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3. The pg phonology. The consonants.

Early PG (15/5c. BC - 1/4c. AD)---- separation of PG from the west IE (centum branch) to its stabilization as a separate system.

Features:

  • the existence of the fixed & moveable stress types

  • there didn’t exist any difference between stressed & unstressed syllables.

Late PG (4/7c. – 11/16c. AD)---- from stabilization of PG to its dispersal into separate groups of G.dialects .

Features:

  • the dynamic stress was fixed on the first root syllable

  • the opposition between stressed & unstressed syllables.

Common features in PG: -a great number of fricatives, small number of plosives; - no palatal consonants at all, as in other Centum languages.

Such a quantity of fricatives appeared in PG as a result of sound shifting described as Grimm’s Law and Verner’s Law.

  • B, d, g, gw were positional variants of v, ð, h, hw initially, after nasals and when doubled

  • J (non-syllabic i) – “i” in the final position and before consonants Nom. Sg. harjis – Akk. Sg. hari

  • w (non-syllabic u) “u” after short vowel, in final position and before “s”: Gen. Sg. trivis – Nom.Sg. triu

  • syllabic sonorants “m”, “n”, “r”, “l” lost their syllabic function and became non-syllabic because there developed “u” before them “um”, “un”, “ur”, “ul” . Syllabic sonorants “i” and “u” became vowels.

4.Grimm’s Law. (1822 was first published in “Deutch Grammar”)

I act

IE voiceless plosives >Germanic voiceless fricatives

p > f

t > Ө

k > h

kw > hw

L pater > E father

R три > E three

R кепка > E hat

L quod > Gt ha

II act

IE voiced plosives > G. voiceless plosives

b > p

d > t

g > k

gw > kw

R болото> E pool

R два > E two

R иго > E yoke

Gr gune > OE cwene

III act

IE voiced aspirated plosives > G. voiced plosives

bh > b

dh > d

gh > g

gwh > gw

Skr bhratar > E brother

Skr madhu > OE medu

Skr *gh > Gt gast, L hostis

IE seŋgwh > Gt siggwan

Exepcions:

  1. The shifting didn’t take place after fricatives(f, Ө,h) & s:

L stare – Gt standan

  1. The second of the consonants didn’t undergo shifting:

L octo Gt ahtau 1 k > h

12 12 2 t = t

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