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Negotiations Everyone negotiates. Negotiations are an integral part of our

jobs, our lives, and our relationships. We even negotiate with ourselves when we

work out the relative value of things. Few people understand the negotiation

process and the effect attitude, people skills and dealing with conflict have in a

win-win negotiation. Negotiation is a life skill and an art. As a life skill, you

negotiate every day whether you are aware of it or not. As an art, it has to be

cultivated and developed over time. Developing a negotiation talent requires

turning our thinking around. Learn the secrets and enjoy the process instead of

dreading what you might perceive as a conflict. Today, negative comments and

antagonistic attitudes popular about negotiations. Most people look at the

negotiation process as at war. Negative experiences and pessimistic attitudes lead

to negativity and destructive behavior in negotiations. The potential for a positive

outcome and the development of long-standing affable relationships is


An essentially longitudinal model.

INTERNATIONAL bargaining and negotiation are subjects about which

there has long been much speculation and the offering of much advice.

Concerned with the relation in the conflict setting of process to outcome, Ikle

produces an essentially longitudinal model: conflict - negotiating objectives -

proposals - tactics - outcomes. He develops in these terms, but with an awareness

of overlaps and feedback, an analysis sometimes brilliant in insight, e.g., in the

exposure of some myths concerning propriety and tactics in negotiating. The

conflict situation is analyzed as embracing both issues of conflict and common

interests. The latter are subdivided into “substantive common interest” in a single

arrangement or object and “complementary common interest” in an exchange of

different objects.

Negotiations and negotiating styles are made dependent upon whether

participants, even though in conflict, are (a) friendly or allied, or (b) hostile,

thereby partly mitigating the rigor of the conflict requirement.

Ikle has actually employed the following more precise continuum: friendly

allied, friendly, friendly neutral, purely nonaligned, hostile neutral, hostile, hostile

allied. Since negotiations are susceptible of being carried on within and between

these groupings, categorization of participants in any particular negotiation

depends upon the subject views of the categorizer. Objectively, the relationships

between participants should not be a linear progression toward hostility, or from it,

but a progression from and toward centers of friendliness or attraction.

Interpretations and intentions of the parties.

Ikle identified two risks in agreements. (1) The parties may conclude an

agreement in principle “unaware that their interpretations of the implicit parts of

the bargain are in conflict”; and (2) one party may deliberately violate what it

knows the second party thought was mutually understood. Concerning the first

risk, Ikle says: “In the case of unintentional misunderstanding, one or the other side

will feel cheated when it comes to carry out the agreement later on. The remedy

against this is greater specificity.”

Why feel cheated? One reason may be a marked difference between the

understanding of one’s own solution to a problem and that of a competitive group,

the latter solution not being fully understood even by individuals who think they

understand it. To the extent that an agreement is a compromise, part of the

competitor’s solution, even if not his optimal solution, will be included. So is part

of one’s own solution. Hence, the proposition may be put forward that the

inclusion of part of one’s own solution or proposals in a compromise may generate

more optimistic expectations than are warranted. Thus, it is possible to explain in

terms of frustrated expectations the feeling of having been cheated.

But if feeling cheated is given a generalized explanation in terms of frustrated

expectations, a circle of tautology (frustration = feeling cheated = frustration) can

be established. To avoid tautology, it might be better to treat frustration as having

an external relation to the treaty partner’s acts and to regard expectations as prior,

and feeling cheated as subsequent, internalizations. In that case, a temporal

sequence (expectation - frustration - feeling cheated) can be identified either on

the plane of individual policy-makers or on that of a small group of collegial

policy-makers, perhaps including advisory staff. Depending upon the spread of

pertinent, but not necessarily accurate, communication, the sequence could extend

to the nation.

Agreement - No-agreement.

Agreement is not essential. Rather, possible outcomes are of three types: (1)

agreement; (2) no-agreement; (3) further negotiations. Analysis of proposals and

their uses and of other tactics is made with reference to the continuing threefold

choice, the main objective being to link the negotiating process with outcomes.

