one Sunday, I found out where the fugitive from ____ justice, the model-maker, — where Franklin Hoenikker could be found. 9. I know all how he didn’t care about ____ money and ____ power. 10. The mother was yellow in colour and her skin resembled ____ leather. 11. Mr Pickwick stood in ____ principal street of this illustrious town, and gazed with ____ air of ____ curiosity not unmixed with ____ interest, on ____ objects around him. 12. Andrew was the first to break ____ silence. 13. Soon he saw ____ light in the distance and understood that he was on the right track. 14. The Happy Prince was gilded all over with ____ thin leaves of ____ fine gold. 15. His face was so beautiful in ____ moonlight that little Swallow was filled with ____ pity. 16. “What a lovely bit of ____ glass!” 17. She went about looking into ____ dining room, which had been transformed into ____ kind of jewel box glowing with ____ flowers, ____ silver, ____ gold, ____ tinted glass. 18. There was ____ reflective silence. 19. What ____ pleasure to meet you again! 20. He was silent for ____ time and drew thoughtfully his pipe. 21. We had ____ wonderful weather. 22. ____ dampness of this part of the country disagreed with the travellers. 23. My heart felt as heavy as ____ lead. 24. The maid brought in ____ pears, ____ cold chicken, ____ tongue, ____ cheese. 25. ____ dampness in the air is called humidity.

II. Insert articles or “some” where necessary.

1. We sipped ____ tea so weak that it tasted like ____ metal against the teeth. 2. You will be wishing to have ____ coffee after your journey. 3. There were two bottles of wine, ____ plate of ____ oranges with ____ powdered sugar. 4. She did not answer, but her face was hard and pale as ____ stone. 5. You’ve caught cold: you must have ____ gruel to drive it out. 6. He bought ____ cold beef, and ____ ham, and ____ French bread and butter.

III. Translate it into English.

1. Он не любил кофе. 2. Лингвистика — это наука. 3. Я ходил по аллее и думал о вишневом варенье. 4. Кто-то попросил свет, и я услышал, как чиркнула спичка. 5. Не забудьте дать кошке молока. 6. Чай слишком крепкий, я не люблю крепкий чай. 7. Женщина смотрела на зеленый бархат. 8. Если вы плохо себя чувствуете, не выходите в такую погоду. 9. Он изучает английскую историю. 10. Он изучает историю Англии. 11. Дом Браунов находился на расстоянии пяти миль от почты.



had + V3


I had worked (I’d worked)


I had not worked (I hadn’t worked)


Had I worked?

Sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past: I arrived at the party. We use the Past Perfect to say that something had already happened before this time:

e.g. When I arrived at the party, Tom had already gone home.

So the Past Perfect Tense denotes an action completed before a certain moment in the past.

e.g. He had finished his work

when I called him.

by 5 o’clock yesterday.

The Past Perfect is not used to denote a succession of actions. In this case the Past Indefinite is used.

e.g. He got up, went to the bathroom, had breakfast and left for work.

The Past Indefinite is used with the conjunctions after, before, when if the succession of actions should be expressed.

e.g. He had a short rest before he went on with his work.

When I wrote the letter, I posted it.

The Past Perfect is used with the conjunctions


+ Past Perfect… when…+ Past Indefinite,




No sooner… + Past Perfect… than… + Past Indefinite.

e.g. He had hardly done it when they came. (= Hardly had he done it when they came.)

No sooner they had arrived than it started to rain. (= No sooner had they arrived than it started to rain.)

I. Read and translate the sentences.

1. I had to buy a new pen because I had lost the old one. 2. The last electric train had gone when we got to the station. 3. He visited the places where he had fought during the Great Patriotic War. 4. After I had left for work I remembered that I had forgotten to ring you up. 5. We had collected our things and got into the bus before it started raining. 6. When my friend came to see me I had already prepared my lessons. 7. He had read two English books in the original by the 1st of September. 8. Though I came home at 11 p.m. yesterday, my son had not gone to sleep yet. 9. Yesterday we sent him a telegram as we had not received any letter from him for a long time. 10. By the end of January we had passed our examinations. 11. My friend had never been to St. Petersburg before and stopped in front of every building and every monument. 12. The rain had stopped when we left home. 13. Father had already returned from the fields when I came home.

II. Answer the questions.

1. Where had you lived before you came to Novosibirsk? 2. What language had you studied before you began to study English? 3. How many words had you learned by the end of December? 4. Had you passed your last examination by the 15th of January? 5. Why was your friend late for school? 6. What had you done before you left the house? 7. What time had you done your homework yesterday by? 8. What did you do after you had done your homework? 9. What had you done before you went to bed?

