Добавил:
Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:

Dictionary of Military Terms

.pdf
Скачиваний:
169
Добавлен:
10.08.2013
Размер:
7.45 Mб
Скачать

break up

34

break up / bre k p/ verb 1. to come apart, to fall to pieces The aircraft broke up in mid-air. 2. to disperse The demonstration broke up when baton rounds were fired. Troops were sent in to break up the demonstration. breastwork / brestw$ k/ noun a low field fortification constructed from earth, rocks, timber, etc.

breech /bri tʃ/ noun the rear part of a gun’s barrel, into which a round is placed in order to be fired

Bren gun / bren ( n/ noun a type of light machine-gun

COMMENT: The Bren was designed in Czechoslovakia and developed in Great Britain prior to World War II. It is still in use in many armies, including the British Army.

brevet / brev t/ noun a commission which entitles an officer to take a higher rank without the appropriate pay He was a brevet lieutenant-colonel. verb to confer a brevet rank on someone He was breveted as a major. (NOTE: breveting – breveted)

COMMENT: Brevet ranks are usually only conferred in wartime and are seen as temporary appointments.

brew /bru / noun a cup of tea or coffee

They stopped for a brew. verb 1. to make beer 2. to make tea

brew up / bru p/ verb 1. to make a hot drink 2. to catch fire (used of vehicles)

brick /br k/ noun a team of four men, forming part of a multiple Cpl Smith’s brick captured the gunman. multiple

bridge /br d%/ noun 1. a structure built to carry a road or railway over a river, road or railway 2. the control centre of a ship verb to make a bridge over something The enemy have bridged the river.

bridgehead / br d%hed/ noun a defensive position established on the enemy side of a river or other obstacle, which is used as a secure base for subsequent operations

bridgelayer / br d%le ə/ noun a vehicle which carries and lays a portable bridge

brief /bri f/ noun 1. orders or instructions That is not part of our brief. 2. a detailed summary or explanation We received a brief on the enemy’s organization. verb 1. to give orders or instructions He briefed his platoon for the attack. 2. to explain a situation in detail He briefed the brigadier on the tactical situation. Compare debrief briefing / bri f ŋ/ noun 1. orders or instructions We all assembled for the daily briefing. 2. a detailed explanation or summary The press officer gave a briefing on the current situation to reporters. 3. a meeting where a briefing is given. Compare debriefing

briefing room / bri f ŋ ru m/ noun a room where briefing and debriefing take place

brig /br (/ noun US a military prison (especially on a warship)

Brig abbreviation brigadier

brigade /br (e d/ noun a tactical army grouping of two or more battalions or regiments. Abbr Bde

COMMENT: A British armoured brigade might consist of two armoured or mechanized infantry battalions and one armoured regiment or, alternatively, two armoured regiments and one infantry battalion, plus artillery and supporting arms. On operations, these units are broken down and combined into battle groups. As an example, an armoured infantry battle group might consist of two infantry companies and one squadron of tanks, which are organized into two company and squadron groups and a squadron and company group under the command of the infantry battalion HQ. The exact composition will vary according to the tactical requirement at the time. An airportable infantry brigade might consist of three infantry battalions plus artillery and supporting arms. In the US Army, a battle group is known as a task force, while company and squadron groups and squadron and company groups are known as company teams.

brigade administration area /br(e d əd m n stre ʃ(ə)n eəriə/ noun

an operational location for the logistical elements of a brigade. Abbr BAA

35

bumf

brigade commander /br (e d kəmɑ ndə/ noun an officer who is in

command of a brigade

brigade major /br (e d me d%ə/ noun the chief of staff of a brigade

Brigade of Guards /br (e d əv(ɑ dz/ noun the five guards infantry regiments of the British Army (Grenadier Guards, Coldstream Guards, Scots Guards, Irish Guards and Welsh Guards)

brigadier / br (ə d ə/ noun a senior officer in the army or marines (usually in command of brigade). Abbr Brig

brigadier general / br (əd ə

d%en(ə)rəl/ noun US a senior officer in the army, marines or air force (junior to a major general and senior to a colonel, usually in command of a brigade)