Goals in negotiating process.

Five types of objectives of negotiations are visualized: (1) extension of an

existing arrangement, including replacement of international officials; (2)

normalization, as in the ending of violence; (3) redistribution, in which one party’s

loss is another’s gain and involving an offensive, threatening side and a defensive

side; (4) innovation; (5) side effects, including maintaining contact, deterrence,

obtaining intelligence, deception, propaganda, and impact on third states.

Some statistical facts about a strategic negotiation process.

84 % say negotiations have become increasingly more complex.

74 % report having to face more professional buyers in the market place.

67% say they are seeing increased irrational behaviour among their


63% report that customer relationships are becoming increasingly long term

rather than short term.

85% say that more internal negotiation is now taking place than in the past.

58% report seeing major consolidations on both the buyer and seller sides.

But what do all these numbers mean? Exactly how are they impacting sales

negotiations, and in what way do they make the development and implementation

of sales negotiation strategies so important?


Strategy and Tactics of Negotiation

Negotiating rules.

Let’s talk about win-win negotiating. Instead of trying to dominate the other person and trick him

into doing things he wouldn’t normally do, you should work with the other person to work out your

problems and develop a solution with which both of you can win. Let’s observe four fundamental rules

for win-win negotiations.

Rule one of win-win negotiating: The first thing to learn is this: Don't narrow the negotiation down

to just one issue. If. for example, you resolve all the other issues and the only thing left to negotiate is

price, somebody does have to win and somebody does have to lose. As long as you keep more than one

issue on the table, you can ahvays work trade-offs so that the other person doesn't mind conceding on

price because you are able to offer something in return.

Rule two of win-win negotiating: the understanding that people are not out for the same thing. We

all have an overriding tendency to assume that other people want what we want, and because of this we

believe that what’s important to us will be important to them. But that’s not true.

Rule three of win-win negotiating: The third key to win-win negotiating is this: Don't be too greedy.

Don't try to get the last dollar off the table. You may feel that you triumphed, but does that help you if the

other person felt that you vanquished him? That last dollar left on the table is a very expensive dollar to

pick up.

Rule four of win-win negotiating: Put something back on the table when the negotiation is over. It

doesn’t mean that you'll give them a discount over and above what they negotiated. It means something

more than you promised to do. Give them a little extra service. Care about them a little more than you

have to. Then you'll find that the little extra for which they didn't have to negotiate means more to them

that everything for which they did have to negotiate.

Types of negotiating outcomes.

Negotiating outcomes are the types of results that can happen at the end of a negotiation. All

negotiations end up with one out of four possible outcomes: one party wins and the other loses, both

parties lose, they get stuck in a stalemate, or both end up winning.


In this ty pe of outcome, one side wins and the other side loses. There is no compromise with a win-lose

outcome. While the side that wins may be very happy about the outcome; the losing side has a high

level of resentment over the deal because they did not have any of their needs met. This usually results

in an end to any future negotiations and a termination of the relationship.


In this type of outcome, ego's come into play which thwart the negotiating process. Both sides dig into

their positions and are unwilling to compromise with each other. In the end, both parties end up losing

in the deal.


In this type of outcome, neither side wins or loses and after a long negotiating session, both sides are at

the exact same place that they started off at. This is a result of not being able to deal with interests and

only positions. Stalemates happen when both sides aggressively defend their positions and neither side

is able to make the other side budge.


This is the type outcome that you strive to achieve when you Street Negotiate. In this type of outcome,

both sides walk away with their interests and needs being met. Both sides leave the negotiating table

satisfied because they came out of the negotiation with more than they had started with. Relationships

are preserved because both parties cooperated with each other in determining a fair solution to the

problem. This outcome also bolsters trust for future negotiations between the two parties because they

have established a positive relationship.