III. Ask questions to the sentences.

1. The Petrovs had moved to St. Petersburg before we came to live in that city. 2. After Mary had introduced us to her guests everybody sat down to table. 3. The teacher had looked through all the exercise-books by the time the lesson began. 4. We had discussed all the questions by the end of the week. 5. We had finished our work by 6 o’clock yesterday. 6. I couldn’t recognize him as I had not seen him since we studied at University together.

IV. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect.

1. Jane (be) _____________ on her way to meet her mother whom she (not/see) _____________ for many years. 2. His wife (be) __________ not in. She (go) _________ out a quarter of an hour before. 3. His smile (be) _____________ something she never (see) _____________ before. 4. Fleur (return) _____________ when he (get) _____________ home. 5. He (come) _____________ into the room a moment after I (get) ____________ there. 6. When evening (fall) _____________ Jack (leave) _____________ the house. 7. He (be) __________ thinner than when I (see) _________ him last, and a little grayer. 8. Just at that moment a boy and a girl (come) ___________ and (sit) _____________ down where the old couple (be) _____________ before. 9. John (stand) _____________ where she (leave) _____________ him.

V. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Когда мы вошли в зал, собрание уже началось. 2. Как только дождь прекратился, мы пошли на реку. 3. Мы прочитали несколько книг о Чайковском, прежде чем поехали на экскурсию в Клин. 4. Где вы работали до того, как поступили в Университет? 5. После того, как мой приятель ушел, я вспомнил, что забыл вернуть ему книгу. 6. Павел закончил свою работу к 8 часам. 7. На следующее утро, когда она уже приготовила себе завтрак, к ней пришли школьные друзья. 8. Она сидела на диване и думала, почему еще не пришло письмо от отца. 9. Он вспомнил Ленинград, который он знал еще до войны. 10. Я не знала, когда он ушел.



shall (will) + have + V3


I shall/will have worked We shall/will have worked

You will have worked

He/She/It will have worked They will have worked

I’ll have worked


I shall/will not have worked We shall/will not have worked

You will not have worked

He/She/It will not have worked They will not have worked

I shan’t/won’t have worked


Shall/Will I have worked? Shall/Will we have worked?

Will you have worked?

Will he/she/it have worked? Will they have worked?

We use the Future Perfect tense to say that something will already have happened before a certain time in the future.

e.g. He will have finished his work

when I call him.

by 5 o’clock tomorrow.

I. Translate it into Russian.

1. We shall have discussed his report by 4 o’clock in the afternoon. 2. Will you have packed all your things by 4 o’clock in the afternoon? 3. I shall have looked through your exercise books by the time you return. 4. We shall discuss his report tomorrow. 5. Will you be still discussing this question when I return?

II. Answer the questions.

1. When will you have read your English book? 2. What time will you have done your work today by? 3. When will your son (daughter) have passed all his (her) examinations? 4. What time will you have prepared your home-work tomorrow by?

III. Ask questions to the sentences.

1. I shall have read your book by the time you come back. 2. They will have left Moscow by the time we come there. 3. We shall have passed our examination by the end of January. 4. The child will have fallen asleep by the time we return home.

IV. Put the verb in brackets into the Future Perfect.

1. We (finish) _____________ all the housework by 6 o’clock this afternoon. 2. I (read) _____________ this book by tomorrow evening. 3. Thousands of people (see) _____________ this exhibition by the end of the month. 4. They (build) _____________ this house long before the end of October. 5. They (do) _____________ half of the journey when they reach the Volga. 6. I (write) _____________ my composition by the time you come back. 7. We’ve got 5 days in Petersburg: we are leaving on Monday; but I’m sure that we (see) _____________ everything of importance by then.

V. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite, the Future Indefinite and the Future Perfect.

1. I (suppose) _____________ when I (come) _____________ back in 2 years’ time they (pull) _________________ down all these old houses. 2. “Your face (be) ______________ dirty, Tom.” “All right, I (wash) _____________ it.” 3. “You have just missed the last train.” “Never mind, I (walk) _____________.” 4. When we (take) _____________ our exams we (have) _____________ a holiday. 5. “You (know) _____________ the way to the Bolshoi Theatre?” “No.” “Then I (show) _____________ you.” 6. By the time you (finish) ____________ cooking they (do) _____________ their work. 7. “May I use your phone to ring for a taxi?” “Oh, there is no need for that; my son (drive) _____________ you home.” 8. By the time he (come) ________________ they (go) ______________________. 9. I still (be) _______________ here next summer but Tom (leave) _____________. 10. I hope it (stop) _____________ snowing by tomorrow morning. 11. If you (think) _____________ it over you (see) _____________ I am right. 12. “I’m going to Hyde Park to hear the people making speeches.” “You (be) __________ late. By the time you (get) _____________ there they (finish) _____________ their speeches and everybody (go) _____________ home.”