BRITFOR abbreviation British Force

British / br t ʃ/ adjective relating to Great Britain (GB) (NOTE: Great Britain is formed of England, Scotland and Wales, and with Northern Ireland forms the United Kingdom (UK).) British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) obsolete title for British ground forces stationed in Germany

British Army of the Rhine / br t ʃ

ɑ mi əv ðə r n/ noun an obsolete title for British ground forces stationed in Germany. Abbr BAOR

brook /brυk/ noun a small stream

BSM abbreviation battery sergeant major

BTR / bi ti ɑ / noun a Soviet series of wheeled armoured personnel carriers (APCs)

BTR-60 noun a 1960s-era APC BTR-80 noun a 1980s-era APC BTR-90 noun a 1990s-era APC

Bty abbreviation battery

bubonic plague /bju bɒn k ple (/ noun same as plague

buckshee / b kʃi / adjective spare (and usually acquired unofficially or illegally) (slang) I’ve got a buckshee sleeping-bag.

buddy / b di/ noun US a comrade

(informal)

buddy-buddy system / b di b dis stəm/ noun a philosophy where comrades look after each other’s welfare and protect each other in battle

buffer zone / b fə zəυn/ noun a designated area between two groupings, which neither grouping can enter but in which enemy can be engaged by either grouping (designed to avoid fratricide between the two groupings)

bugle / bju ((ə)l/ noun a musical instrument, similar to a trumpet, traditionally used to send signals or instructions in the form of music

bugler / bju (lə/ noun a person who plays the bugle

bug out / b ( aυt/ verb to abandon a position or location in a hurry (informal)

built-up / b lt p/ adjective covered by buildings (i.e. cities, towns and other urban areas) We will have to move through a large built-up area.

bull /bυl/ noun the cleaning and polishing of kit The RSM expects plenty of bull for this parade. verb to polish boots He was bulling his boots. bulldozer / bυldəυzə/ noun a tracked vehicle designed to push obstructions out of the way

bullet / bυl t/ noun a projectile fired by a pistol, rifle or machine-gun bulleted blank / bυl t d bl ŋk/ noun a blank round designed for use with some automatic or semi-automatic weapons, containing a projectile which disintegrates upon leaving the muzzle of the weapon

bulletproof / bυl tpru f/ adjective designed to prevent penetration by bullets

bulletproof vest / bυl tpru f vest/ noun a vest fitted with panels of synthetic material (e.g. Kevlar) designed to protect a soldier from shrapnel and lowvelocity bullets. body armour, flak jacket

bumf /b mf/ noun written instructions, briefings, reports, etc. (slang) I haven’t had time to read all the bumf yet.

Don’t bunch!

bunch

36

bunch /b ntʃ/ verb to stand or move in close proximity to each other, thus presenting a good target for machineguns and artillery (used of a group of soldiers or vehicles)

Keep spread out!

Bundeswehr / bυndəsveə/ noun the German armed forces The crossings are being held by units of the Bundeswehr.

bungee / b nd%i / noun an elasticated cord used as a fastening

bunker / b ŋkə/ noun 1. a shelter with reinforced sides and a roof, designed to withstand artillery and small-arms fire 2. a reinforced underground shelter used for storage (especially of ammunition)

bunker buster / b ŋkə b stə/ noun a powerful bomb which is designed to penetrate a reinforced target and explode

burial detail / ber əl di te l/ noun a detachment of soldiers assigned to bury the dead

burlap / b$ l p/ noun US a coarse fabric used as camouflage or to make sandbags (NOTE: The British English term is hessian.)

burn /b$ n/ noun an injury caused by fire, heat, radiation, chemical action, electricity, or friction, resulting in redness and blistering of the skin and often causing damage to underlying tissues verb 1. to damage or destroy something by fire The village had been burnt to the ground. (NOTE: burning – burnt or burned) 2. to cause burns to someone or to part of his or her body

burst /b$ st/ noun 1. the firing of a series of bullets rapidly There was a burst of machine-gun fire from behind the wall. 2. an explosion The burst of the shell deafened him. verb to explode The shell burst next to the command post.

