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Secondary education At the age of 11, most children go to comprehevsive schools of which the mayority are for both boys & girls.

About 90 % of all state-financed secondary schools are of this type. Most other children receive secondary education in grammar & secondary modern schools. ( Until 1960s most children took an examination at the end of primary school (The 11+): those who passed it succesfully went to grammar schools while those who did not went to secondary modern schools. A few areas especially in the south of England still have selective exams at the age of 11.)

Comprehensive schools were introduced in 1965. The idea of comprehensive education, supported by the Labour Party, was to give all children of whatever background the same opportunity in education.

At 16 students in England and Wales take GCSE examinations. In 1988 these examinations replaced the GCE(General Sertificate of Education) and O-levels(Ordinary levels) which were usually passed by about 29 % of school students. GCSE exams are taken by students of all levels of ability in any of a range of subjects, and may involve a final examination, and assessment of work done by the student during the 2-year course, or both of these things.

Some comprehensive schools, however, do not have enough academic courses for 6-formers. Students can transfer either to a grammar school or to 6-form college to get the courses they want. School-leavers with jobs sometimes take part-time vocational courses, on day-release from work. School-leavers without jobs get no money from the government unless they join a youth training scheme, which provides a living allowance during 2 years of work experience.

At 18 some students take A-level(Advanced level) examinations, usually in two or three subjects. It is necessary to have A-level in order to go to a university or Polytechnic.

But some pupils want to stay on at school after taking their GCSE, to prepare for a vocational course or to work rather then for A-level examinations. Then they have to take the CPVE examination which means the Certificate of Pre-Vocational Education.

In Scotland students take the SCE examinations(Scottish Sertificate of Education). A year later, they can take examinations called Highers after which they can go streight to a university.

Secondary education in Northern Ireland is organized along selective lines according to children's abilities. One can hardly say that high quality secondary education is provided for all in Britain. There is a high loss of pupils of working- class families at entry into the 6 form. If you are a working- class child at school today, the chance of your reaching the second year of a sixth-form course is probably less than one-twelfth of that for the child of a professional parent. Besides, government cuts on school spending caused many difficulties.

Durind all the prosess of education the child is taught in order with the National Curriculum. Even the schools which do specialize in different subjects -nowadays an increasing number- have to teach in order with the National Curriculum & the parents are sure that their child will have a broad-based education. Those schools usually do specialize in technology and often are working with local business.

There are so many types of schools in Britain that from the first sight seems you can 'sink' in variety. First division is from independent & state scools. Some types can be both state and independent, for example grammar schools. There are a lot of voluntary or church schools in Britain which are to encourage the set of belief, they are funded by the local council. Most parents choose to send their children to free state schools financed from the public funds but an increasing number of secondary pupils attend fee-paying independent schools outside the school system. Many of these are boarding schools, which provide accommodation for pupils during term time. There are about 2,500 independent schools educating more than 500,000 pupils of all ages. They charge fees, varying from about 100 ? a term for day pupils at nursery age to 2.000 ? a term for senior boarding pupils.

Another type of school is known as grant-maintained or self-governing school. Every, in fact, school can become grant- maintained. Those schools offer education free of charge, but are run by their teachers and governors, independent from the local council. They get their money from central government through the Funding Agency of Schools. This includes a share of what the local council would have spent on administration.

What should the school do to become grant-maintained? The idea usually belongs to parents. If any parent want the school of his/her child to become grant-maintained he/she should tell the other parents about his/her idea and call the council of parents. After the decision is made parents their headmaster/headmistress write a letter to the government with an ask to become a self- governing school. If the government accepts, the school will be sure the local council won't step in if the things go wrong and the school won't have to share money from the government. Some self-governing schools provide boarding places.

There is another important type of schools- City Technology Colleges. It's a new type of free secondary school. They are set up in large towns and cities through partnerships between the government and business and is a type of spesialized schools.

There are schools known as the selective schools. They admit academically able pupils( pupils who can and want to study). Some of them offer places to pupils with an aptitude in a particular subject.

There is a type of schools called public schools.Those are private schools and about 5 per cent of pupils prefer to be educated there. These are schools for the privileged. Only very rich families can afford to pay for the study, because the fees are very high.They are free from state control & most of them are boarding. It goes without saying that education is of a high quality; the discipline is very strict.

