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Chapter 2

  1. Do you think that children are the best negotiators?

  • -Children are excellent negotiators because:

■ They are persistent.

■ They don't know the meaning of the word no. They know

that when we say no, we often mean maybe.

■ They are never embarrassed.

■ They often read us better than we read them.

2. What is the main problem with win-lose negotiations?

The loser usually behaves quite predictably and tries to get even. The loser's thinking goes something like this: "I'm going to get you. It may not be today. It may not be tomorrow, but I will get you. You will bleed and not even know it." Losers usually wind up pouring much of their energy into all kinds of dysfunctional behavior, aimed at getting out of the losing position. Sometimes the result is even lose-lose.

  1. Why is that important to reformulate our strategies during negotiations?

You develop negotiating strategies when you plan the negotiation. As you gain new data, it is important to reassess earlier strategies. What is the motivation of the parties to do this deal? What strategies worked? What didn't work? This is the time to put your creativity and ingenuity to work.

  1. Why do we need tactics in negotiation process?

Tactics are the part of achieving the overall negotiating strategies. Tactics may include whether or not to make the first offer, how much to offer, when to make concessions, and the speed at which you plan to make concessions. Many strategies and tactics are discussed in this book—not for you to be manipulative, but rather for you to avoid being a victim and to be aware of manipulations. In order for a negotiating subterfuge or "game" to be successful, TOS needs a victim—some poor slob who doesn't know any better.

  1. Should we prepare our settlement range before the negotiation?

This is important for one key reason: to help prevent you from making concessions you might not have wanted to make had not the pressures of the moment been so great during the negotiation process. This is particularly true in international negotiations.

  1. What is more important in negotiations: emotions or logic?

This is important for one key reason: to help prevent you from making concessions you might not have wanted to make had not the pressures of the moment been so great during the negotiation process. This is particularly true in international negotiations.

Chapter 3

  1. How do people from all over the world see American negotiators?

There are differences among the perceptions. . The Japanese, for example, rarely associate being "industrious" with Americans, while this is a perception found among

the French, British, Brazilians, and Mexicans. The British, Japanese, and French see Americans as "friendly," while this trait doesn't make the list of the Brazilians or Mexicans.

  1. Why minimizing the number of times of invoking the name of your organization is important?

No one cares about taking advantage of a large organization such as AT&T, IBM, Exxon, or the U.S. government. If you do mention the name of such an organization throughout your discussions, TOS will reason, "If one of us is going to get hurt in this deal, it should be this rich, billion-dollar organization, not me." Let TOS know that regardless of the size of your organization, you as an individual are held accountable for your conduct and performance.

  1. Is American directness obstacle or not?

Yes, because It is not typical in many cultures, especially in Latin and Asian countries. TOS could see such behavior as abrupt and unpleasant. In addition, directness may result in your missing some of the subtleties being communicated by your foreign counterpart. For example, it is unlikely in Mexico or Japan that TOS is going to answer "yes" or "no" to any question. You have to discern answers to questions through the context of what is being said rather than from the more obvious, direct cues that U.S. negotiators use.

  1. Do Americans prefer to negotiate alone or in teams?

Americans often take a "Lone Ranger" approach to negotiations, preferring to go it alone or to include very few people at the negotiating table. The thinking seems to be, "Come on boss, give it to me. I've got broad shoulders. I'll take care of it."

  1. American negotiators tend to think in terms of the immediate deal rather than of developing a business relationship that will bear long-term benefits. What is TOS’s reaction?

American negotiators do not take the negotiations seriously and are not properly prepared with the appropriate expertise and support personnel to conduct meaningful


  1. Why American negotiators don’t know foreign languages?

There has traditionally been neither a desire nor perceived practical necessity for the U.S. negotiator to learn about other cultures. Both the assumed advantages of living in the United States and national pride contribute to a preoccupation with "the American way." Too, the vast U.S. market has been one where we expect "Mohammed to come to the mountain"—that is, for TOS to come to the United States to do business or for TOS to speak our language. Finally, unlike most Europeans who speak more than one language, including English, most Americans know no foreign language.

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