bury / beri/ verb to place an object in a hole in the ground and then cover it with soil There wasn’t time to bury the dead. The guerillas buried their weapons in the forest. (NOTE: burying – buried – have buried)

busby / b sb / noun a ceremonial fur headdress traditionally worn by cavalry soldiers

COMMENT: The busby is sometimes confused with the bearskin cap, which is a similar but much taller headdress traditionally worn by guards infantry soldiers.

bush /bυʃ/ noun 1. a plant resembling a small tree 2. the Bush in Australia and South Africa, wild uncultivated terrain

bust /b st/ (slang) adjective damaged or broken The radio is bust. verb 1. to damage or break I’ve bust my binoculars. 2. to demote Cpl Hobbs has been busted.

butt /b t/ noun 1. part of the rifle which a person places against his shoulder during firing He killed the man with his rifle butt. 2. the butts the target end of a shooting range He’s in the butts.

butte /bju t/ noun US a small isolated hill, with a flat top and steep slopes butt salute / b t sə lu t/ noun a salute made by slapping the butt or handguard of the rifle

BVR / bi vi ɑ r/ adjective, adverb too far from an enemy aircraft to see it with the naked eye We’ll have to use our BVR missiles. Full form beyond visual range. Compare WVR

bypass / ba pɑ s/ noun a road which passes around the outside of a town (in order to avoid going through the centre)

The bypass has been cratered. verb to move past an enemy position without engaging it We’ve been ordered to bypass the village and continue our advance.

CHARLIE - Cc

C3 abbreviation command, control and communications

C-17 / si sevən ti n/ noun an Ameri- can-designed heavy-lift transport aircraft, which is capable of landing on short runways. Also called Globemaster

C-130 / si w n θ$ ti/ noun an Amer- ican-designed transport aircraft. Also called Hercules

C-141 / si w n fɔ w n/ noun an American-designed transport aircraft. Also called Starlifter

C-601 /si s ks əυ w n/ noun a Chi- nese-designed anti-ship missile

C-801 /si e t əυ w n/ noun a Chi- nese-designed anti-ship missile

CA abbreviation cruiser (with guns)

cab /k b/ noun the driver’s compartment of a lorry or truck

CAB / si e bi , k b/ abbreviation US combat aviation brigade

cabin / k b n/ noun 1. a room on an aircraft or ship (normally used as living quarters) The captain called a meeting in his cabin. 2. US a hut or simple shelter They spent the night in a cabin in the mountains.

cable / ke b(ə)l/ noun 1. a thick metal wire which is used to convey electricity from one place to another 2. a thick metal wire which is used to moor a ship, or to tow a ship or vehicle. Also called hawser

cache /k ʃ/ noun a hidden store of ammunition, equipment or food We found a cache of ammunition in a hollow tree. verb to put something in a cache We cached our spare rations close to the track.

cadence / ke dəns/ noun 1. a standard time and pace for marching in step

They use a cadence of 95 paces to the minute. 2. a drum-beat or song designed to help maintain the cadence I heard the squad chanting their cadence.

cadet /kə det/ noun a schoolboy or girl who is a member of an official organization, which is designed to give young people a taste of life in the armed forces A party of cadets will be visiting the barracks tomorrow.

cadre / kɑ də/ noun a small unit of trained or experienced personnel, which can be used to form the basis for a much larger unit consisting mainly of untrained or less experienced personnel (e.g. recruits, reservists, territorials, etc)

cairn /keən/ noun a pile of stones or rocks, often built as a marker or monument There’s a cairn on the summit.

