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Устная практика- задания (Меркулова) / World around us / CLIMATE, WEATHER, SEASONS UNITS 1-3 –STUDENT’S BOOK (2013-2014).docx
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Climate, Weather, seasons units 1-3 –Student’s Book (2013-2014) Contents

  1. Unit 1 - Nature, climate, weather

  2. Unit 2 - Hot and cold weather

  3. Unit 3 - Wet and windy weather

  4. Unit 4 - Climate and weather in Great Britain and the USA

  5. Unit 5 - Seasons

  6. Unit 6 - Weather forecasts

Unit 1: nature, climate, weather

TASK 1. Match the nature and weather words with their definitions.

Part 1

1

the elements (always plural)

a

everything in the physical world that is not controlled by humans, such as wild plants and animals, earth and rocks, and the weather

2

a weather forecast

b

the typical weather conditions in a particular area

3

the outlook (uncount.)

c

the temperature and other conditions such as sun, rain, and wind :

4

conditions (always plural noun)

d

the mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth or any other planet

5

a weather report

e

the scientific study of weather conditions

6

nature/Nature (uncount.)

f

the weather, especially bad weather

7

the atmosphere (uncount.)

g

the weather at a particular time, especially when considering how this will affect an event or activity that has been planned, such as a journey or a race

8

climate (uncount. / count.)

h

a description of what the weather will probably be like in the near future, for example on the radio, television, or in newspapers

9

meteorology (uncount.)

i

a description of the weather conditions now and in the near future, especially one on the radio or television :

10

weather (uncount.)

j

what the weather will probably be like for the next few days, especially according to information provided by the radio, television, or newspapers

Part 2

1

air (uncount.)

a

a measure of how hot or cold a place or thing is

2

twilight = dusk (uncount.)

b

cloudy air near the ground which is difficult to see through

3

cloud (uncount./count.)

c

a light cloud low over the ground that makes it difficult for you to see very far

4

a rainbow (count)

d

smoke, dust, or mist in the air which is difficult to see through

5

temperature (uncount. /count.)

e

the mixture of gases around the Earth, that we breathe

6

dawn = daybreak

(uncount. /count.)

f

the space above the earth where clouds, the sun and stars appear

7

mist (uncount./count.)

g

a white or grey mass in the sky that forms from very small drops of water

8

haze (uncoun.)

h

a large curve of different colours that can appear in the sky when there is both sun and rain

9

fog (uncount./count.)

i

the small amount of light in the sky as the day ends; the time when day is just starting to become night

10

sky (uncount. / count.)

j

the time at the beginning of the day when light first appears

TASK 2. Weather words form numerous collocations.

Step 1. Study the weather collocations given below. Translate them into your mother tongue.

Descriptions

It can be:

Actions

It can:

Set expressions

1

climate

continental; damp; dry; moderate/temperate; hot; mild; insular; cold; fine; moist; warm; tropical; subtropical; extreme; severe; harsh; arid; favourable

change; get better; get worse; turn for the better/worse; affect

climate change

2

weather

fine; lovely; good; wonderful; beautiful; glorious; marvelous; perfect; dull; bad; rough; awful; dreadful; nasty; wretched; terrible; severe, disruptive; treacherous; dirty; sunny; cold; hot, warm, chilly; fair; dry; wet; rainy, windy, stormy; broken/changeable /unstable; flying

change, settle, turn for the better/worse; hold out; stay; keep; get better; get worse; break; set in; turn cold/nasty

  • a weatherman;

  • a weathergirl;

  • a weather map;

  • a weather forecast;

  • a weather report

  • weather conditions;

  • weather patterns;

  • in all weathers;

  • April weather

  • King’s/

Queen’s weather

  • to be under the weather

  • a weathercock

3

fog

white; black; dense; thick; cold, freezing

cover; lift, disappear

  • a blanket of fog

  • a bank of fog

  • patches of fog

4

temperature

high; low; room; boiling; hot; warm; not very warm; chilly; cold; freezing; mean; average; annual; constant; maximum; minimum; global; constant; 5 degrees above/below zero; 25°centidrade/Celsius; 43° Fahrenheit

