Добавил:
proza.ru http://www.proza.ru/avtor/lanaserova Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:

Бауманн У., Перре М. - Клиническая психология

.pdf
Скачиваний:
39
Добавлен:
15.09.2017
Размер:
7.38 Mб
Скачать

.

, , .

.

,

, ( . . 10.2).

,

, .

-, .

. Apo-E4-

. , —

2-4 — .

.

,

. Apo-E-

,

. , ,

,

Apo-E- . Apo-E-

, (Förstl, Czech, Sattel & GeigerKabisch, 1994). ,

, (Chapman, 1990).

-, .

, ,

, , (

).

, .

.

)

( , -

); —

, , .

) , ,

,

( ).

. ,

,

,

. ,

, ,

, , ,

, .

, ,

, .

6.

Andrews, G., Stewart, G., Allen, R. & Henderson, A. S. (1990). The genetics of six neurotic disorders: a twin study. Journal of Äff'ective Disorders, 19, 23-29.

Begleiter, H. & Kissin, B. (Eds.). (1995). The genetics of alcoholism. New York: Oxford University

Press.

Benjamin, C. M., Adam, S., Wiggins, S. Theilmann, J. L, Copley, T.T., Bloch, M., Squitieri, F.,

McKelling, W., Cox, S., Brown, S. A. et al. (1994). Proceed with carc: direct predictive testing for Huntington disease. American Journal of Human Genetics, 55, 606-617.

Bertelsen, A., Harvald, B. & Hauge, M. (1977). A Danish twin study of manic-depressive disorders.

British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 330-351.

Chapman, M. A. (1990). Invited editorial: Predictive testing for adult-onset genetic disease: ethical and legal implications of the use of linkage analysis for Huntington disease. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 47, 1-3.

Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M. & Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975-990.

Corder, E. H., Saunders, A. M., Risch, N. J., Strittmatter, W. J., Schmechel, D. E., Gaskell, P. C, Rimmler, J. B., Locke, P. A., Conneally, P. M., Schmader, K. E., Small, G. W., Roses, A. D., Haines, J. L. & Pericak Vance, M. A. (1994). Protective effect of apolipoproteine E type 2 allele for late onset Alzheimer's disease. Nature Genetics, 7, 180-183.

Coryell, W. & Zimmerman, M. (1988). The heritability of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 323-327.

Eaves, L. J., Eysenck, H. J. & Martin, N. G. (1989). Genes, culture and personality. An empirical approach. London: Academic Press.

Farmer, A. E., McGuffin, P. & Gottesman, I. I. (1987). Twin concordance for DSM-III schizophrenia: scrutinising the validity of the definition. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 634-641.

Förstl, H., Czech, C., Sattel, H., Geiger-Kabisch, C. (1994). Apolipoprotein E und Alzheimer-Demenz.

Nervenarzt, 65, 780-786.

Franke, P., Maier, W., Hain, C. & Klingler, T. (1992). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: an indicator of vulnerability to schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research, 6, 243-249.

Fyer, A. J., Mannuzza, S., Gallops, M. S., Martin, L. Y., Aaronson, C., Gorman, J. M., Liebowitz, M. R & Klein, D. F. (1990). Familial transmission of simple phobias and fears. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 252-256.

Fyer, A. J., Mannuzza, S., Chapman, T. F., Liebowitz, M. R. & Klein, D. F. (1993). A direct interview family study of social phobia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 286-293.

Gershon, E. S., DeLisi, L. E., Hamovit, J., Nurnberger, J. I., Maxwell, M. E., Schreiber, J., Dauphinais, D., Dingman, C. W. & Guroff, J. J. (1988). A controlled family study of chronic psychoses. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 328-336.

Greenberg, D. A. (1993). Linkage analysis of «necessary» disease loci versus «susceptibility» loci.

American Journal of Human Genetics, 52, 135-143.

Kendler, K. S. (1993). Twin studies of psychiatric illness: current status and future directions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 905-915.

Kendler, K. S. & Diehl, S. R. (1993): The genetics of schizophrenia: a current, genetic-epidemiologic perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 261-285.

Kendler, K. S., Heath, A. C, Neale, M. C, Kessler, R. C. & Eaves, L. J. (1992a). A population-based twin study of alcoholism in women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 1877-1882.

Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C, Heath, A. C. & Eaves, L. J. (1992b). The genetic epidemiology of phobias in women: the interrelationship of agoraphobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 273-281.

Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C, Heath, A. C. & Eaves, L. J. (1992c). Generalized anxiety disorder in women: a population-based twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 267-272.

Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C, Kessler, R. C, Heath, A. C & Eaves, L. J. (1992 d). A population-based twin study of major depression im women. The impact of varying definitions of illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 257-266.

Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C, Heath, A. C. & Eaves, L. J. (1993a). Panic disorder in women: a population-based twin study. Psychological Medicine, 23, 397-406.

Kendler, K. S., Kessler, R. C., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C. & Eaves, L. J. (1993b). The prediction of major depression in women: toward an integrated etiologic model. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 11391148.

Kendler, K. S., McGuire, M., Gruenberg, A. M., O'Hare, A., Spellman, M. & Walsh, D. (1993c). The Roscommon family study. I. Methods, diagnosis of probands and risk of schizophrenia in relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 527-540.

Kendler, K. S., McGuire, M., Gruenberg, A. M., O'Hare, A., Spellman, M. & Walsh, D. (1993d): The

Roscommon family study. IV. Affective illness, anxiety disorders, and alcoholism in relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 952-960.

Khoury, M. J., Beaty, T. H. & Cohen, B. H. (1993). Fundamentals of genetic epidemiology. Monographs in epidemiology and biostatistics (vol. 19). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kringlen, E. (1976). Twins - still our best method. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2, 429-433.

Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Genes and environment in personality development. Newbury Park: Sage.

Maier, W. (1995). Mechanismen der familiären Übertragung von Alkoholabhängigkeit und Alkoholabusus. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, 24, 147-158.

Maier, W. & Heun, R. (1997). Genetik gerontopsychiatrischer Erkrankungen am Beispiel der AlzheimerDemenz. In H. Förstl (Hrsg.), Lehrbuch der Gerontopsychiatrie (S. 16-30). Stuttgart: Enke.

Maier, W. & Lichtermann, D. (1993). Die familiäre Häufung affektiver Erkrankungen. Eine Übersicht über neuere familiengenetische Arbeiten. Nervenheilkunde, 12, 34-40.

Maier, W., Lichtermann, D., Minges, J., Hallmayer, J., Heun, R., Benkert, O. & Levinson, D. F. (1993a). Continuity and discontinuity of affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 871-883.

Maier, W., Minges, J. & Lichtermann, D. (1993b). Alcoholism and panic disorder: co-occurrence and co-transmission in families. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 243, 205-211.

Maier, W. & Philipp, M. (1993). Reliabilität und Validität der Subtypisierung und Schweregradmessung depressiver Syndrome. Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Psychiatrie (Bd. 72). Berlin: Springer.

Maier, W. & Propping, P. (1991). Die familiäre Häufung psychischer Störungen und die Konsequenzen für die psychiatrische Diagnostik. Nervenarzt, 62, 398-407.

McGue, M. & Gottesman, I. I. (1991). The genetic epidemiology of schizophrenia and the design of linkage studies. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 240, 174-181.

McGue, M., Pickens, R. W. & Sviskis, D. S. (1992). Sex and age effects on the inheritance of alcohol problems: a twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 3-17.

McGuffin, P., Farmer, A. E., Gottesman, I. I., Murray, R. M. & Reveley, A. M. (1984). Twin concordance for operationally defined schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 541-545.

McGuffin, P., Katz, R. & Rutherford, J. (1991). Nature, nurture and depression: a twin study.

Psychological Medicine, 21, 329-335.

Noyes, R., Crowe, R. R., Harris, E. L., Hamra, B. J., McChesney, C. M. & Chaudhry, D. R. (1986). Relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia: a family study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 227232.

Noyes, R., Clarkson, C., Crowe, R. R., Yates, W. R. & McChesney, C. M. (1987). A family study of generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1019-1024.

Onstad, S., Skre, I., Torgersen, S. & Kringlen, E. (1991). Twin concordance for DSM-III-R schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 83, 395-402.

Parnas, J., Cannon, T. D., Jacobsen, B., Schulsinger, H., Schulsinger, F. & Mednick, S. A. (1993). Lifetime DSM-III-R diagnostic outcomes in the offspring of Schizophrenic mothers. Results from the Copenhagen high-risk-study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 707-714.