caisson / ke sən/ noun a trailer designed to carry ammunition

calculations in time and space

/ k lkjυle ʃ(ə)nz n ta m ən spe s/ plural noun calculations to determine how long it will take to get from one location to another

caliber / k l bə/ noun US spelling of calibre

calibre / k l bə/ noun 1. the internal diameter of a gun barrel 2. the external diameter of a projectile

call /kɔ l/ noun 1. a shout or cry 2. a radio message on call available on request we have a section of mortars on call verb 1. to speak loudly We heard him calling. 2. to summon He called the man over. 3. to request or order He called for smoke. 4. to wake someone up Call me at 0600. 5. to

call out

38

speak to someone on a radio or telephone He called the duty officer to inform him of the incident.

call out / kɔ l aυt/ verb to deploy a force in response to an incident or threat

The battalion has been called out. Call out the QRF!

call-out / kɔ l aυt/ noun an act of deploying a force in response to an incident or threat The GOC was very unimpressed with our performance during the last call-out.

call sign / kɔ l sa n/ noun a name, letters or numbers used to identify a person or sub-unit on the radio. Abbr

C/S alternate call sign a second or emergency call sign

call up / kɔ l p/ verb to summon for military service All the young men have been called up. He was called up in 1944 and immediately sent to the front.

call-up / kɔ l p/ noun an action of calling someone to join the armed forces His call-up was deferred because he was still at university.

caltrops / k ltrɒps/ plural noun a set of metal spikes designed to damage vehicle tyres

calvary / k lvər / noun a small roadside religious monument, in the form of Jesus on the cross (common in Roman Catholic regions) There’s a calvary 100 metres before the junction.

cam /k m/ (informal) noun camouflage Put plenty of cam on this tank. verb to cam up to apply camouflage

they cammed up

cam-cream / k m kri m/ noun same as camouflage cream

cam-net / k m net/ noun a camouflage net

camouflage / k məflɑ %/ noun 1. the use of natural and man-made materials to make something blend in with the surrounding area Camouflage is an essential military skill. 2. materials used for camouflage (natural vegetation, camouflage net, fabric, paint)

Put plenty of camouflage on this tank. verb to conceal something by making it

blend in with its surroundings They were camouflaging their vehicles.

camouflage cream / k məflɑ %kri m/ noun cosmetic face-paint for camouflage. Also called cam-cream camouflage net / k məflɑ % net/ noun a covering of knotted cord and pieces of fabric, used to conceal a vehicle, piece of equipment or structure

camp /k mp/ noun 1. a place where people are accommodated in temporary shelter (such as tents) The refugees are being housed in camps. 2. a place where troops are accommodated and trained The recruits returned to camp.

verb to live outdoors in temporary shelter We camped by the river.

campaign /k m pe n/ noun a prolonged period of military activity in a specific area or region We are planning an autumn campaign at the end of the rainy season. the North Africa Campaign a long period of warfare in North Africa verb to conduct or take part in a campaign The army spent two years campaigning in North Africa.

campaign medal /k m pe nmed(ə)l/ noun a medal awarded for service during a certain campaign camp-bed / k mp bed/ noun a lightweight folding or collapsible bed used for camping (NOTE: The American English term is cot.)

camp-follower / k mp fɒləυwə/ noun a civilian who attaches himself or herself to an army during a campaign camp site / k mp sa t/ noun a place used for setting up a camp

camstick / k mst k/ noun a solid stick of face paint

can /k n/ noun 1. a metal container for liquid (such as a petrol can) 2. US a metal container in which food or drink is hermetically sealed for storage over long periods (NOTE: In British English, tin is more usual.)

canal /kə n l/ noun an artificial waterway used for navigation or irrigation

Candid / k nd d/ noun a NATO name for Soviet-designed IL-76 transport aircraft

39

Capt

canister / k n stə/ noun 1. a metal container for gas or aerosol You should wear protective clothing when handling gas canisters. 2. a direct-fire anti-personnel round for a tank gun or artillery piece, consisting of a fragile container filled with small projectiles; the container disintegrates as it leaves the muzzle of the gun and the projectiles spread out like shot from an enormous shotgun 3. a disposable air filter for a respirator Soldiers are trained how to change their canisters in NBC conditions.