A compromising position.

Negotiating is a hot topic these days for a good reason. It is difficult to imagine a more vital

managerial skill than the skill of negotiating. Effective managers must be superior negotiators.

Successful negotiating involves trading-off between getting along with people and getting what you

want. All negotiators face this dilemma: “How can I get what I really desire and yet maintain a friendly

relationship with the other side?” Those who can achieve these seemingly contradictory objectives have

mastered the art of negotiating.

Collaborating is one of several problem-solving approaches, however collaborating looks for a

workable solution and even-handedly explores the needs of the parties until they are reasonably

satisfied. Its advantages are that both sides can win big and collectively find solutions, ideas, and

outcomes that go beyond the scope of the individual parties involved. Personal relationships can

improve rather than deteriorate. Its pitfalls are that it can be extremely time-consuming, and that

negotiators with a forcing style may interpret this approach as weakness.

Negotiating tactics for opening negotiations.

Here are two main important issues you need to consider when opening your negotiation talks. The

first strategy is the most risky kind of tactic the person shouldn’t employ. If you demand too much in the

first place, you may provoke and outrage the other opponent, which in the end may set your negotiations

into a wrong direction. If things are so hard and difficult to come by for your opponent in the first place,

do you think if by any chance that they will listen to you in the long run? They may not be aware of the

significance of the main topics that you are bringing in, but tackling it later on will certainly save you a

lot of time in the long run. Build rapport first.

The second strategy means that if the things are too difficult to handle in the first place, the safest

bet you can take on is to look for points at the outset that might bring you closer to your opponent. For

example, try to get to know them well, have a small talk on their thoughts and principles and what are

their likes and dislikes.

Negotiating skills.

Negotiating skills can help you manage lots of different kinds of life situations, both at work and in your

personal relationships. Here are a few examples of where these skills can help you build an even better

life for yourself:

1. Many family situations require negotiating with others. Deciding which movie to see, planning how

to spend money, choosing a vacation spot, and many other decisions work best when you have these


2. Being a good negotiator enables you to get what you want more often without resorting to becoming

aggressive or pushy. Negotiating with others is more effective than simply demanding what you want or

just caving in.

3. You will be more successful in the workplace if you know how to negotiate. These skills enable you

to stand up for yourself and get what you want more often without harming relationships with bosses

and coworkers.

4. Negotiation skills increase your personal effectiveness in any group situation, such as volunteer

groups, the PTO. and church or synagogue groups.

5. Knowing how to negotiate lessens the chances that others will take advantage of you.

6. Negotiating a fair solution makes you feel good about yourself and increases others' respect for you.

Keys to negotiating well.

Whether it’s buying a car, asking for a pay rise, saying “no” to a friend or renting an apartment -

at some stage in our lives we all are going to need to know how to negotiate. These are 8 keys will assist

you negotiate well:

1. Know the outcome you want. It is important you know what type of outcome you w'ant

because that will affect the long term relationship you have with the other party. Win-win

outcomes are beneficial where you have an ongoing relationship.

2. Know your “position-’. You should not start negotiating until you have thought through

and considered all of the consequences for all of the different outcomes that may


3. Know your counterpart’s “position”. Try to work out what is important to them in the

deal. When you know that you have an advantage. Try not to reveal what is important to


4. Work out different scenarios ahead of time. Being caught by surprise will not strengthen

your position! Think through all the different possibilities which may eventuate and plan

for each and every one of them. It is useful to brainstorm and write down on a piece of

paper what could possibly happen.

5. Know' yourself. Know your own weakness. If you are a more gentle personality your

natural aversion to conflict may toss you into concessions that aren’t necessary ! If you

are overly stubborn and never give way to minor points, know this about yourself. Your

stubbornness, holding out for 100% your own way, may cause you to lose a really great


6. Back up your position with logic. If you negotiate from purely emotional position,

emotion will sway you from your position. When negotiating for a pay rise know what

similar companies are paying for similar work.

