Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:

INFECTIOUS_DISEASES

.pdf
Скачиваний:
91
Добавлен:
10.04.2015
Размер:
1.21 Mб
Скачать

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ЗДРАВООХРАНЕНИЯ РФ

САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ ПЕДИАТРИЧЕСКАЯ МЕДИЦИНСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ

LEARN to READ & SPEAK on Children's Infectious Diseases

САНКТ-ПЕТЕБУРГ

2001

М-545

ББК 8 1 . 2 англ. УДК-20

Учись читать и говорить о детских инфекциях. Учеб. пособие. — СПб ГПМА, второе издание, 2006 с.

Составители: И.Л. Гальфанович, Д.Б. Казанский, В.А.Кузина, Н.А. Мордвинова, Ц.З.Мунтянова, М.М.- Панкова. Л.М.Тюмина, Е.М. Юдина

Под редакцией И.И.Могилёвой

На обл.: Learn to Read & Speak on Children's Infectious Diseases

Рецензент: зав.кафедрой иностранных языков Санкт-Петербургской медицинской академии постдипломного образования, доц. Д.М. Вольфберг.

Пособие содержит легкие оригинальные тексты по теме "Детские инфекции" (первые три части). В первой части даны базовые тексты для разговорных тем по специальности и упражнения для развития навыков устной речи. Во второй части даны более сложные тексты по данной теме для внеаудиторного и ознакомительного чтения. Третья часть содержит разнообразные виды самостоятельной работы с текстом такие, как чтение текста без словаря, письменный перевод со словарем, ориентирование в тексте по заданным вопросам, устное и письменное тезирование на английском языке, лексические тесты, ознакомительное чтение с последующим тестированием. Тексты всех трех частей используются параллельно. К первой части в приложении даны словарный минимум, необходимый для активного усвоения и употребления в устной речи и таблица инфекционных болезней.

Цель настоящего пособия — активизация общемедицинской лексики, развитие навыков разговорной речи и создание основы для свободного чтения медицинских текстов.

Рекомендовано проблемной учебно-методической комиссией по иностранным языкам Минздрава России (заседание 24-25 апреля 2001 г., Москва) для студентов 2-го курса медвузов.

Первое издание 2001 г.

ISBN 5-86093-092-5

© СП6ГПМА, 2006

Introduction

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF CHILDHOOD

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms that multiply in the body and have a harmful effect on it. These organisms (germs and viruses) are capable of producing poisonous substances, or toxins, that poison the body.

The chief source of infection is direct or indirect contact with the patient himself, the disease being communicated to others either before it has been recognized and the individual isolated, or transmitted after quarantine has been removed.

According to the mode of infection contagious diseases may be classified as:

I. Infectious diseases in which the infecting organism penetrates through an abrasion or wound of the skin or mucous membranes. Such are, for example, pyogenic bacteria, causing septicemia, gonococcus infection, toxemia.

II. Infections caused by the pathogenic microorganisms through the respiratory tract are: a) diseases due to various types of streptococci: rheumatic fever, quinzy, scarlet fever; b) diseases due to filtrable viruses: measles, .mumps, smallpox, chicken-pox, polio myelitis.

III. Infections, generally bacterial, disseminated principally by the

intestinal discharges, such

as typhoid

fever, dysentery, cholera.

In order to identify the

causative

microorganism bacteriological

studies are performed which help to detect such microorganisms by direct examination under the microscope of the patient's blood, urine, stools, sputum or of any pathological material withdrawn from the body. The examination of the exudate on the tonsils, for example, may reveal the presence of the diphtheria bacillus; examination of the sputum may show the tubercle bacillus.

The direct identification of the infecting agent being impossible, the serologic method is used. The latter depends upon the demonstration in the patient's serum of antibodies specific to the suspected disease. Special serologic tests have been -devised for

demonstrating the presence of these antibodies. Among these are hemagglutination (inhibition), complement fixation, antibody neutralizing, hemadsorption inhibition, and precipitation test. The method of immunofluorescence consisting of detecting specific antigens in the material studied by means of luminescent microscopy has proved of great diagnostic value.

Exercises

I. Translate into Russian the underlined words:

I. The disease can be communicated to other people. 2. Scarlet fever is a contagious disease. 3. The infecting organism penetrates

through a wound of the

skin. 4.

Some

infections

are spread by

the intestinal

discharge.

5.

The

causative microorganisms

are

detected by

examination

of

pathological

material

withdrawn

from

the body. 6. For demonstrating the presence of the antibodies special serologic tests have been devised.

II. Check if you remember the meaning of the

following

words:

 

Poison; discharge; capable; to multiply; to recognize; to remove;

to depend

on; to reveal;

to suspect; to prove.

