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7. Water from the sewage flows … .

a)through pipes into a special septic tank;

b)directly into the ground;

c)through pipes into the ground.

8. When the air around the house is warmer or colder, than the air inside, … .

a)heat passes from the cold air to the warm air;

b)heat passes from the warm air to the cold air;

c)water passes from one pipe to the other.

9.This means that … , and the house will become cold. a) in summer the heat will pass to the outside;

b) in autumn the heat will pass to the outside; c) in winter the heat will pass to the outside.

10.Insulation fills … and creates dead-air space.

a)the air spaces in walls, floors and ceilings;

b)all spear places in walls, floors and ceilings;

c)the air spaces in floors and ceilings.

11.Insulation is made from many materials, including … . a) cellulose, rock wool, a glassy lava called perlite;

b) cellulose, cotton, wool, a glassy lava called perlite; c) cellulose, rock wool, a glassy lava called vermiculite.

12.The type of insulation used depends on … .

a)the weather and the building materials;

b)the climate and on whether it insulates floors, ceilings or walls;

c)the climate and on whether it insulates doors, windows or walls.

13. One furnace or heating unit, … .

a)uses for heating a house;

b)supplies heat for only one room;

c) supplies heat for the entire house.

14.In hot-air heating a fan, connected to the furnace, … . a) blows cold air through pipes into the kitchen;

b) blows warm air through pipes into the rooms; c) blows hot air through pipes into the bathroom.

15.An air conditioner … , and recirculates cool air.

a)takes warm air from the house, cools it, removes moisture;

b)takes hot air from the lower floor, cools it, removes moisture;

c)takes warm air from radiators, cools it, removes moisture. 16. An air conditioner may … .

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a)cold hot air, add moisture and recirculate cold air;

b)moisture warm air, add cold air and recirculate warm and cold air;

c)warm cold air, add moisture and recirculate warm air.

17. In a new house, builders usually … .

a)paint the rooms and finish the floors;

b)paper the rooms and paint the floors;

c)buy everything necessary to finish flats.

18.Sometimes the owner hires a professional interior decorator … . a) to help him to buy necessary tools for making a repair of a flat;

b) to select, to buy and to arrange the furnishings; c) to select and to buy new wall papers for his flat.

19.… and to preserve different sorts of trees which grow in this place. a) Professional decorators advise to keep the natural outline of the land;

b)Most builders try to keep the natural outline of the land;

c)Most builders try to clean the territory round the new house.

19. Group work:

Express your opinion on the contents of the German proverb given above. Discuss all your pros and cons with your group-mates.

UNIT XI

FROM THE HISTORY OF BUILDING MATERIALS

A tender bamboo can’t be eagerly desired for building.

Zambian proverb

1. Read these international words and try to guess their meaning:

Cement, chemical, a metal, an engineer, natural, characteristic, a result, a member, a construction, to combine, a product, an architect.

2. Read out the following words and memorize them:

artificial

искусственный

 

 

tender

мягкий

 

 

bearing

несущий

 

 

binding

вяжущий

 

 

 

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a clay

глина

 

 

a lime

известь

 

 

a stone

камень

 

 

a limestone

известняк

 

 

precast

сборный (заранее отлитый)

 

 

a timber

древесина

 

 

a gypsum

гипс

 

 

insulating

изоляционный

 

 

a plaster

штукатурка

 

 

a dwelling

жилище

 

 

a marble

мрамор

 

 

a dome

купол, свод

 

 

3.Make up your own sentence with the words given above. Use as many words as you can in this sentence.

4.Read out these phrases several times till you remember their meaning:

prefabricated – предварительно изготовленный или сборный (заводским способом);

an artificial building material – искусственный строительный материал; to achieve good results – достигнуть хороших результатов;

to combine elements – соединять элементы;

the chemical characteristics – химические характеристики;

the main building materials – основные строительные материалы; a binding material – вяжущий материал;

an increase of strength – увеличение прочности; a concrete construction – бетонная конструкция;

a prefabricated member – предварительно отлитый элемент; a bearing element – несущий элемент;

aprecast member – предварительно изготовленный элемент.

5.Match the English words with their Russian equivalents:

1. artificial

a. несущий

 

 

2. binding

b. известь

 

 

3. concrete

c. конструкция

 

 

 

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4. bearing

d. штукатурка

 

 

5. clay

e. искусственный

 

 

6. lime

f. камень

 

 

7. timber

g. бетон

 

 

8. construction

h. вяжущий

 

 

9. precast

i. мрамор

 

 

10. plaster

j. химический

 

 

11. gypsum

k. глина

 

 

12. chemical

l. жилище

 

 

13. stone

m. сборный

14. a dwelling

n. древесина

15. a marble

o. гипс

6.Combine the words with the help of the preposition of. Translate these word combinations:

1. the influence

a. lime, limestone, clay

2. the schools

b. artificial building materials

3. the material

c. new flats and houses

4. the absence

d. flats

5. a combination

e. Belarusian people

6. buildings

f. industrial enterprises

 

 

7. examples

g. the temples and palaces

8. the use

h. the structures

 

 

9. new blocks

i. the houses

10. a large number

j. building materials

 

 

11. a great percentage

k. new building methods

 

 

12. cities and towns

l. all types

 

 

13. millions

m. architecture

 

 

14. the great mass

n. Belarus

 

 

15. thousands

o. stone and wood

7. Give the three forms of the following verbs:

To make, to become, to build, to come, to give, to be, to know, to change, to have.