7. Work out what you can concede. Find something in the deal that for you will not be

impoitant but for your counterpart may be of significance. This will be like gold for you.

8. Have an exit strategy. If everything goes against you, you will be saved by your

contingency planning! If you are doing most of the talking the chances are you are doing

most of the conceding. Offer to break the meeting and reconvene at another time when

you have been able to consider what has already been put forward.

Skillful negotiation takes time and practice.


Cross- Cultural Negotiations

Cross -cultural negotiations. Cross cultural negotiation is one of many specialized areas within the

wider field of cross cultural communications. By taking cross cultural negotiation training, negotiators

and sales personnel give themselves an advantage over competitors.

There is an argument that proposes that culture is inconsequential to cross cultural negotiation. It

maintains that as long as a proposal is financially attractive it will succeed. However, this is a naive way

of approaching international business.

Let us look at a brief example of how cross cultural negotiation training can benefit the international

business person:

There are two negotiators dealing with the same potential client in the Middle East. Both have identical

proposals and packages. One ignores the importance of cross cultural negotiation training believing the

proposal will speak for itself. The other undertakes some cross cultural training. He/she learns about the

culture, values, beliefs, etiquette and approaches to business, meetings and negotiations. Nine times out

of ten the latter will succeed over the rival. This is because 1) it is likely they would have endeared

themselves more to the host negotiation team and 2) they would be able to tailor their approach to the

negotiations in a way that maximizes the potential of a positive outcome.

Cross cultural negotiations is about more than just how foreigners close deals. It involves looking at all

factors that can influence the proceedings B\ wa\ of highlighting this, a few brief examples of topics

covered in cross cultural negotiation training shall re offered.

Peculiarities of cross cultural negotiations. The impact of international business in domestic markets

compels us to ask a question: “How can we survive in this global playing field, and what can we do to

run our businesses more effectively?” Nowadays, businesses of all sizes search for suppliers and

customers on a global level. International competition, foreign clients and suppliers may become a

danger, but they may also create huge opportunities to develop our business. The increasingly global

business environment requires managers to approach the negotiation process from the global business

person’s point of view. This approach includes aspects which are usually unimportant in domestic

negotiations. Some of the components of a cross cultural negotiation process are more complex and

difficult, but will increase our success in avoiding barriers and failures in the international business


When doing business internationally, we need to consider:

1 • The negotiating environment;

2. Cultural and sub-cultural differences;

3. Ideological differences;

4. Foreign bureaucracy;

5. Foreign laws and governments;

6. Financial insecurity due to international monetary factors;

7. Political instability and economic changes.

If we consider the fact that negotiating with our fellow citizen is not an easy task due to many individual

differences, it would be reasonable to suggest that negotiating with foreigners may be even more

difficult. The way we perceive and create our own reality may be completely different to our

counterpart’s way of thinking, behaving and feeling. Unfortunately, knowledge of any foreign language

is not enough to face and solve the problem. Language is a cluster of codes used in communication

which, if not shared effectively, can act as a barrier to establish credibility and trust. We need more

effective tools, and the most important is knowledge of all factors that can influence the proceedings.

Nations tend to have a national character that influences the type of goals and process the society

pursues in negotiations. This is why specifying and understanding cultural differences is vital in order to

perform successfully in inter-cultural communication (Schuster-Copeland 1996, 33). As we better

understand that our partners may see things differently, we will be less likely to make negative

assumptions and more likely to make progress when negotiating.

Factors influencing cross-cultural negotiations.

Negotiating Goal and Basic Concept: How is the negotiation being seen0 Is mutual satisfaction the real

purpose of the meeting? Do we have to compete? Do they want to win? Different cultures stress

different aspects of negotiation. The goal of business negotiation may be a substantive outcome

(Americans) or a long-lasting relationship (Japanese).