There are about 500 public schools in England and Wales, most of them are single-sex and about half of them are for girls. The most famous public schools are Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester, Oundle, Uppingham, Charterhouse. They are famous for their ability to lay the foundation of a successful future by giving their pupils self-confidence, the right accent, a good academic background and, perhaps most important of all, the right friends & contacts.They never think they are school-leavers, but they are 'the old school ties' & 'the old boys network'.

Public schools educate the rulling class of England. Winston Churchill, Lord Byron & many others were educated in Harrow school. In Gorgonstoun was educated the Prince of Wales.

There are many other types of schools like county, all-through, two-tier and others.

Now let's talk about the prosess itself. The school year is divided into terms, three months each, named after seasons: autumn, winter and spring terms.

The autumn term starts on the first Tuesday morning in September. In July school break up for eight weeks.

Each group of 30 pupils is the responsibility of a form tutor the same as in Russian schools nowadays. The same is that each school day is divided into periods of 40-50 minutes, time for various lessons with 10-20 minutes' brakes between them. At the end of the term or before some national holiday, called in England speech-days pupils are gathered in tha assembly area or hall.

Like in our schools in English classrooms also exist desks arranged in rows(each row is called an aisle) , chalkboard/blackboard, different kinds of laboratories, technical rooms, rooms for computer studies on so on.

Pupils at many secondary schools in Britain have to wear the school uniform. This usually means a white blouse for girls, with dark-coloured skirt and pullover and for boys these are shirt and tie, dark trousers and dark-coloured pullovers. Pupils also wear blasers with scool badge on the pocket. Shoes are usually black or brown. Senior students do not have to wear their school uniform. Of course it's good for the teachers and for the pupils themselves, because there's no problem of finding the clothes they want(actually it's a problem of parents), but the young people in Britain often do not like their school uniform. If they do not like it so much that they don't wear it at first they will be given a warning, then a punishment.

Corporal punishment has recently been banned in state schools, but in most schools it's still allowed, caning is the usual punishment for serious misbehavior in class, damage and vandalism. Many teachers remark that standarts of discipline have fallen since corporal punishment was banned by the government.

And withoun saying that in each school exist system of rewards for the best pupils.

A very interesting topic is the social, cultural and sporting life in British secondary schools nowadays. Firstly each school or 6-form college has its School/College Council which organizes the social & cultural life at the school, helps to plan the policy for the whole school. School Councils run discos & parties, stage drama productions and decorate the student common room; some of the students help in local hospitals, homes for the handicapped & elderly people.

There also are lots of clubs & societies, national voluntary youth organizations(Boy Scouts & the Girl Guides), several youth organizations associated with political parties( YCND-Youth Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament).

3The flag of Britain.

The history, current status, and nomenclature of the Union Flag, and its use other than as a flag for the United Kingdom (for example, in Australia), are treated more fully under the article Union Flag.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland uses as its national flag the royal banner known as the Union Flag or, popularly, Union Jack.[1]The current design of the Union Flag dates from the union of Ireland and Great Britain in 1801. It consists of the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England), edged in white, superimposed on the Cross of St Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which are superimposed on the Saltire of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland). Wales, however, is not represented in the Union Flag by Wales' patron saint, Saint David, as at the time the flag was designed Wales was part of the Kingdom of England.

Its correct proportions are 1:2. However, the version officially used by the British Army modifies the proportions to 3:5, and additionally two of the red diagonals are cropped.

Main article: Union Flag

Proclamation of James I of England, King of Scots: Orders in Council; Official creation of the Union Flag – 1606.

QUOTE – "By the King: Whereas, some differences hath arisen between Our subjects of South and North Britaine travelling by Seas, about the bearing of their Flagges: For the avoiding of all contentions hereafter. We have, with the advice of our Council, ordered: That from henceforth all our Subjects of this Isle and Kingdome of Great Britaine, and all our members thereof, shall beare in their main-toppe the Red Crosse, commonly called St. George’s Crosse, and the White Crosse, commonly called St. Andrew’s Crosse, joyned together according to the forme made by our heralds, and sent by Us to our Admerall to be published to our Subjects: and in their fore-toppe our Subjects of South Britaine shall weare the Red Crosse onely as they were wont, and our Subjects of North Britaine in their fore-toppe the White Crosse onely as they were accustomed. – 1606."[2]

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