III. Using the words given below fill in the gaps in the

sentences:

 

1. Influenza is an ...

.2. Influenza is .... 3. Children ... with

influenza get treatment at home. 4. The ... agent penetrates through the skin. 5. You may ... the wound if you do not dress it. 6. Pneumonia is an acute ... disease. 7. This ... is transmitted through the air.

Infect, infectious, infection, infecting, infected.

IV. Compare the sentences and say in which way they differ in their sense(translation) and grammatically:

a)Infections caused by the pathogenic microorganisms include two types of diseases.

b)These infections are caused by the pathogenic microor ganisms.

c)

Some

infections may be caused by viruses.

d)

Bacteriological

studies

performed to detect the causative

microorganism

gave

positive

results.

e)

Bacteriological

studies

were performed in order to detect

the causative

microorganisms.

 

f)

Bacteriological

studies have been performed in order to

detect

the causative

microorganisms.

'V. Answer the questions on the text:

I. What pathogenicagents can cause an infection? 2. What is

the

classification о{ contagious diseases based on? 3. What are

the

ways in which the infecting organism penetrates into the

human body? 4. What

methods are used to detect the causative microorganism? 5. What kinds of serologic tests are mentioned in the text?

II

The characteristic feature of acute infectious diseases is their cyclic course. There are clearly defined stages in the course of infectious diseases: incubation (latent period), prodromal period, invasion period, active period, period of decline, convalescence.

The maximum period of incubation (i.e., the time between the date of exposure to the disease and the beginning of clinical manifestations) of some communicable diseases, e.g., chicken-pox, measles, scarlet fever, small-pox, whooping cough, ranges between 7 to 21 days.

In some cases an increased resistance to certain infections can be observed. The capacity possessed by the body for resisting infection is spoken of as immunity.

Immunity may be natural and acquired. Natural immunity to certain infections may be transmitted from parent to offspring. A temporary passive immunity is transmitted from the mother to her infant both through the placental circulation and through the breast milk. Acquired immunity may follow a spontaneous attack of disease, the artificial inoculation of a modified virus, vaccine injections, injections of antitoxic and antibacterial sera.

The most significant primary preventive measure is immunization against contagious diseases. Prophylactic measures applied in early childhood and the preschool ages should be directed at combating acute childhood infections.

The medical science is now armed with reliable weapons for preventing infectious diseases. The treatment of infectious disease includes the methods directed against the causative agent and its toxins, as well as the microbes of the secondary complicatio n (treatment with sera, sulfa drugs, antibiotics), and the methods which favourably influence the reactivity of the organism and the patient's emotional tone (blood transfusion, administration of blood plasma and serum, gamma globulin, physiotherapy, etc.) . In addition, the complex of pathogenic therapy includes setting up a hygienic atmosphere for the patient, good care and a proper diet.

Exercises

I. Answer the questions on the text:

1. What are the stages in the course of infectious dis eases? 2. What is immunity? 3. What are the kinds of immunity? 4. What is the most significant preventive measure against infectious diseases? 5. What does the treatment of infectious diseases include?

II. Check if you remember the meanings of the following words:

manifestation; inoculation; measure; resistance; to define; to transmit; to combat; to prevent; to acquire.

III. Translate the sentences paying attention to the underlined words:

a) A temporary passive immunity is transmitted from the mother

to her

infant.

 

 

b)

Children of the

pre-school ages should also

be protected

from infections.

 

 

c) Immunity may be transmitted from parent to

offspring.

IV. Match the Latin words with their English equivalents

and translate them into Russian:

 

 

L. Casus

E. a course

 

 

Cursus

a case

 

 

Causa

a cause

 

V. Finish the sentences according to the following model:

First he looks for somebody and then he ... (to look, for, everybody). First he looks for somebody and then he is looked

for

by

everybody.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

First

the chief nurse instructs the other nurses and then

she ...

(to

instruct,

the doctor).

 

 

 

 

 

2.

First

the manager controls

the workers

and

then

he ...

(to

control, the

director).

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

First

the little

boy feeds

his dog and

then

he

.. .(to feed,

his

mother).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

The

mother looks after her children and when

she is

ill

she ...

(to

look after, they).

 

 

 

 

 

Part I

INFLUENZA

Influenza is an acute infectious disease. It is caused by a filtrable virus. The disease spreads very rapidly and affects the adult population and children. The incubation period is 1 -3 days. The onset is sudden with a chill, high temperature, bad headache, pain in the eyes, back, joints and muscles. There is also a dry cough. There may be sore throat, sneezing and cold in the head.

The diagnosis is not difficult during an epidemic. With the onset of symptoms the patient must be put in bed. H e should stay there until the temperature is normal for at least 3 days. The disease may have numerous and dangerous complications, such as: otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia and so on. In a mild case the recovery is the rule. But during epidemics death may occur.