cannibalize / k n bəla z/, cannibalise verb to use damaged or defective equipment as a source of spare parts cannon / k nən/ noun 1. a large-cali- bre heavy machine-gun 2. a large wheeled gun, often capable of firing explosive projectiles 3. an outdated muz- zle-loading artillery piece (historical) cannonball / k nənbɔ l/ noun a large round stone or metal ball, fired from old cannons

cannon fodder / k nən fɒdə/ noun soldiers who are seen merely as material to be used during a war

canoe /kə nu / noun a small handpowered narrow boat with pointed ends

canopy / k nəpi/ noun 1. a covering suspended over an object We erected a canopy to protect the wounded from the sun. 2. the fabric part of a parachute

His canopy failed to open properly. 3. a cover provided by the leaves and branches of trees in a wood, forest, jungle, etc. The jungle’s canopy concealed the enemy’s movements. 4. the transparent cover of an aircraft’s cockpit The aircraft needed a new canopy.

canteen /k n ti n/ noun 1. a place where food and drink is sold 2. a water bottle 3. a set of eating utensils

canvas / k nvəs/ noun a very strong water-resistant fabric used to make tents, tarpaulins, etc. under canvas accommodated in tents or in the field we’ve spent the last six months under canvas

CAOC abbreviation combined air operations centre

CAP abbreviation combat air patrol

capability / ke pə b ləti/ noun being able to do something

capability package / ke pə b l tip k d%/ noun forces, infrastructure and supplies which allow a commander to be able to do what is required. Abbr

CP

capable / ke pəb(ə)l/ noun able to do something I don’t think he is capable of commanding a battalion. He is a very capable NCO.

cap badge / k p b d%/ noun a badge on a soldier’s cap, usually showing which regiment or unit he or she belongs to

cap-comforter / k p k mfətə/ noun a woollen hat, originally designed to be worn under a helmet in cold weather The patrol will wear capcomforters.

capital / k p t(ə)l/ adjective 1. punishable by death (legal ) Treason is a capital offence. 2. capital letters the letters of the alphabet written as A, B, C, instead of a, b, c noun 1. the most important city or town in a country or region The army pressed on to the outskirts of the capital. 2. in block capitals written entirely in capital letters this form should be completed in block capitals

capitalism / k p t(ə)l z(ə)m/ noun an economic system involving investment and profit-making by private individuals. Compare communism

capitalist / k p t(ə)l st/ adjective favouring capitalism noun someone who favours capitalism

capital punishment / k p t(ə)lp n ʃmən(ə)t/ noun the execution of a

convicted criminal

capitulate /kə p tjυle t/ verb to stop fighting and acknowledge the supremacy of an enemy. surrender

capitulation /kə p tjυ le ʃ(ə)n/ noun an act of capitulating

capsize /k p sa z/ verb to overturn (a boat) The ship has capsized.

Capt abbreviation captain

captain

40

captain / k pt n/ noun 1. a senior officer in the navy (above a commander, and usually in command of a warship) 2. an officer in the army or marines above the rank of lieutenant and below a major 3. US an officer in the navy (usually in command of a warship) 4. US an officer in the army, marines or air force (usually in command of a company or equivalent-sized grouping). group captain abbr Capt

COMMENT: British Army captains have enough experience to make them eligible for a variety of different roles. Within a unit, they might act as sec- ond-in-command of a company or equivalent-sized grouping or have a specialist role in the unit’s headquarters (as for example adjutant, intelligence officer, operations officer, etc.). Outside the unit, they might be employed as an aide-de-camp (ADC), or as a junior staff officer in a brigade or divisional headquarters. In the British armed forces, a captain in the marines is considered to be the equivalent of a major in the army. The rank of captain in the US Army requires more experience and higher qualifications than its equivalent in the British Army, and is therefore considered to have greater seniority. Captains in the US Army are eligible to command companies or equiva- lent-sized groupings.

captive / k pt v/ noun someone who has been captured

captivity /k p t v ti/ noun a state of being a captive in captivity being held captive

captor / k ptə/ noun someone who captures another person or holds them as a prisoner or hostage None of our captors spoke English.