The Present Indefinite Passive

to be (am, is, are) + V3

The Past Indefinite Passive

to be (was, were) + V3

The Future Indefinite Passive

shall/will + be + V3

Indefinite Tense Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Present I am asked

we are asked

you are asked

he/she/it is asked

they are asked I am not asked

we are not asked

you are not asked

he/she/it is not asked

they are not asked am I asked?

are we asked?

are you asked?

is he/she/it asked?

are they asked?

Past I was asked

we were asked

you were asked

he/she/it was asked

they were asked I was not asked

we were not asked

you were not asked

he/she/it was not asked

they were not asked was I asked?

were we asked?

were you asked?

was he/she/it asked?

were they asked?

Future I shall/will be asked

we shall/will be asked

you will be asked

he/she/it will be asked

they will be asked I shall/will not be asked

we shall/will not be asked

you will not be asked

he/she/it will not be asked

they will not be asked shall/will I be asked?

shall/will we be asked?

will you be asked?

will he/she/it be asked?

will they be asked?

We often prefer the passive when it is not so important (or unknown) who or what did the action.

e.g. This house was built in 1930.

In this example, it is not so important who built the house.

In a passive sentence, if you want to say who did or what caused the action, use by or with.

e.g. This house was built by my grandfather.

The room was filled with smoke.

The verbs which take prepositional objects can form passive construction of the following pattern:


smth is sent for

was spoken about

will be laughed at

e.g. The film was much spoken about.

The doctor was sent for.

I. Give the three forms of the following verbs.

Read, write, do, hear, bring, buy, catch, give, take, drink, eat, speak, tell, say, sing, know, send, spend, sleep, shut, lose, leave, break, show, put.

II. Read and translate the sentences.

1. The letter is written with a pen. 2. A lot of books are printed in our country every year. 3. The newspapers are read by everybody. 4. This pupil is much spoken about. 5. It is known that there are sixty minutes in an hour. 6. It is said that he is a good writer. 7. The vet was sent for. 8. The house was built last year. 9. The letter was received by them yesterday. 10. These words were taken from the book. 11. The child will be taken care of. 12. The book will be translated by them. 13. These things will be bought there.

III. Use the predicate in the Past and Future tenses.

1. These books are sold everywhere. 2. The students are given much homework every day. 3. What kinds of books are usually discussed at your lessons? 4. We are told to stop and not to cross the street when the light is red. 5. Wheat is grown in many regions of Russia.

IV. Make the sentences negative.

1. Your answer is expected today. 2. Their exercise books were looked through yesterday. 3. Our work will be finished tomorrow. 4. His report was discussed at the University. 5. Those students will be given some interesting work to do next month. 6. His brother’s work is much spoken about at the factory. 7. The village can be reached before evening. 8. This report will be made by a well-known professor. 9. I shall be taught how to drive a car.

V. Ask questions to the sentences.

1. All the patients are usually examined in room 17. 2. This engineer was introduced to us by the Klimovs. 3. That part of our country is described in many books. 4. The students will be asked many different questions at the examinations. 5. Last month my brother was operated on by professor Glebov. 6. The doctor was sent for two hours ago.

VI. Answer the questions.

1. Where is the sender’s address written in English letters? 2. What was written in the newspaper article you read last? 3. What foreign languages are taught in our schools? 4. When were your parents born? 5. When is International Women’s Day celebrated? 6. When was your home city founded? 7. Is your place often visited by foreign tourists? 8. Is your bag taken away? 9. Will you be invited to the stadium? 10. Will the letters be brought by the postman?

VII. Put the following into the Passive Voice.

1. We hear a sound of a violin in the hall. 2. My sister often takes Bob for his brother. 3. My mother wakens me at 7 o’clock every morning. 4. She found the envelope at last behind the dining-room clock. 5. I brought this book a week ago. 6. A great artist painted this picture. 7. John broke the window the other day. 8. I shall post that letter tomorrow. 9. They will discuss your report next week. 10. The secretary will change our time-table in a week. 11. Tom will meet us at the station.

VIII. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Indefinite in the Active or in the Passive Voice.

1. Then the door (shut) __________________ behind him. 2. But when autumn (come) _______________ the cows (drive) ________________ home from the grass. 3. I (lead) ___________________ the way up and as I (reach) ________________ the top the door (open) _____________ by Mr Smith. 4. At lunch nothing (discuss) _____________ but the latest news. 5. “Will you work on this new job all your life?” The question (ask) _____________ with sincere interest. 6. The living-room (sweep) _________________ and (dust) ____________________.