  • rise; go up; soar; climb;

  • fall; go down; drop; lower; dip; plunge;

  • change;

  • it can be raised or lowered

  • a rise /fall /drop / change in temperature

  • at room temperature

  • body temperature

  • water freezes at 32 and boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit

5

air

clean; clear; cold; close; cool; chilly; fresh; frosty; warm; hot; open; thin; transparent; fragrant; stuffy; stale; crisp

clean; clear; get cold/hot, etc

  • a breath of air;

  • a rush/ blast/ stream of air

  • spring is in the air

  • air masses

6

sky

blue; grey; black; dark; clear; clouded; cloudy; cloudless; leaden; overcast; starlit; starry; night; morning, summer; high; low

lighten; darken; cloud over; clear;

  • the sun is up / low in the sky

  • pie in the sky

7

clouds

light; heavy; thick; dense; low; high; stormy; thundery; thunderous; rain; snow; funnel

gather; mass; cover; lift; appear; disappear; clear; part; move; roll, drift; float; charge down

  • Every cloud has a silver lining.

  • to be on cloud nine

  • to be under a cloud

  • to have one’s head in the clouds

8

winter

cold, severe; hard; harsh; long; mild; warm; early; late

come; set in;

the winter of one’s life

9

spring

early; late; warm; cold;

begin; come; set in;

  • a spring chicken

  • the spring of the day

  • the spring of one’s life

10

summer

early; late; warm; hot; cold; dry; wet;

begin; come; set in;

  • in high summer

  • Indian summer

  • the summer of one’s life

11

autumn

early; late; warm; hot; cold; dry; wet;

begin; come; set in;

the autumn of one’s life

12

season

cold; dry; wet; hot; rainy; snowy; holiday; tourist; blossoming; growing; planting; harvest; busy

begin; come;

  • to be out of season

  • to be in season

  • in due season

  • in good season

Step 2. Translate the collocations given below into English.

Russian

Ukrainian

English

1

умеренный климат, средняя полоса

помірний клімат, середня смуга

2

безоблачное небо

безхмарне небо

3

комнатная температура

кімнатна температура

4

покрытое облаками; мрачное, хмурое небо

покрите хмарами; похмуре, хмуре небо

5

грозовые облака

грозові хмари

6

свежий воздух

свіже повітря

7

звездное небо

зоряне небо

8

мягкий климат

м'який клімат

9

свинцовое небо

свинцеве небо

10

плотные облака

щільні хмари

11

сырой климат

сирий клімат

12

прозрачный воздух

прозоре повітря

13

морозная температура

морозна температура

14

островной климат

острівний клімат

15

воздух, наполненный ароматами; благоуханный воздух

повітря, що наповнено ароматами; запашне повітря

16

штормовые облака

штормові хмари

17

спёртый /тяжёлый воздух

сперте /важке повітря

18

сырой, влажный, дождливый климат

сирий, вологий, дощовий клімат

19

прохладная температура

прохолодна температура

20

разрежённый воздух

розріджене повітря

21

среднегодовая температура

середньорічна температура

22

средняя температура

середня температура

23

суровый климат

суворий клімат

24

сухой, засушливый климат

сухий, посушливий клімат

25

cвежий, бодрящий воздух

свіже повітря; повітря, що бадьорить

26

погода улучшается / ухудшается

погода поліпшується / погіршується

27

мерзкая погода

мерзенна погода

28

влажность воздуха

вологість повітря

29

температура снижается

температура знижується

30

густой/плотный туман

густий/щільний туман

31

cерое,затянутое тучами небо

cіре, затягнуте хмарами небо

32

прекрасная погода

прекрасна погода

33

сильный снегопад

сильний снігопад

34

сильный мороз

сильний мороз

35

благоприятный климат

сприятливий клімат

36

летная погода

літна погода

37

пасмурная погода

похмура погода

38

журавль в небе; воздушные замки

журавель у небі; повітряні замки

39

сущий младенец; неопытная пташка

суща дитина; недосвідчена пташинка

40

то дождь, то солнце; то смех, то слёзы

то дощ, то сонце; то сміх, то сльози

TASK 3. What can weather elements do? Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box and find out. Options are possible. Translate the sentences into your mother tongue.