capture / k ptʃə/ noun 1. an act of taking someone prisoner He evaded capture. 2. an act of taking possession of something by force The capture of the town was a disaster. verb 1. to take someone prisoner We captured two generals. 2. to take possession of something by force They captured an enemy supply dump.

car // noun a small motorized passenger vehicle

carabinier /k rəb n ə/ noun

(historical) 1. an elite light infantryman 2. an elite heavy cavalryman

COMMENT: Some modern armoured regiments retain their historical title as Carabiniers.

carbine / kɑ ba n/ noun a light shortbarrelled rifle

car bomb / kɑ bɒm/ noun a terrorist bomb concealed in a vehicle

card /kɑ d/ noun a small piece of stiff paper or plastic

cargo / kɑ (əυ/ noun goods or supplies carried by an aircraft or ship. Compare freight

cargo net / kɑ (əυ net/ noun a large strong net, usually attached to a vertical frame, for people to climb up on an assault course

Carl Gustav / kɑ l (υ stɑ v/ noun a Swedish-designed hand-held 84mm medium anti-tank weapon (MAW)

car park / kɑ pɑ k/ noun an area of ground or building used for parking cars

carpet bombing / kɑ p t bɒm ŋ/ noun dropping bombs or bomblets evenly over a wide area of ground

car phone / kɑ fəυn/ noun a radiotelephone fitted to a motor vehicle. Abbr CVW

carrier / k riə/ noun a person or thing which carries something

carrier air wing / k riə eə w ŋ/ noun a US tactical grouping of naval aviation squadrons operating from a single aircraft carrier. Abbr CVW

COMMENT: A carrier air wing (CVW) usually consists of a fighter squadron, three ground-attack squadrons, an electronic-attack squadron, an airborne early warning squadron, a seastrike squadron, a helicopter antisubmarine squadron, and a small detachment of logistics aircraft.

carrier battle group / k riəb t(ə)l (ru p/ noun a tactical group-

ing of warships which includes an aircraft carrier

carrier pigeon / k riə p d%ən/ noun a bird used for carrying messages

nals, etc.)

41

Catholic

carrier wave / k riə we v/ noun an electromagnetic wave used to carry a radio signal

carry / k ri/ verb 1. to hold He was carrying a gun. 2. to contain and transport goods The trucks were carrying ammunition. 3. to have in your possession He was carrying drugs. 4. to be infected with but not necessarily affected by a transmissible disease He was carrying hepatitis B. 5. to bear the weight of This bridge can carry tanks.

6. to reach (used of weapons, radio sig-

This gun can carry up to five kilometres. 7. to capture They carried the enemy position.

carry on / k ri ɒn/ verb to continue doing something He told the men to carry on with their tasks. Permission to carry on, Sir?

carry out / k ri aυt/ verb 1. to do something He was carrying out a routine check. 2. to complete an activity

We couldn’t carry out our mission.

cart /kɑ t/ noun a wheeled vehicle pulled by a horse or other animal

carton / kɑ t(ə)n/ noun a container made of cardboard or paper

cartridge / kɑ tr d%/ noun a metal or plastic case containing the propellant for a projectile (and usually the projectile as well)

cartridge-belt / kɑ tr d% belt/ noun a belt fitted with loops or pouches to hold cartridges (NOTE: A cartridge together with its projectile are usually known as a round.)

cas abbreviation casualty

CAS abbreviation close air support

case /ke s/ noun 1. a container 2. a situation In this case, we should not attack. 3. a matter under investigation or study He is dealing with several cases. 4. a type of writing

caseless ammunition / ke sləsmjυ n ʃ(ə)n/, caseless rounds

/raυndz/ noun the latest development in small-arms ammunition, where the propellant is produced as a solid block which is formed around the projectile, thus removing the need for a metal cartridge case

COMMENT: Caseless rounds are lighter in weight and cheaper to produce than normal rounds and less likely to cause a stoppage, because there is no empty case to be ejected. They would normally be issued readypacked in a disposable magazine.