Protocol: There are as many kinds of business etiquette as there are nations in the world. Protocol

factors that should be considered are dress codes, number of negotiators, entertainment, degree of

formality, gift giving, meeting and greeting, etc.

Communications'. Verbal and non-verbal communication is a key factor of persuasion. The way we

express our needs and feelings using body language and tone of voice can determine the way the other

side perceives us, and in fact positively or negatively contributes to our credibility.Another aspect of

communication relevant to negotiation is the direct or indirect approach to exchanging information. Is

the meaning of what is said exactly in the words themselves? Does “...it’s impossible” really mean

impossible or just difficult to realize? Always use questions to identify the other side’s needs, otherwise

assumptions may result in you never finding common interests.

Risk-Taking Propensity - Uncertainty Avoidance: There is always risk involved in negotiations. The

final outcome is unknown when the negotiations commence. The most common dilemma is related to

personal relations between counterparts: Should we trust them? Will they trust us? Certain cultures are

more risk averse than others, e.g. Japan (Hofstede 1980). It means that less innovative and creative

alternatives are available to pursue during the negotiation, unless there is a strong trust-based

relationship between the counterparts.

View o f Time-. In some cultures time is money and something to be used wisely. Punctuality and agenda

may be an important aspect of negotiation. In countries such as China or Japan, being late would be

taken as an insult. Consider investing more time in the negotiating process in Japan. The main goal

when negotiating with an oriental counterpart is to establish a firm relationship, which takes time.

Another dimension of time relevant to negotiation is the focus on past, present or future. Sometimes the

past or the distant future may be seen as part of the present, especially in Latin American countries.

Decision-Making System'. The way members of the other negotiating team reach a decision may give us

a hint: who we shall focus on providing our presentation. When negotiating with a team, it’s crucial to

identify who is the leader and who has the authority to make a decision.

Form o f Agreement'. In most cultures, only written agreements stamp a deal. It seems to be the best way

to secure our interests in case of any unexpected circumstances. The 'deal’ may be the contract itself or

the relationship between the parties, like in China, where a contract is likely to be in the form of general

principles. In this case, if any unexpected circumstances arise, parties prefer to focus on the relationship

than the contract to solve the problem.

Power Distance: This refers to the acceptance of authority differences between people. Cultures with

low power distance postulate equality among people, and focus more on earned status than ascribed

status. Negotiators from countries like Britain, Germany and Austria tend to be comfortable with shared

authority and democratic structures. When we face a high power distance culture, be prepared for

hierarchical structures and clear authority figures.

Personal Style: Our individual attitude towards the other side and biases which we sometimes establish

all determine our assumptions that may lead the negotiation process towards win-win or win-lose

solutions. Do we feel more comfortable using a formal or informal approach to communication? In

some cultures, like America, an informal style may help to create friendly relationships and accelerate

the problem solving solution. In China, by comparison, an informal approach is proper only when the

relationship is firm and sealed with trust.

Coping with Culture. Negotiating in the international environment is a huge challenge for any

negotiator. How do we cope with the cultural differences? What approach is more efficient and proper

when dealing with Japanese, Americans or Germans? There are some very helpful guidelines we can

apply (Salacuse, 1991):

1. Learn the other side’s culture

It is very important to know the commonest basic components of our counterparty'’s culture. It’s a sign

of respect and a way to build trust and credibility as well as advantage that can help us to choose the

right strategies and tactics during the negotiation. Of course, it’s impossible to learn another culture in

detail when we learn at short notice that a foreign delegation is visiting in two weeks’ time. The best we

can do is to try to identify principal influences that the foreign culture may have on making the deal.

