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2. Research your surroundings.

(Will you be in a large room or a small one? If you plan to use visual aids such as slides or overhead projector, are there adequate facilities, from outlets to projection screens? How good is the sound system?

If you can't have these things properly done, write a speech that doesn't require them).

3. Research your topic and ideas.

You should know your topic perfectly. Consult books, articles, Internet. Gather statistics. Such step will strengthen your speech. You can have "brainstorming" with the experts or your colleagues to throw around ideas and get insights.

Structuring a presentation

Presentation is an act of public speaking that's why the text should be carefully' structured to keep the audience interested and engaged.

1) All presentations begin with an introduction. The presenter should state the purpose of the presentation, catch the audience's attention by relating the subject to the real-life experience of the audience, use some surprising facts.

The introduction should contain signposting for the audience - tell them what you will be talking about: in which order you will develop your points (e.g. First, I'll give you some background; then, after outlining...; lastly, I'll explain...).

2) The main body of the presentation.

In informative presentations, this central part includes descriptions, analysis, information and facts.

In persuasive presentations, the main body consists of building arguments and talking through options.

3) Conclusion.

The presenter summarizes everything, gives recommendations or a call for action.

4) Time for questions and answers.

Some questions are asked because smth was not clear in the speech. Sometimes people raise doubts about a point or world like to get more information.

Sometimes you may have to handle difficult or hostile questions from the audience. In such a way you can use a variety of tactics: by delaying answering the question or evading the question. e.g. I'm afraid I'm not the right person to answer that. Mister Brown is a much better person to answer that, or Could we leave that till later? That is scheduled for discussion at the next meeting.

Speaking about the style of presentation we can say that it depends on the audience. If you are addressing your co-workers in a company or speaking before an audience of prospective investors. In the first case, it will be either neutral or informal. In the second case it'll be neutral and formal.


To negotiate - to reach an agreement by discussing smth in a formal way.

Negotiator - a person, often representing a particular group or company, involved in discussions that aim to reach an agreement on a matter of mutual interest.

Negotiation - reaching an agreement through discussion; a meeting where this discussion takes place.

Types of negotiations

To begin with, most negotiations take place internationally. Deals are negotiated in different professional areas - finance, tourism, industry, telecommunications etc.

There can be 2 parties to the negotiations or a multiparty negotiation. Negotiations can be: deal-oriented or have long-term orientation. The style can be: collaborative or confrontational.

The approach of one of the parties can be: win-win, the other party can prefer: win-lose strategy.

The parties can negotiate:

1) a sales contract

2) a compensation for breach of agreement

3) a joint-venture agreement

Stages of negotiating

1) Relationship building

The negotiating parties set the climate for the whole negotiation. Some questions are asked and answered, comments are made; each side shows an interest in what the other side has to say.

2) Agreeing procedure

The parties state their objectives clearly and agree on them with the other side.

3) Exchanging information

The negotiating parties offer a short summary if the company's history and activities, and also exchange statements of each side's interest.

4) Questioning

5) Generating options (право выбора или замены)

The parties brainstorm a lot of different ideas or options for working together.

6) When the proposals are put forward, bidding takes place {bidding - предложение цены, назначение цены, торги)

7) Bargaining stage ['ba:gin]

The parties make further offers linked to certain conditions.

8) Setting and concluding

It's the final stage of negotiations where the participants usually summarize what agreements have already been reached and what responsibilities have already been assigned.

Language of negotiations

Negotiating is an interplay of various strata of words. On the one hand, there are key terms of business that reflect the business content of the negotiations and place the respective speech events within the world of business.

e.g. Company, partnership, a joint company, to employ, staff, recruitment, clients. On the other hand, there are words like: experience, examine, consider, concentrate.

They constitute the formal style which suits the register under consideration. The negotiators often use such words: alternative (instead of "other decision"), concern (instead of "interest or worry"), to confront (instead of "to face"), to expose (to make known).

There are longer recurrent phrases, like: "So the next step is to... I feel that, initially, we should... I think, it would be better to... I'd like to start by suggesting that... " Each stage of the negotiations has its own special recurrent phrases. Negotiating is a very complicated area of inquiry. The way people negotiate depends on a number of factors. One of them is the individual goal of each of the participating parties.

Some companies are deal-oriented and therefore short-termist: their manner is confrontational, their strategy is win-lose (where one side benefits at the other side's expense), their tone is aggressive.


Writing a thank you letter, or thank you email, after an employment interview is a must. In fact, some employers think less of those interviewees who fail to follow-up promptly. Plan to send out your thank you letters or thank you notes as soon as possible (preferably within twenty-four hours) after your interview. The thank you letter reinforces the fact that you want the job.

You may also view your thank you letters as follow-up "sales" letters. In other words, you can restate why you want the job, what your qualifications are, how you might make significant contributions, and so on. This thank you letter is also the perfect opportunity to discuss anything of importance that your interviewer neglected to ask or that you neglected to answer as thoroughly, or as well, as you would have liked.

The structure of the letter.

Use -the first paragraph to thank the interviewer for taking the time to meet v, you. Mention your interest in the job and how enthusiastic you are about it.

The second paragraph of your thank you letter should include the reasons why j u are an excellent candidate for the job. List specific skills that relate to the job you interviewed for. The more detailed you are, the more the interviewer will know about your qualifications.

The third paragraph (optional) can be used to mention anything that you didn't bring up at the interview that you'd like the employer to know. This gives you another chance to make a good impression, especially if you remembered something you should have said after the interview.

In your closing paragraph, reiterate your appreciation for being considered for the job and let the interviewer know you are looking forward to hearing from him or her soon.


Dear First Name, (or Mr./Ms. Last Name if you don't know them well) Thank you for all the help you have given me with my job search. I especially appreciate the information and advice you have provided, and the contacts you have shared with me. Your assistance has been invaluable to me during this process. Again, thank you so much. I greatly appreciate your generosity.

Best Regards, Your Name

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