Pickens, R. W., Sviskis, D. S., McGue, M., Lykken, D. T., Heston, L L. & Clayton, P. J. (1991). Heterogeneity in the inheritance of alcoholism: a study of male and female twins. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 19-28.

Plomin, R. (1994). Genetics and experience. The interplay between nature and nurture. Oakes: Sage. Propping, P. (1989). Psychiatrische Genetik. Befunde und Konzepte. Berlin: Springer.

Propping, P., Nöthen, M. M., Körner, J., Rietschel, M. & Maier, W. (1994). Genetische Assoziationsstudien bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen. Nervenarzt, 65, 725-740.

Rice, J., Reich, T., Andreasen, N. C, Endicott, J., Van Eerdewegh, M., Fishman, R., Hirschfeld, R. M. A. & Klerman, G. L. (1987). The familial transmission of bipolar illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 441-447.

Risch, N. & Botstein, D. (1996). A manic depressive history. Nature Genetics, 12, 351-353.

Rousseau, F., Heitz, D., Tarleton, J., MacPherson, J., Malmgren, H., Dahl, N., Barnicoat, A., Mathew, C., Mornet, E., Tejada, I., Maddalena, A., Spiegel, R., Schinzel, A., Marcos, J. A. G., Schorderet, D. F., Schaap, T., Maccioni, L., Russo, S., Jacobs, P. A., Schwartz, C. & Mandel, J. L. (1994). A multicenter study on genotype-phenotype correlations in the fragile X syndrome, using direct diagnosis with probe StB 12.3: the first 2,253 cases. Amencan Journal of Human Genetics, 55, 225-237.

Schuckit, M. A. & Smith, T. L. (1996). An 8-year follow-up of 450 sons of alcoholic and control

subjects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 202-210.

Schwab, S. G., Albus, M., Hallmayer, J., Hönig, S., Borrmann, M., Lichtermann, D., Ebstein, R. P., Ackenheil, M., Lerer, B., Risch, N., Maier, W. & Wildenauer, D. B. (1995). Evaluation of a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p by multipoint affected sib-pair linkage analysis. Nature Genetics, 11, 325321.

Sharpe, N. F. (1994). Psychological aspects of genetic counseling: a legal perspective. Amencan Journal of Medical Genetics, 50, 234-238.

Silverman J. M., Li, G., Zaccario, M. L., Smith, C. J., Schmeidler, J., Mohs, R. C. & Davis, K. L. (1994). Patterns of risk in first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimers disease. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 577-586.

Straub, R. E., MacLean, C. J., Oneill, F. A., Burke, J., Murphy, B., Duke, F., Shinkwin, R., Webb, B. T., Zhang, J., Walsh, D. & Kendler, K. S. (1995). A potential vulnerability locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p24-22: evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Nature Genetics, 11, 287-293.

Torgersen, S. (1983). Genetic factors in anxiety disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 1085-

1089.

Torgersen, S. (1986). Genetic factors in moderately severe and mild affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 222-226.

Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Adams, P. B., Lish, J. D., Horwath, E., Charney, D., Woods, S. W., Leeman, E. & Frosch, E. (1993). The relationship between panic disorder and major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 767-780.

Zerbin-Rüdin, E. (1990). Genetik: Ätiologie/Bedingungsanalyse. In U. Baumann & M. Perrez (Hrsg.),

Lehrbuch Klinische Psychologie, Bd. 1: Grundlagen, Diagnostik, Ätiologie (S. 260-273). Bern: Huber.

Zerssen, D. V. (1996). Forschungen zur prämorbiden Persönlichkeit in der Psychiatrie der deutschsprachigen Länder: Die letzten drei Jahrzehnte. Forschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 64, 168-183.

11.

,

1.

,

,

. ,

, .

, .

, ,

, , , .

( )

,

. , ,

, .

(Luber Stryer, 1990), ,

. ,

.

,

. , ,

.

.

, .

,

, , (Häder & Häder, 1993).

( , ),

( , )

( , ). ,

,

, ,

.

,

.

, .

: ,

,

, ( , . .),

,

. , ,

( . Touitou & Haus, 1992),

, .

2. ,

,

.

. , ( )

( ) . — ,

,

, , — .

. , ,

, (Up- ) (Down- ),

. ,

, (Synthese) (Release) ,

(Reuptake)

. — ,

.