Part 1

had gone

lay

dropped

had gathered

lifted (= disappeared)

obscured

soared

were racing

set in

floated

attracts

covered

  1. A blanket of thick white fog _________ the wheat fields.

  2. To our great relief the fog _________ in the afternoon.

  3. In the morning, a light mist _________ in the valley.

  4. A murky mist of smog _________ the view of the city.

  5. The mist along the river banks _________ by midmorning.

  6. The temperature in New York _________ to minus 10° last night.

  7. The sun beat down and temperatures _________ into the 30s.

  8. The climate of southern Florida _________ thousands of tourists each winter.

  9. Dark clouds _________ across the moon creating a strange and mysterious atmosphere.

  10. Heavy clouds _________ over the summit of Mont Blanc, and we decided to put our climbing off for another day.

  11. A strong wind was blowing, and light white clouds _________ through the blue sky.

  12. The most important rule for a farmer is that grass must always be sown before the continuous wet conditions of winter _________.

Part 2

raises

lowers

cloud over

hung

darkened

grew

reached

reduce

had cleared

going down

go up

promising

increase

              1. Heavy grey clouds _________ low in the sky, _________ a cold autumn rain.

              2. Due to the greenhouse effect the Earth’s surface temperatures _________ and the global climate changes.

              3. In winter, in this part of the country the temperature _________ to minus 30°C.

              4. Don’t put hot food straight into the fridge; it _________ the temperature and encourages mould to grow.

              5. Last night the temperature _________ the record 45°C in the shade.

              6. Paracetamol can help _________ the body temperature.

              7. Are you sure the temperature will _________ tomorrow? – Yes, the weather report promised that it would be 5 degrees higher than today.

              8. You must put on another sweater and take you warm hat and gloves. The temperature is rapidly _________.

              9. The sky _________ and thunder rolled in from the west.

              10. The sky was beginning to _________ and that was a relief from the scorching sun.

              11. The sky _________ dark, and a cold rain began to fall.

              12. By dawn the sky _________ and we expected that the day would not be that bad after all.

TASK 4. Fill in the gaps with one of the words and expressions from the box. Options are possible. Translate the sentences into your mother tongue.

Nature’s

haze

natural phenomenon

climate change

sky

fog

air pollution

rainbow

forces of nature

beauties of nature

mist

conditions

Part 1

  1. The inhabitants of this remote cold island fight a constant battle against the _________.

  2. And no matter how minor the discovery is, there is a peculiar excitement about understanding some _________ for the first time.

  3. The future painter grew up in the countryside, surrounded by the _________, which greatly influenced his artistic style.

