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Unit 5. Complex Subject

Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject) состоит из:

1) существительного или местоимения в общем падеже (I, he, she, it, we, you, they), обозначающего субъект действия;

2) инфинитива с частицей to.

Между элементами сложного подлежащего располагается сказуемое предложения, которое переводится безличной конструкцией и может выражаться:

a) глаголом в пассивном залоге (assume , expect, think – полагать, consider – считать, see – видеть, hear – слышать, prove – оказываться и т.д.)

(1) (2) (3)

The problem is considered to remain unsolved.

(2) (1) (3)

Считается, что проблема осталась нерешенной.

б) глаголом в активном залоге (seem, appear – казаться, happen, prove, turn out, chance – оказываться и др.)

(1) (2) (3)

The data proved to be wrong

(2) (1) (3)

Оказалось, что данные неверны.

в) выражениями с глаголоме to be (to be likely – вероятно, to be unlikely – маловероятно, to be sure, to be certain – несомненно и др.)

(1) (2) (3)

The weather is likely to change in a few days.

(2) (1) (3)

Вероятно, погода изменится через несколько дней.

Part A

Task A1. Translate into Russian.

1. He is known to be a great book-lover.

2. The members of the committee are expected to come to an agreement.

3. Many buildings were reported to have been damaged by the fire.

4. The experiment is believed to be а failure.

5. She seems to know the subject well.

6. He happened to be at home at that time.

7. There seem to be no changes in the trade relations between these two countries.

8. There proved to be many difficulties in solving the matter.

9. There happened to be many people there at that time.

10. The ship can be expected to arrive at the end of the week.

Task A2. Make sentences and translate them into Russian.

а) Mary is considered to be a good singer

Mr. Robinson is believed a talented artist

Who was reported an experienced lawyer

They was announced capable students

was said a famous poet

are thought very brave

is known competent and efficient

b) The weather turned out to have forgotten her promise

I seemed to be there at that time

Kate proved to know English well

happened to be a good tennis player

chanced to be improving

c) He is unlikely to come soon

They are likely to be invited to the conference

The goods certain to know her address

Dr. Brown sure to be unloaded

to arrive in time

Task A3. Translate into Russian.

1. The radius of our orbit is believed to be increasing very slowly.

2. There appears to be direct evidence of the existence of negative electrons in matter.

3. Ordinary objects are not likely to move with a velocity approaching the velocity of light.

4. Secondary radiation may be expected to rise when the primary radiations are observed.

5. Light is to be considered as some kind of wave motion of electromagnetic origin.

6. In liquids and solids the movement of molecules must be supposed to be more restricted.

7. At first the alpha-rays were thought to be undeviated by the magnetic fields.

Part B

Task B1. Choose the correct English equivalent.

1. Известно, что они взяли эту информацию из журнала.

a) They are known to obtain the information from this magazine.

b) They are known to have obtained the information from this magazine.

2. Говорят, что они используют это вещество в своих опытах.

a) They are said to use the substance in their experiments.

b) They are said to have used this substance in the experiment.

3. Вероятно, он придет сегодня.

a) He is likely to come today.

b) He is unlikely to come today.

4. Маловероятно, что они закончат работу вовремя.

a) They are unlikely to complete the work in time.

b) They are likely to complete the work in time.

5. Несомненно, что его не спрашивали об этом.

a) He is sure not to ask about it.

b) He is sure not to be asked about it.

6. Маловероятно, что цены скоро упадут.

a) The prices are certain to fall soon.

b) The prices are unlikely to fall soon.

Task B2. Change these sentences according to the model.

Model 1: He may come on Sunday. > He is likely to come on Sunday.

1. They may have a good time in the bar tonight.

2. You may miss the train unless you hurry.

3. They may go on a world tour.

4. This branch of mathematics may develop very rapidly.

5. The procedure of the experiment may be simplified.

6. All her efforts may end in failure.

Model 2: She may not allow us to go there. > She is unlikely to allow us to go there.

1. The plane may not reach the place of destination on time.

2. She may not go by plane.

3. He may not be invited to the conference.

4. They may not follow my recommendations.

5. They may not develop a direct approach to the problem.

Model 3: They will certainly help us.> They are sure to help us.

1. He will certainly win this match.

2. They will certainly get married soon.

3. This picture will certainly be the best at the exhibition.

4. This experiment will certainly be performed next week.

5. This fact will certainly find further confirmation.

6. The new publication will certainly give rise to interesting response.

Task B3. Make sentences using the Complex Subject.

Model: He, to think, to study, now. > He is thought to study now.

1. He, to consider, to be, a good musician.

2. They, to think, to go away, some days ago.

3. James, to expect, to make a report, next Wednesday.

4. Steve, to know, to help them, when they are in trouble.

5. Mozart, to know, to compose, a lot of wonderful pieces of music.

6. The film, to consider, to be, the worst of the year.

7. He, to expect, to manage, the business himself.

8. She, to say, to be, at the customs office now.

Part C

Task C1. Change these sentences according to the model.

Model: The planets are moving in one direction around the sun. (to know) > The planets are known to be moving in one direction around the sun.

1. The scientists are taking data day and night. (to report)

2. Data are being taken day and night. (to report)

3. They are measuring the value with high degree of accuracy. (to inform)

4. The value is being measured with high degree of accuracy. (to inform)

5. They are producing these particles in a special accelerator. (to say)

6. These particles are being produced in a special accelerator. (to say)

7. He is using another method of investigation. (to seem)

8. Another method of investigation is being used by him. (to seem)

Task C2. Find the infinitive construction and refer the number of each sentence with one of the columns. The first one is done for you. Then translate the sentences into Russian.

Complex Object

Complex Subject

For … to V


1. The engineers of that plant are said to have constructed a new device.

2. We want you to see the new university building.

3. The company is believed to have lost a lot of money last year.

4. We suppose the construction of that building to be completed in a week.

5. The construction of that building is supposed to be completed in a week.

6. Nobody watched her dance.

7. She waited for him to speak.

8. They are certain to cope with the problem facing them.

9. We think them to build the pipeline next month.

10. This pipeline is thought to be built next autumn.

11. The engineer believes the mechanic to finish repairing the engine ahead of time.

12. The mechanic is believed to finish repairing the engine ahead of time.

13. I heard somebody mention his name at the last meeting.

14. He seems to have traveled much.

15. This experiment is said to have been completed successfully.

Task C3. Translate into English using the Complex Subject.

1. Стивен обязательно выиграет эту игру.

2. Известно, что Питер уехал в Осло.

3. Предполагают, что президент выступит на конференции.

4. Эту пьесу считают самой интересной в театре.

5. Кажется, она готовит яблочный пирог.

6. Полагают, что они уехали вчера.

7. Он, вероятно, пишет новую статью.

8. Маловероятно, что переговоры закончатся завтра.

9. Полагают, что эта работа была выполнена успешно.

10. Вряд ли этот факт очень важен для нас.

11. Говорят, что ученые уже приехали на конференцию.

12. Известно, что этот комитет был создан несколько лет тому назад.

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