IX. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Его просят

Ему велели прийти сюда.

Ее пригласят


Ему не дали

Им не показали эту книгу

Нам не пришлют

Ей не обещают


Нас ожидают

Их проэкзаменуют в среду.

Вас примут


Письма отправят

Телеграмму принесли утром.

Газеты получают


Их попросили

Нас приглашают принять участие в этой работе.

Ей велят


Его оперировали

Ее искали вчера?

За нами посылали

О них говорили


The Present Perfect Passive

have been + V3

The Past Perfect Passive

had been + V3

The Future Perfect Passive

shall/will have been + V3

Perfect Tense Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Present I/we/you/they have been asked

he/she/it has been asked I/we/you/they have not been asked

he/she/it has not been asked Have I/we/you/they been asked?

Has he/she/it been asked?

Past I/we/you/he/she/it/they had been asked I/we/you/he/she/it/they had not been asked Had I/we/you/he/she/it/ they been asked?

Future I/we shall/will have been asked

you/he/she/it/they will have been asked I/we shall/will not have been asked

you/he/she/it/they will not have been asked Shall/will I/we have been asked?

Will you/he/she/it/they have been asked?

e.g. The room looks nice. It has been cleaned.

Have you ever been bitten by a dog?

I am not going to the party. I haven’t been invited.

The room looked much better. It had been cleaned.

Jim didn’t know about the change of plans. He hadn’t been told.

The project will have been finished by June.

For the theory on using the Passive Voice see “The Passive Voice of the Indefinite Tenses”.

There are no passive forms of the Perfect Continuous tenses. The forms of the Perfect tenses Active Voice are used instead.

I. Put the following into the Passive.

1. The secretary has recently brought this letter. 2. Jack has just spilled the milk. 3. My little brother has broken this cup. 4. She has dusted the room carefully. 5. He felt better when he had reached the post-office, bought an envelope and posted the letter. 6. By the time the director came she had typed the letters. 7. They went home after they had finished the work. 8. They wondered why we had not visited him before. 9. Tom has just told me a good story. 10. She told us her name after we had asked her twice. 11. We have never lived in this house. 12. They will have discussed your report by next week. 13. The secretary will have changed our time-table by Monday.

II. Make the following sentences negative.

1. The telegramme has just been sent. 2. A new cinema has been built in our street this year. 3. The letter has not been posted yet. 4. All our parcels had been accepted by the time Jane joined us at the post-office. 5. Such high buildings have never been constructed before. 6. Five new schools have been built in our native town since 1950. 7. All the tickets had already been sold out by the time we came to the box-office. 8. All these questions will have been discussed by the time you come.

III. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Письмо только что получено. 2. Письмо будет получено к 5 часам. 3. Я уже ответил на письмо своего брата, когда вы пришли. 4. На это письмо ответили до того, как вы пришли. 5. За последнее время в нашем городе выстроено много прекрасных зданий. 6. Письмо еще не отправлено, но не беспокойтесь, оно придет в Петербург вовремя. 7. Я прочитал в газете вчера, что эта книга уже переведена на английский язык. 8. Когда я вошел в комнату, все уже было приготовлено к обеду. 9. Я думаю, что к этому времени все магазины уже будут закрыты. 10. Работа будет закончена к 6 часам. 11. Когда я пришел сдавать экзамен, всех студентов нашей группы уже проэкзаменовали. 12. Этот театр был построен до того, как вы переехали в наш город? – Да. 13. К концу этой недели его имя будет известно каждому.


The Present Continuous Passive

am/is /are + being + V3

The Past Continuous Passive

was/were + being + V3

The Future Continuous Passive = The Future Indefinite Passive

shall/will + be + V3

Tense Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Present I am being asked

we/you/they are being asked

he/she/it is being asked I am not being asked

we/you/they are not being asked

he/she/it is not being asked Am I being asked?

Are we/you/they being asked?

Is he/she/it being asked?

Past I/he/she/it was being asked

we/you/they were being asked I/he/she/it was not being asked

we/you/they were not being asked Was I/he/she/it being asked?

Were we/you/they being asked?

Future The Future Indefinite Passive is used.

e.g. The little girl has been very ill and the doctor says she mustn’t go to school, so she is being taught at home.

I couldn’t use my car last week, it was being repaired.

The theory on using the Passive Voice see in “The Passive Voice of the Indefinite Tenses”.

I. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. New Metro lines are being built in Moscow. 2. When I came to Leningrad in 1957, the first Metro line was still being built. 3. Listen attentively, a new grammar rule is being explained. 4. What rule was being explained when you came into the classroom? 5. I don’t think the articles will be translated on time. 6. A new building for the picture gallery will be built soon.

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct voice and tense form.

1. The teacher told the student to look up the rule himself as it (to explain) _____________ many times. “You (to be) _____________ inattentive while it (to explain) _____________,” he said. 2. When I came into the hall, a new film (to show) _____________. I was sorry that I (not to tell) _____________ about the show before as the end (to impress) _____________ me greatly. 3. A new stadium (to build) _____________ opposite our house lately, and my brother says that the number of people taking part in sports events there (to increase) _____________. 4. “Are you ready to leave?” “No, I’m not, some things (to pack) _____________ still and my tickets (not to bring) _____________ yet.” 5. The boy (to tell) _____________ that he (to allow) _____________ to go out only after his homework (to do) _____________ carefully. 6. The mother (to tell) _____________ not to worry about her sick boy. “He (to examine) _____________ soon by the doctor and now he (to take good care of) _____________,” said the nurse. 7. Peter came late to the party, so when he entered the room all the guests (to introduce) ___________ to each other, some of them (to dance) __________, and some (to sing) _____________ in the next room.

III. Put the following into the Passive: past, present and future.

1. Our scientists are examining a new spaceship. 2. Our friends are making preparations to meet them. 3. They are preparing the meal now. 4. Tom and Harry were carrying our suitcases.

IV. Translate the following sentences using the Passive tense forms.

1. Я просмотрел только часть журналов, остальные просматриваются сейчас. 2. Когда я приехал в отпуск в родную деревню, там строили новый клуб. 3. Ваши экзаменационные работы сейчас проверяются. 4. Интересно, что здесь строят? 5. Какие вопросы будут обсуждать сегодня на собрании? 6. Приходите часов в 12, как раз будут обсуждать очень интересный вопрос. 7. О вчерашних событиях сейчас повсюду говорят. 8. Не беспокойтесь. За вашими детьми присмотрят, если вы вернетесь поздно. 9. Пока готовился завтрак, мать пошла к постели ребенка. 10. Аню спрашивали, когда я вошла в комнату, где шел экзамен. 11. Не говорите моему мужу, что меня рисуют. 12. Мне сказали, что около железнодорожного моста строятся два новых дома.


The Formation

The Present Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Present Perfect of the auxiliary verb “to be” and Participle I of the notional verb.

In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

In the negative form the negative particle “not” is placed after the first auxiliary verb.


singular plural

1. I have (I’ve) been writing 1. We have (we’ve) been writing

2. You have (you’ve) been writing 2. You have (you’ve) been writing

3. He/she/it has (he’s) been writing 3. They have (they’ve) been writing


singular plural

1. Have I been writing? 1. Have we been writing?

2. Have you been writing? 2. Have you been writing?

3. Has he/she/it been writing? 3. Have they been writing?


singular plural

1. I have not (haven’t) been writing 1. We have not (haven’t) been writing

2. You have not (haven’t) been writing 2. You have not (haven’t) been writing

3. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) been writing 3. They have not (haven’t) been writing


singular plural

1. Have I not

Haven’t I been writing? 1. Have we not

Haven’t we been writing?

2. Have you not

Haven’t you been writing? 2. Have you not

Haven’t you been writing?

3. Has he/she not

Hasn’t he/she been writing? 3. Have they not

Haven’t they been writing?

The Use of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense

We distinguish two uses of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense: the Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive and the Present Perfect Continuous Exclusive.

1. The Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive is used to denote an action which began in the past, has been going on up to the present and is still going on.

The Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive is generally used with since (denoting the starting point of the action), for (denoting the whole period of duration), these two days, etc. (If the conjunction since introduces a clause, the verb in this clause is in the Past Indefinite.)

e.g. We have been living in London for about ten years.

Ever since I saw you last I have been thinking about you.

With verbs of feeling and perception (to be, to know, to understand, to love, to hate, to like, to dislike, to want, to wish, to believe, etc.) the Present Perfect Inclusive is used in the meaning of the Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive and is the only tense possible with these verbs:

e.g. I have known him for some months.

They haven’t seen Lorra since she left for New York.

Note: In colloquial English the verbs to want and to wish are often to be found in the Perfect Continuous form, though they are not used in the Continuous form.

e.g. I have been wishing to speak to you ever since you returned.

The Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive is rendered in Russian by the present.

e.g. I have been teaching at this school for 20 years.

Я преподаю в этой школе 20 лет.

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