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8.These words can be used both as verbs and nouns. Make up your own sentences to show the difference in their usage:

Note, interest, influence, brick, span, dome, arch, cement, join.

9.Write the derivatives of the following words:

Brief, build, easy, cheap, durable, large, obtain, wood, transport, transport, know, character, successful, new, construct.

10. Read the text and get ready to speak about the history of building materials:

FROM THE HISTORY OF BUILDING MATERIALS

It is of interest to note briefly the influence of building materials upon the schools of architecture. Where clay abounded, as in Egypt, sun-dried bricks were easily and cheaply made. Stone was also obtainable, and because of its durability it became the material of the temples and palaces; the less pretentious dwellings were built of brick. In Mesopotamia large brick buildings were constructed, and, in the absence of stone and wood to span their areas, the arch and dome came into being. Greece possessed perfect marble for columns and beams, and the arch and dome received little attention. A fortunate combination of lime, limestone, clay and pozzuolana gave Rome stone and cement, and the great mass of her structures is largely due to the union of stone, brick, strong mortar, and concrete. In Northern Europe, Switzerland and Russia, where forests abounded and other materials were difficult to obtain, wooden architecture was characteristic for buildings of all types.

Science, machinery, and easy transportation are now bringing to the hands of architects resources of materials hitherto unknown or unobtainable.

All building materials are divided into three groups:

1)Main building materials such as stones, artificial stones, timber and metals.

2)Binding materials such as lime, gypsum and cement.

3)Secondary materials.

We use main building materials for bearing structures. Binding materials are used for making artificial stones and for joining different planes. For the interior finish of a building we use secondary materials.

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If the materials don’t require any changes in their chemical structure they are known as natural building materials. They are stone, clay, sand, lime and timber.

Cement, clay products and concrete are examples of artificial building materials.

It should be mentioned that nowadays building materials are changed into units of assembly, prefabricated or precast construction members. The new materials of construction are characterized by increased strength. Structural, insulating and surfacing requirements are combined in a single system. As a result a greater speed in housing construction has been achieved.

Now the scale of construction is growing from year to year in our country. This requires the use of the new building methods and the new building materials which play a very important role in the work of architects and builders. They help to develop modern architecture, speed up construction work and decrease its cost. We are building thousands of new blocks of flats, schools, hospitals and a large number of industrial enterprises. A great percentage of the houses are constructed by house-building plants. This building method is successfully applied in different cities and towns of Belarus. Millions of Belarusian people get new flats and houses every year. The newly built blocks of flats have all modern conveniences, making our life more and more comfortable.

11. Answer the following questions:

1. What materials were used in Egypt? 2. Why did stone become the material of the temples and palaces? 3. Why were the less pretentious dwellings built of brick? 4. What buildings were constructed in Mesopotamia? 5. What building material was used in Greece? 6. A fortunate combination of lime, limestone, clay and pozzuolana gave Rome stone and cement, didn’t it? 7. What architecture was characteristic for buildings of all types in Northern Europe, Switzerland, and Russia? 8. What are the main building materials? 9. What do we call binding materials? 10. What do we use the main materials for? 11. What are binding materials used for? 12. What materials do we call natural building materials? 13. What are they? 14. Are the new materials of construction characterized by increased strength? 15. Why is construction growing from year to year in our country? 16. Why is it necessary to use the new building methods and the new building materials? 17. What helps to develop modern architecture, speed up construction work and decrease its cost?

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18.Why is it important to build thousands of new blocks of flats, schools, hospitals and a large number of industrial enterprises nowadays?

19.Are millions of Belarusian people lucky to get new flats and houses every year? 20. Do the newly built blocks of flats have all modern conveniences? 21. What makes our life more and more comfortable?

12. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. Where gypsum abounded, as in Africa, sun-dried bricks were easily and cheaply made. 2. Stone became the material of the temples and palaces because of its structure. 3. In Egypt large brick buildings were constructed. 4. The arch and dome came into being in the absence of stone and wood to span their areas. 5. Greece possessed perfect clay for columns and beams, and the arch and dome received much attention. 6. A fortunate combination of lime, limestone, clay and pozzuolana gave Rome stone and cement. 7. Wooden architecture was characteristic for buildings of all types in Mesopotamia. 8. All building materials are divided into two groups. 9. We use main building materials for bearing structures. 10. For the interior finish of a building we use binding materials. 11. Natural building materials are stone, clay, sand, lime and timber. 12. Cement, clay products and concrete are examples of secondary building materials. 13. Now the scale of construction is growing from year to year in our country. 14. This requires the use of the new technologies and study abroad. 15. New building materials play a very important role in the work of architects and builders. 16. We are now building thousands of new blocks of flats, schools, hospitals and a large number of industrial enterprises. 17. A great percentage of the houses are constructed by the highly qualified workers. 18. The newly built blocks of flats have all modern conveniences, making our life more and more comfortable.