,

( ), , ,

. ,

.

, .

.

, ; -

— -

, .

, —

, , — .

, ,

, , , .

— ,

( ) ( ).

( ., , Bloom & Kupfer, 1995; Schatzberg & Nemeroff, 1995).

2.1.

— .

( ), ( ) ( ), (5-

; 5-HT).

.

2.1.1.

, , Substantia nigra,

( ), —

,

). .

,

(Bannon, Granneman & Kapatos, 1995; Civelli, 1995; Moore & Lookingland, 1995).

.

,

.

, (Hellhammer, 1983; Le Moal, 1995).

, .

( ,

, )

.

Substantia nigra, Levadopa,

(Korczyn, 1995).

, . ,

, —

( ), , ,

.

,

, , .

, D1-

,

. , ,

, , ,

( , ,

). ,

,

D1- D5- . D2-

D1D5- (Kahn & Davis, 1995).

,

,

,

, (Nemeroff, ).

, ,

. ,

D2D3-

Nucleus accumbens. ,

, , (Willner, 1995).

2.1.2.

, . ,

( 6),

.

1 ,

. Y (NPY);

,

- (Holmes & Crawley, 1995; Duman & Nestler, 1995).

, , ,

(Barker & Blakely, 1995).

,

, , ,

, , , ,

. , ,

, ,

, ; ,

,

(Robbins & Everitt, 1995; Valentino & Aston-Jones, 1995).

( )

, — ,

, . ,

.

— 4- -3- (MHPG).

, ,

. ,

,

, (Charney, Bremner & Redmond, 1995). , ,

(Nathan, Musselman, Schatzberg & Nemeroff, 1995; Schatzberg & Schildkraut, 1995).

,

, ,

. , ,

, ,

,

( . 11.1). ,

( . Schatzberg & Nemeroff, 1995).

11.1.

. .

1

.

?

. .

117 101 , ,

, ,

, ,

.

2

.

?

. .

. ,

,

 

.

 

 

,

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

,

.

3

.

?

. (N = 15)

, ,

( . Hellhammer et al., 1989).

---

2.1.3.

, .

.

(Azmitia & Whitaker-Azmitia, 1995).

; , ,

,

(Glennon & Dukat, 1995; Shih, Chen & Gallaher, 1995).

, , ,

. , ,

, :

, .

, ,

(Hellhammer, 1983).

,

,

, , ,

, , , ,

(Heninger, 1995).

,

(Maes & Meltzer, 1995).

, ,

,

. , ,

,

(Hellhammer, Gutberlet, Kreutz, Traupe & John, 1989). ,

, , .

, ,

. ,

. ,

. ,

, , .

, ,

, (Hellhammer, Ehlert & Lehnert, 1992).

2.2.

.

.

,

NMDA- -NMDA- (Cotman, Kahle, Miller, Ulas & Bridges, 1995).

,

(Knable, Kleinman & Weinberger, 1995; Marin, Davis & Speranza, 1995).

).

. 30% — -

.

.

, ,

. ,

,

. ,

, ,

.

« » ,

, , ,

, ,

(Ballenger, 1995; Hellhammer & Ehlert, 1991).

3.

) ( ). ( )

( ) ( ).

;

«Pineal Gland» , .

.

, ,

.

,

, .

,

. : (Nemeroff, 1992), (Hellhammer & Kirschbaum, ).

, ,

(Hellhammer & Pirke, ).

3.1.

( )

(CRF; CRH), ,

CRF- . CRF

, .

, , CRF. CRF ; ,

( ) . CRF

:

, , , ,

, , -

,

, , . CRF

( ) , , ,

,

. , RF-

. CRF

( , ) (

, ), (Hellhammer & Pirke,

).

,

, .

.

, ,

,

. ,

, , ,

.

,

CRF . -

; , ,

CRF, . , ,

(Hellhammer & Pirke, ; Nathan et al., 1995; Plotsky, Owens & Nemeroff, 1995).

. CRF ,

, CRF-

.

, ,

, ,

. , CRF

CRF- , CRF

. ,

, ,

.

.

, .

,

. —

(Down- ).

, ,

. ,

CRF . ,

, , , —

.

CRF.

CRF. , .

.

, , ,

( ,

).

.

3.2.

(GnRH) -

( ) ( ) .

( )

. ,

, .

Соседние файлы в предмете Судебная психиатрия