CASEVAC / k z v k/, casevac noun the movement of an injured person to a place where he/she can receive medical treatment We must arrange a casevac. Full form casualty evacuation verb to move an injured person to a place where he/she can receive medical treatment (informal) He has been casevacked. (NOTE: CASEVACing – CASEVACed)

casket / kɑ sk t/ noun US a box in which a dead body is buried or cremated (NOTE: The British English term is coffin.)

castle / kɑ s(ə)l/ noun a large fortified building or complex

casualty / k %uəlti/ noun someone who is killed or injured The enemy suffered heavy casualties. Newspapers carried reports of civilian casualties.

casualty clearing-station

/ k %uəlti kl ər ŋ ste ʃ(ə)n/ noun a place where casualties are assessed and given emergency medical treatment, before being evacuated to a place where they can receive proper medical treatment

casualty evacuation / k %uəltiv kju e ʃ(ə)n/ noun full form of CA-

SEVAC

catapult / k təp lt/ noun 1. an apparatus for helping planes take off from the deck of an aircraft carrier 2. a weapon made of a Y-shaped piece of metal with a rubber attached, used to send stones and other small projectiles over long distances (NOTE: The American English term is slingshot.)

catering / ke tər ŋ/ noun the work of buying food and drink and cooking meals for people

Catholic / k θl k/ noun Roman Catholic Church adjective of the Roman Catholic Church

cattle

42

cattle / k t(ə)l/ plural noun the collective word for bulls and cows

cattle grid / k t(ə)l (r d/ noun an obstacle in road, consisting of a shallow pit covered with a metal grid, which allows vehicles to pass freely but not cattle or other livestock

causeway / kɔ zwe / noun a raised road or path across water or wet ground

caution / kɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun attention to safety

caution signal / kɔ ʃ(ə)n s (n(ə)l/ noun a warning signal that something is not safe (NOTE: The term caution is often used on signs warning of danger, for example: Caution – Snipers!)

cautious / kɔ ʃəs/ adjective careful in regard to possible danger He is a very cautious commander.

cavalry / k v(ə)lri/ noun 1. troops mounted on horseback (traditional term)

the Household Cavalry the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals, the elite troops who traditionally guard the British monarch 2. tanks or armoured reconnaissance troops

COMMENT: With the introduction of armoured fighting vehicles, the cavalry units of most armies were converted into armoured units. In general, these units have preserved their historical association with the horse, as well as retaining the traditional cavalry roles of reconnaissance and shock action on the battlefield. ‘The cavalry are there to add a touch of class to what would otherwise be a vulgar brawl.’ [Anon]

cavalry fighting vehicle / k v(ə)lrifa t ŋ vi k(ə)l/ noun full form of

CFV

cave /ke v/ noun a natural chamber in the side of a hill The deserters hid in a cave. verb to cave in to collapse

The trench has caved in. As we advanced the opposition caved in.

CB abbreviation 1. citizens’ band 2. confined to barracks

CBW abbreviation chemical and biological warfare

cc / si si / abbreviation cubic centimetres This vehicle has an 1800cc engine.

CCTV / si si ti vi / noun a surveillance system, consisting of cameras connected by cable to television receivers. Full form closed-circuit television

Cdo abbreviation commando

cease /si s/ verb to stop to cease fire to stop shooting

ceasefire / si sfa ə/ noun an agreement to stop fighting The enemy have agreed to a ceasefire. armistice, truce

cell /sel/ noun 1. a small room used to hold a prisoner He was found dead in his cell. 2. a small group which forms part of a larger organization There are several terrorist cells operating in this area. 3. the department of a headquarters in the field the G3 cell the NBC cell

cellar / selə/ noun the part of a building below ground level (normally used for storage). basement

cemetery / semət(ə)ri/ noun an area of ground used for the burial of the dead. churchyard, graveyard censor / sensə/ noun a person or organization authorized to examine letters, newspapers, books, radio or television broadcasts, etc., and to suppress any material which is judged to be subversive, obscene, a breach of security, or otherwise unsuitable for release to the general public The censor had deleted most of the letter. verb to act as a censor All reports from the battlefield have been heavily censored.