13. Choose a word to put into each gap:

Stone, buildings, construction, clay, artificial, marble, concrete, dwellings, house-building, bearing, bricks, flats, wood, binding.

1. Where ... abounded, as in Egypt, sun-dried ... were easily and cheaply made. 2. The less pretentious … were built of brick. 3. The arch and dome came into being in the absence of ... and ... to span their areas. 4. Greece possessed perfect ... for columns and beams. 5. Wooden architecture was characteristic for ... of all types in Northern Europe, Switzerland, and Russia. 6. We use main building materials for ... structures. 6.

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… materials are used for making ... stones and for joining different planes. 7. Cement, clay products and ... are examples of artificial building materials. 8. The scale of ... is growing from year to year in our country. 9. A great percentage of the houses are constructed by ... plants. 10. Millions of Belarusian people get new ... and houses every year.

14. Find out from your partner:

– what building materials were used in different countries long ago;

– what the main groups of building materials are;

– what the main characteristics of the building materials nowadays are;

– why we build a lot nowadays.

15. Prove that:

– building materials influence greatly upon the schools of architecture;

– all building materials are divided into three groups;

– the scale of construction is growing from year to year in our country.

16. Comment on:

– the usage of the building materials in different countries;

– the usage of the building materials nowadays;

– the importance of building new houses.

17. Imagine that:

– You are going to report to your group mates about building materials in old times. Role-play a dialogue with your partner.

– Your fried from the other faculty knows nothing about the main building materials but he wants to know about them. Role-play a dialogue with your partner.

18. Comprehensive check. Choose the best alternative according to the text:

1.In Egypt sun-dried bricks were easily and cheaply made because … a) there was a very dry weather;

b) there was a lot of clay;

c) there were favourable conditions for these material.

2.Because of stone’s durability it became … ..

a)very popular in ancient counties;

b)the material of the most rich houses;

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c) the material of the temples and palaces.

3.In Egypt the less pretentious dwellings … . a) were built from wood;

b) were built of brick;

c) were built in the suburbs.

4.In Mesopotamia large brick buildings were constructed and, in the

absence of … ..

a)stone and wood to span their areas, the arch and dome came into

being;

b)timber and marble to span their areas, the arch and dome came into

being;

c)suitable building materials to span their areas, the arch and dome came into being.

5.Greece possessed perfect marble for columns and beams and ... .

a) the arch and dome received little attention; b) the arch and dome received much attention; c) the arch and dome were built very often.

6.… gave Rome stone and cement.

a)A fortunate combination of timber, marble, clay and pozzuolana;

b)A fortunate combination of lime, limestone, gypsum and wood;

c)A fortunate combination of lime, limestone, clay and pozzuolana.

7.Forests abounded and other materials were difficult to obtain … . a) in Russia, Central Europe and Switzerland;

b) in Northern Europe, Switzerland and Russia; c) in Northern Europe, Swiss and Germany.

8.Wooden architecture was characteristic for ... .

a)the less pretentious dwellings;

b)buildings of all types;

c)the rich houses all over the world.

9.We call the main building materials such as ... .

a) stones, artificial stones, timber and metals; b) lime, stone, timber and brick;

c) stones, wood, clay and metals.

10.Binding materials are used for making artificial stones and ... .

a) for building some small dwellings;

b)for joining different planes;

c)for joining cement with timber.

11. Natural building materials are ... .

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a)stone, gypsum, cement, lime and timber;

b)stone, limestone, clay and pozzuolana;

c)stone, clay, sand, lime and timber.

12. Artificial building materials are ... .

a)cement, marble and wood;

b)cement, gypsum and concrete;

c)cement, clay products and concrete.

13.The new materials of construction are ... .

a) used for building modern buildings; b) characterized by increased strength; c) expensive but used very often.

14.A greater speed in housing construction has been achieved b e- cause of ... .

a)the usage of the new materials of construction;

b)the good work of our builders;

c)the new elaborations in our science.

15.The scale of construction requires ... .

a) the use of the new building methods; b) the growth of the good workers;

c) the use of the new investigations.

16.A great percentage of the houses ... .

a)are built in the new districts;

b)are constructed by the foreign builders;

c)are constructed by house-building plants.

17. The newly built blocks of flats ... .

a)give us possibility to improve our living conditions;

b)make our life more and more comfortable;

c)show the scale of construction in our country.

19. Group work:

Express your opinion on the contents of Zambian proverb given above. Discuss all your pros and cons with your group-mates.

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