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In today's business environment, it is essential that we find ways to make our organizational resources more productive. In many organizations, the most prominent and expensive resource we have is our people. As a result, a lot of time is spent on creating processes and conditions that drive and motivate our employees.

Over the years, I have observed leaders trying many ways to motivate their people to higher levels of performance. Even the best leaders have experienced the frustration of trying to lead someone who seemed to refuse to live up to expectations (оправдать ожидания). Ironically, their people were probably feeling the same way. The reason: Motivation develops internally from a personal desire to achieve goals that are important both to the individual and to the organization. Motivation is the force that prompts you to take action. If you are having trouble getting someone to achieve your goals, you are probably failing to understand what theirs are.

A lot of research has been conducted over the years to identify the factors that have the most dramatic impact on productivity. While pay, fringe benefits (дополнительные выплаты), and working conditions are important, research has shown that absence of these factors produces a lack of motivation, but their presence has no long-range motivational effects. Long-range motivational factors are recognition of a job well done, sense of achievement, growth, participation, challenge, and identification with the company's goals and vision.

In spite of these facts, leaders and managers spend a lot of time trying to find ways to motivate employees through fear and incentive (вознаграждение). The very essence of fear is negative and over time has diminishing effects as employees develop attitudes that lead to a decrease in quality, commitment, and productivity. Fear can be highly motivating, but does not produce positive results for any length of time. Incentive, on the other hand, is a positive motivator, that is, a reward in exchange for a specific behavior. This also has diminishing returns as employees expect fair compensation based on their contributions, and, many times, there is a disconnect between what the employee desires and what the employer is willing to pay. Over time, employees start gravitating toward desiring more of the intangible rewards such as respect, growth, knowledge, prestige, and recognition (to name a few) that ultimately govern their internal motivation. The challenge lies in recognizing each individual's unique desires.


As noted above, migration provides both opportunities and challenges for municipal managers. On the immigration side, there are complexities to be considered with regard to citizenship status, and who is considered to have standing within the municipality. Citizens generally have the right to move freely between municipalities, and to receive services and participate freely in the civic, social, economic and political life of the municipalities in which they make their homes. Aliens may or may not have these rights, depending on whether they are in the United States with legal work papers, visas, or passports, or whether they are in the country illegally. Obviously, immigration policy is set at a national level, and local administrators will not be able to change the definition of whether their resident aliens are legal or illegal. They can, however, make determinations and decisions about what services will be provided to their resident aliens, and create infrastructure to integrate them into the community at large. Incoming legal aliens and citizens can both be tremendous assets to a municipality if they are able to participate in the work force or bring other resources not otherwise locally available.

They may also be burdens on the municipality, though, if they arrive in the municipality seeking services that are already over-extended or otherwise insufficient to meet current needs.

At the other end of the migration spectrum, emigration occurs when a municipality’s residents feel they can better maximize their quality of life and utility elsewhere. When largescale urban flight occurs, it results in abandoned buildings, deteriorating neighborhoods, reduction in taxable income, business failures, labor shortages and a growing sense of desperation and despair among the residents remaining, many of whom simply may unable to leave, not unwilling to. Urban flight is more likely to siphon off younger, more mobile members of a community, leaving the elderly increasingly dependent on a municipality with a decreasing number of working-age citizens. Emigration is a cumulative symptom of all the factors to be discussed in the sections ahead. It may ultimately be the most telling barometer of a municipal manager’s success or failure in fostering and sustaining a place where people want to live, work, raise their families and grow old. It is essentially a phenomenon that is wholly dependent on these other quality of life factors: the only way a municipal manager can attack and address urban flight is by resolving the underlying structural issues that cause it.

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