As to treatment it depends on severity of the disease. Proper nursing, hygiene and diet are very important. The patient's room must be constantly aired. In warm weather the patient may be kept outdoors or in the room with windows wide open all day Patients should always be given plenty of fluid to drink. Such medication as “antigrippin” (a combined anti-influenza medicine), different anti-viral drugs (such as arbidol, remantadin) are used. Herbal and homeopathic remedies can greatly relieve the patient’s condition..

Words to be memorized

 

N o u n s :

disease, onset, chill, headache, pain, throat, sneezing,

cold, cough,

recovery, death, treatment, severity, remedy, case.

 

Verbs: to cause, to stay, to occur, to depend (on, upo n), to

air,

to relieve, to

affect.

 

 

 

A d j e c t i v e s :

acute, dangerous, numerous, mild, proper.

 

Other words and expressions: as to, at least, such as, and so

on,

constantly, daily.

 

 

 

 

 

Read correctly .

 

 

 

Muscle [m^sl],

muscular ['rruskjuld];

influenza

['influ'enza];

homeopathic [‘homie’paeOic]

 

 

Exercises

I.Answer the following questions

I.What kind of disease is influenza? 2. What is influenza caused by? 3. How long does the incubation period last? 4. How does the disease begin? 5. Whom does influenza affect? 6. What are the main symptoms of influenza? 7. What complications may this disease have? 8. What must the patient do with the beginning of symptoms? 9. What does the treatment of this disease depend on? 10. What procedures relieve the muscular pains? 1 1 . What

remedies are used for treatment of influenza?

II. Ask your friend yes/no questions:

Influenza is a dangerous disease; the incubation period is long; the complications are serious in case of influenza; influenza is an infectious disease; influenza has an incubation period; diagnosis is difficult in case of influenza; the onset of the disease is sudden; influenza has fatal outcomes during epidemics; the patient has high temperature; influenza has complications; the patient has a headache in case of influenza; the patient keeps his bed when he has a high temperature; the disease affects only adult population; influenza spreads quickly; the patient always coughs when he is down with influenza; the patient feels pains in the back and joints; the patient takes some remedies for influenza.

III. Match the underlined words and their Russian

 

equivalents.

 

1.

The onset

of the disease is sudden,

а) по меньшей мере

2.

As to treatment

b) тяжесть

3.

it depends on the severity of disease,

с)начало, наступление

4.

The

child

recovered rapidly

d) озноб

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.

He

must

stay in bed for at least

e) что касается

three days

 

 

f) быстро

6.

The patient may have a chill when

 

he

has

a high temperature.

 

IV. Find the sentences where “to be” may be translated as “должен”

1.The pathogenic microbes were to be tested in our laboratory.

2.The pathogenic microbes were tested in our laboratory.

3.Infectious diseases are to be differentiated from other ones.

4.Infectious diseases are not easily differentiated from others.

5.The drug was to be forbidden.

6.The drug was forbidden by the Pharmaceutic Committee.

V.Choose the correct verb form

1.The infection …(has, has to) spread over a large area. 2. The infection …(has hasto) be eliminated as quickly as possible. 3. The epidemiologist …(had, had to) the possibility to visit the area of infection. 4. The epidemiologist …(had, had to) visit the area of infection to study it at the spot. 5. The pathologic agent …(will have, will have to) be isolated by the end of the week. 6. The pathologic agent …(will have, will have to) been isolated by the end of the week.

VI. Fill in the gaps with English equivalents to «может», «должен»

At about 2 o’clock on a cold winter morning a man telephoned a doctor and asked him if he … come at once. “You … hurry”, he added. The doctor drove seven miles in answer to this call. When he reached the place the man who had called him said, “Doc, I overtired myself. I have not got any pain, but I have a terrible feeling that I … die soon. The doctor examined the patient, felt his pulse and took his temperature.

“Have you made your will(завещание)?” he asked. “Why, no, Doctor”, the man looked frightened. “You … have done it long ago”, said the doctor. “Have you got a family?” “Yes”, said the patient. “You … send for them immediately, and your parents … be called, too.” “I say, Doc, do you think I am going to die?” “No, I don’t”, responded the doctor, “but I don’t want to be the only man you have made a fool of on the night like this”.

VII. Complete the sentences:

1.The room must be constantly .:. .2. The disease ... rapidly.

3.The onset is .... 4. In a mild case ... is the rule. 5. Death may ... .6. ... nursing is very important 7. The disease may have numerous and ... complications.