  4. No matter how cruel it may sound, disease is one of _________ ways of keeping the Earth’s population down.

  5. The mist had curdled to a _________, which muffled the street-lamps and reduced visibility to thirty or forty yards.

  6. In the morning, it looked like a smoky _________ was hanging over the hills.

  7. People will have to get used to more flooding and droughts as _________ becomes a reality.

  8. The summer _________ darkened quickly, and soon the first heavy raindrops fell.

  9. As Jack took a step towards the figure, the _________ suddenly cleared and the figure disappeared.

  10. Environmentalists think that cars’ exhaust fumes are a major cause of _________.

  11. She is a kind of person who believes there is a pot of gold at the end of every _________ .

  12. If the _________ are really bad, we’ll have to postpone the trip and stay at home.

Part 2

thin

weather patterns

in all weathers

under the weather

outlook

head in the clouds

dawn

weather forecast

flying weather

in good season

weather reports

spring chicken

  1. Do you think it’s going to rain? – Well, it said so on the _________.

  2. I’m afraid the _________ for tomorrow isn’t very good – they say it’s going to rain the whole day.

  3. There are _________ every hour to keep you up to date with driving conditions in your area.

  4. Changes in _________ are thought to be caused by global warming

  5. People cannot live up there because the air is too _________ and there is not enough oxygen to breathe.

  6. My Dad used to get up at the crack of _________ every Sunday to go fishing.

  7. James Burns has been _________ the whole week and missed three trainings, so he will not take part in the competition.

  8. The medicine has to be delivered to the patient _________, no matter whether it is _________ or not.

  9. Philip was happy that he was able to give Claire advice _________ and she did not lose her money in that murky business.

  10. Barbara is no _________. She should have realized the consequences of her actions.

  11. There is no point in asking Pat about his opinion; he is always having his _________.

TASK 5. Fill in the gaps with prepositions. In case of difficulty, consult your dictionary. Try to remember the underlined collocations. Be ready to translate the sentences into your mother tongue

  1. All these materials are found ___ nature.

  2. After walking for hours we got lost ___ the thick fog.

  3. We could just see the outline of the house ___ the mist.

  4. Next morning, the whole town was shrouded ___ mist.

  5. Within seconds the strange figure had completely vanished ___ the mist.

  6. The sun was surrounded ___ a golden haze.

  7. Little orange fires flickered, and gray shapes moved among the dull-green helicopters ___ the morning haze.

  8. The sand, surf and sea stretched for mile after mile after mile ___ the blue haze.

  9. For a few moments the clouds open and we lie ___ the heat of a hazy sun.

  10. Don’t even bother to plant these flowers; they will not grow ___ cold climates.

  11. What’s the temperature today? The thermometer is ___ zero.

  12. What’s the temperature today? – I am not sure. It’s either five degrees ___ zero (plus five) or five degrees ___ zero (minus five degrees)

  13. Yesterday it was forty-three degrees ___ the shade; we could hardly breathe.

  14. Water boils ___ a temperature of 100°C.

  15. These seeds should be stored ___ low temperatures.

  16. Scientists observe a gradual rise ___ ocean temperatures.

  17. It took me a few days to become accustomed to the change ___ temperature.

  18. Red wine should be served ___ room temperature.

  19. There was a strong smell of burning ___ the air.

  20. The flames of the bonfire leapt ___ the air.

  21. From the corner of his eye Jack noticed a shooting star speed ___ the sky.

  22. Visibility was bad ___ ___ low clouds, and the pilot had certain difficulties in navigation our small plane.

  23. The end of dad’s cigarette glowed ___ the twilight.

  24. I will always remember our romantic walks along the beach ___ twilight.

  25. ___ daybreak or dusk, the pyramids most resemble the limestone monuments seen by the old explorers.

  26. I was up ___ the crack of dawn to get the plane.

  27. Can you imagine these little children have to work on the rice fields ___ dawn ___ dusk!

TASK 6. Read and learn by heart one of the old English rhymes and tongue twisters about the weather.

Whether the weather be fine,

Or whether the weather be not.

Whether the weather be cold,

Or whether the weather be hot.

We’ll weather the weather

Whatever the weather

Whatever we like it or not.

When the weather is wet,

We mustn’t fret.

When the weather is cold,

We mustn’t scold.

 When the weather is warm,

We mustn’t storm.

But be thankful together

Whatever the weather.

Man is a fool.

When it’s cold – he wants it cool.

When it’s cool – he wants it hot.

He always wants what he has not!

What makes summer warm and breezy? What makes winter cold and sneezy? What makes autumn crisp and keen? What makes spring so warm and green?