2. Don’t stereotype

Making assumptions can create distrust and barriers that expose both your and the other side’s needs,

positions and goals. The way we view other people tends to be reserved and cautious. We usually

expect people to take advantage of a situation, and during the negotiations the other side probably thinks

the same way, especially when there is a lack of trust between counterparts. In stead of generalizing, we

should make an effort to treat everyone as individuals. Find the other side’s values and beliefs

independently of values and beliefs characteristic of the culture or group being represented by your


3. Find ways to bridge the culture gap

Apart from adopting the other side’s culture to adjust to the situation and environment; we can also try

to persuade the other side to use elements of our own culture. In some situations it is also possible to use

a combination of both cultures, for example, regarding joint venture businesses. Another possible

solution is to adopt a third culture, which can be a strong base for personal relationships. When there is

a difficulty in finding common ground, focusing on common professional cultures may be the initiation

of business relations.



A suggested model of international negotiat ion

Two aspects of the international negotiations These are: (1) the relationships among

elements in the phases o f bargaining which are conducive to reaching an enforceable agreement

, and (2) the elements in bargaining which are helpful in enforcing the agreement. These

aspects are perhaps more distinct than appears at first glance, but they are also interrelated,

since the second depends on the first.

Ь с У ь

The purpose of negotiations is to secure for the participants maximum benefits at minimum

risk. Yet maximization o f benefits involves the appropriation of third-party resources. Great

powers have the greatest appropriable resources, but great powers are also the most capable of

destroying enforcement ejforts." Third parties whose resources are appropriated may not

perceive their loss, or they may conclude that a reprisal w'ould be ineffective; in either of those

cages they would make no challenges or claims on the gains o f the winners. If they do make

‘ blaims or seem likely to do so, potential winners face the alternatives o f (1) claiming less than

they want, but with a higher chance o f getting the benefit and keeping it over the long term, or

(2) claiming what they want (i.e., maximization), but with less chance o f realizing it over the

long term. The first alternative means dissatisfaction in the present; the second means

dissatisfaction in the future.

Thus, in the dilemma o f limited benefits, that which helps the parties reach an agreement

conflicts with the likelihood o f implementation.

The dilemma o f need. Those parties who most need international negotiation as a means of

settling disputes are the parties with the least chance o f securing it. Friendly parties rather than

enemy parties are more willing to participate in all the phases o f negotiation: they are more

favourable to accepting negotiation, they undertake more negotiations because o f greater

opportunities, they find agreement easier because losses in a compromise can be “cashed in”

later, and they implement their agreements in order to keep faith with their allies. Negotiations

among enemy parties encounter greater difficulty in all o f these phases, and there is less

certainty o f progressing to the next phase even if the prior one has been completed.

Several elements which are helpful in starting a negotiation are antagonistic to other elements

which are helpful in reaching an agreement once negotiations are under way. Willingness to

negotiate is greater when punishments are as narrow as possible and benefits as wide as

possible (potential parties want to avoid all the punishments or risks they can, and each wants

gains). Willingness to negotiate increases with the number of parties who can actually

participate (being a participant, rather than an observer or a third party, helps ensure the receipt

of gains). Again, willingness to negotiate is greater when changes in the status quo are believed

to be minimal (all parties are likely to perceive fewer disadvantages in the status quo when the

changes are undetermined). / ( \ y \ - 1 /1 /1

Contrariwise, actual agreement is easier to reach when punishments or risks are as wide as

possible and benefits as narrow as possible (that is, each party favors gains directed only to

himself while he favors punishments that are distributed evenly among the parties and directed

outward also). Agreement is easier to reach when the number o f parties is lower (benefits are

greater for each party), and when the agreement involves a great change in the status quo

(increased opportunity for greater gains).

Thus, concluding an agreement is less likely when the negotiation begins spontaneously, but

voluntary participation may be the only way to get the negotiation started.

A suggested model of international negotiation The model outlined here sets forth the

elements in each phase o f international negotiation which are conductive to progression to the

next phase, culminating in an agreement which is implemented. The remainder o f the paper

will explain the entries in the model, except for those which seem self-evident.


A suggested model of international negotiations

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