VIII. Read the following texts and say what new information they contain as compared with the previous text:

a) The onset of influenza is acute, without marked prodromal symptoms, with a rapid rise in temperature and general symptoms. Intense headaches, mainly in the region of the forehead, eyes and temples are characteristic. Children are irritable, sometimes apathetic; they have sleep and appetite disturbances. Vomiting and nosebleed are frequent. In some cases the upper respiratory tract is affected and catarrh of the mucous membranes begins.

b) Seasonal upper respiratory catarrh is one of the most widespread children's diseases, which occurs everywhere and affects children of all ages, particularly frequently very young ones. The cases increase during the cold time of the year possibly because

children stay less outdoors and therefore do not get enough fresh air, but get greater contact with patients and carriers of bacilli.

IX. Retell this text in English

Грипп – самая распространённая заразная болезнь, отличающаяся разнообразием проявлений и многочисленными осложнениями. Грипп передаётся от больного к здоровому и поражает и взрослых и детей в любое время года. Инкубационный период ериппа очень короткий, от нескольких часов до двух суток. Эпидемии гриппа повторяются довольно часто ( (через два-три года), но периодически они принимают огромные размеры и охватывают всё население земного шара (так называемые пандемии). В 20 веке были две такие пандемии: в 1918-19 гг. пандемия пандемия гриппа (так называемая «испанка») охватила все страны света, в результате погибло 20 млн человек. Вторая пандемия имела место в 1957 г., тогда количество заболевших во всём мире было также очень велико, но число смертных случаев было сравнительно небольшим.

Возбудителем гриппа являются вирусы. Известно несколько видов гриппозных вирусов. Вирус гриппа, находящий ся на слизистых оболочках носа, рта и глотки больного, при чихании, кашле и разговоре попадает в воздух вместе с капельками слюны или носовой слизи, т.е. заражение происходит воздушно-капельным путём. В крови людей, перенёсших грипп, вырабатываются особые вещества ( так называемые защитные тела), которые в течение некоторого срока (1 – 2 года) обуславливают иммунитет организма к новому заболеванию данным типом вируса.

X.1. Speak about the cause of influenza and its symptoms.

2.Speak about treatment of influenza and its complications.

3.Tell your group-mates how you were ill with influenza.

a)When was it? Did you have to call a doctor? What did he recommend or administer?

b)Have any of your relatives had influenza? What did they complain of? How did they try to improve their condition?

c)Speak of preventing influenza. What precautions should you take during an epidemic?

PNEUMONIA

Pneumonia is a specific acute disease which involves an entire lung or a part of a lung. Sometimes both lungs are involved. It

may occur at any time of

year, but it is frequent in

the months

from December until May. The chief predisposing

factors

are.

weather, draughts, loss of

sleep and contact with patients

who

have infections. Various viruses and staphylococci may cause it.

 

The main symptoms

are chill, fever, general

weakness,

sweating and persistent dry cough which can’t be relieved by common measures. The child usually has poor appetite, disturbed sleep. Sometimes children have local chest pains or stomachache. Young infants suffer from shortness of breath.In severe cases patients may have expectoration of bloody sputum. The disease sets in abruptly. There may be a preceding upper respiratory infection with a cough. If the disease remains uncomplicated if lasts from 7 to 14 days.

The treatment consists chiefly of bed rest. The most important agents are fresh air, good nursing and nutritious food that the child likes.The disease responds very well to specific medication with appropriate antibiotics (penicillin) Before the era of antibiotics sulfanilamides were used.. Mustard plasters are always administered, sometimes cups as well.. Diathermy of the lungs gives very good results. The child should be given vitamins C, A

and others from

the very first day of the disease.

A variety of

complications may occur. Sometimes empyema

develops after the seventh day of the disease. Otitis media and mastoiditis are usually found in children. Other complications are pericarditis, endocarditis and meningitis,.

An important factor in the prophylaxis of pneumonia is fighting such infectious diseases as influenza, measles and whooping cough, all of which are often complicated by pneumonia.

Words to be memorized

N o u n s : fever, lung, chest, stomachache, weakness, sweating, expectoration.

Verbs: to involve, to set in, to complicate, to last, to consist, to administer, to remain.

A d j e c t i v e s : entire, frequent, chief=main, bloody, nutritious, common.

O t h e r words: abruptly, chiefly.

Read correctly

Pneumonia [nju'mounja]; upper respiratory [‘respireteri] infection; empyema [empai'i:ma]; otitis media [o'taitis 'mi:dia]; mastoiditis [mastdi'daitis]; sputum ['spju:tum]; whooping cough ['hupin. 'kof].

Exercises

I. Answer the following questions:

I. W hat kind of disease is pneumonia? 2. In what seasons does it occur? 3. W hat are the chief predisposing factors to this disease? 4. W hat are the main symptoms of pneumonia? 5. How long does it last? 6. Are there any complications after pneumonia? 7. W hat is the commonest complication? 8. W hat does the treatment of pneumonia consist of? 9. What medicine

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]