CENTCOM / senttkɒm/ noun US the department of US forces responsible for defending American national interests in the Middle East (excluding Israel, Syria and Lebanon which are covered by EUCOM), parts of East Africa and south-west Asia. Full form central command

central command / sentrəl kəmɑ nd/ noun US full form of CENT-

COM

Central Intelligence Agency

/ sentrəl n tel d%(ə)ns e d%(ə)nsi/ noun full form of CIA

centre of gravity / sentər əv(r v ti/ noun the main source of an

43

challenge

enemy’s power and strength The enemy’s centre of gravity is formed by his elite armoured divisions.

Centurion /sen tjυəriən/ noun a Brit- ish-designed late 1940s-era main battle tank (MBT)

CEP / si i pi / noun an area surrounding an intended target within which a ballistic missile or stick of bombs might land This missile has a CEP of around 3000 metres. Full form circular error probable

ceramic /sə r m k/ adjective made of clay which has been hardened by heat

Compound armour consists of steel and ceramic layers.

ceramic armour /s r m k ɑ mə/ noun a combination armour which includes ceramic materials in its composition

ceremonial / ser məυniəl/ adjective relating to formal military occasions (such as a parade) noun a procedure carried out during formal military occasions He is responsible for all the ceremonial.

ceremonials / ser məυniəlz/ plural noun ceremonial uniform The battalion was in full ceremonials. ceremonial uniform / ser məυniəlju n fɔ m/ noun dress worn for special occasions, such as parades, which is more colourful than the normal khaki uniform The guards were in their full ceremonial uniforms.

cessation /se se ʃ(ə)n/ noun the stopping of an activity or state of affairs

The UN has demanded a cessation of hostilities.

CET abbreviation combat engineer tractor

Cfn abbreviation craftsman

CFV / si ef vi / noun an M3 variant of the Bradley infantry fighting vehicle. Full form cavalry fighting vehicle. Compare BFV

CG / si d%i / abbreviation cruiser (with guided missiles) noun 1. US a commanding general 2. a type of choking agent. Full form carbonyl chloride. Also called phosgene

CGN abbreviation cruiser (nuclearpowered, with guided missiles)

CH-47 / si e tʃ fɔ ti sevən/ noun

Chinook

CH-53 / si e tʃ f fti θri / noun an American-designed heavy transport helicopter. Also called Sea Stallion,

Super Stallion, Jolly Green Giant

chaff /tʃɑ f, tʃ f/ noun strips of metal foil dropped by aircraft in order to confuse enemy radar or decoy radar-guided missiles

chagul /tʃ (υl/ noun in Arabic, a water container made of coarse fabric, which is designed to keep water cool by the process of evaporation

chain-gun / tʃe n ( n/ noun a ma- chine-gun, where the firing-mechanism is powered by a motor in order to produce a high rate of fire

chain of command / tʃe n əv kəmɑ nd/ noun a command structure within a grouping Demoralization is evident throughout the chain of command.

chalk /tʃɔ k/ noun 1. a soft white limestone rock, often found under a shallow covering of soil and grass It’s very hard work digging into chalk. 2. a writing instrument produced from chalk

The sign was written in chalk. 3. a group of passengers in an aircraft (especially helicopters) The first three chalks must be ready to move at 1400hrs.

challenge / tʃ l nd%/ noun 1. a call to identify oneself He didn’t hear the sentry’s challenge. 2. an invitation to take part in a contest or combat We have received a challenge to a football match from B Company. 3. a difficult or demanding task This mission will be a challenge for us all. 4. opposition Your remarks were a challenge to my authority. verb 1. to call upon someone to identify himself We crept up to the gate and were immediately challenged by a sentry. 2. to invite someone to take part in a contest or combat B Company have challenged us to a football match. 3. to contradict or object to

Соседние файлы в предмете Английский язык