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Http://www.World-nuclear.Org/info/inf32.Html (updated March 2011)

  1. Read the text carefully and answer these questions according to the information in the text.

  1. How does a nuclear reactor produce energy?

  2. How is the steam used in a nuclear reactor?

  3. What is the basic aim in a reactor used for research?

  4. How was the energy moderated in the world’s first nuclear reactors?

  5. What are the main components common to most types of reactors?

  6. How is uranium used?

  7. What is moderator?

  8. What type of material are control rods made?

  9. What is the main function of control rods?

  10. What is pressure vessel made of?

  11. How many steam generators may a reactor have?

  12. How does containment protect the reactor core?

ǃ Participles

Participles have two forms:

Present participle or –ing form and past participle or -ed form; for irregular verbs it is the third form.

Present Participles are used

  • as adjectives

  • to shorten relative clause

Past Participles are used

  • to shorten a relative clause in the passive

Look at these sentences from the article and underline the Present Participle and the Past Participles:

In the world's first nuclear reactors about two billion years ago, the energy was not harnessed since these operated in rich uranium orebodies for a couple of million of years, moderated by percolating rainwater.

Over 16% of the world's produced electricity coming from nuclear energy is considered to be more than from all sources worldwide in 1960. 

  1. Combine the following pairs of sentences into one using a participle.

1. Eight of the USA nuclear reactors have been decommissioned since 1978. They left the country with some 130 reactors.

2. The critics of nuclear energy have been citing the various nuclear plant disasters. The disasters occurred in the past.

3. This splitting of atoms produces copious amount of energy. It is used to heat water and produce steam.

4. Nuclear power is the power generated by nuclear reaction. The environment is controlled within the huge nuclear reactors.

5. Japan is a great country. It is known for fighting back.

  1. Underline the correct participle floating nuclear power plants

Apart from over 200 nuclear reactors 1.powered/powering various kinds of ships, Rosatom in Russia has set up a subsidiary to supply 2. floated/floating nuclear power plants 3. ranged/ranging in size from 70 to 600 MWe. These will be mounted in pairs on a large barge, permanently 4.mooring/moored where it is needed to supply power and possibly some desalination to a shore settlement or industrial complex. The first has two 40 MWe reactors 5. basing/based on those in icebreakers and will operate at Vilyuchinsk, Kamchatka peninsula, to ensure sustainable electricity and heat supplies to the naval base there from 2013. The second 6. planning/planned plant of this size is for Pevek on the Chukotka peninsula in the Chaun district of the far northeast, near Bilibino. 7. ExpectingExpected electricity cost is much lower than from present alternatives.

The Russian KLT-40S is a reactor well proven in icebreakers and now proposed for wider use in desalination and, on barges, for remote area power supply. Here a 150 MWt unit produces 35 MWe (gross) as well as up to 35 MW of heat for desalination or district heating. These are designed to run 3-4 years between refuelling and it is envisaged that they will be operated in pairs to allow for outages, with on-board 8.refuelled\refuelling capability and 9. using/used fuel storage. At the end of a 12-year 10. operated/operating cycle the whole plant is taken to a central facility for 2-year overhaul and removal of 11. using/used fuel, before being returned to service. Two units will be mounted on a 21,000 tonne barge. A larger Russian factory-built and barge-mounted reactor is the VBER-150, of 350 MW thermal, 110 MWe. The larger VBER-300 PWR is a 325 MWe unit, originally 12.envisaging/envisaged in pairs as a 13. floated/floating nuclear power plant, 14. displaced/displacing 49,000 tonnes. As a cogeneration plant it is rated at 200 MWe and 1900 GJ/hr.

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