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Гос филология / Гос филология / стилистика / 31. The main division of expressive means

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- expressive means

- stylistic devices

Expressive means are those ling.forms and properties, that have the potential to make the utterance expressive. This can be found on all levels: phonetic, graphical, morphological, syntactic and lexical. We find them in a l-ge as a system.

EM and SD have a lot of in common; but they are not completely synonimous. All SD belong to EM, but not all EM are SD (“girly, pigy” are EM, but not SD)

A stylistic device is a literary model in which semantic and structural features are blanded so, that it represents a generilized pattern. A SD is international intensification, which conveys additional inf-n . (The night has swallowed him up – metaphor).

The whole stock of stylistical means is traditionally subdivided into 2 classes: - tropes

- figures of speech

Tropes - (“tponos” – Greek) a turn, a change from literal to figurative m-ng. A deviation from logical usage to gain special effect.

Figures – (lat. “figura”) comprises two dif.spheres and fall into:

comprise two groups - figures of construction and figures of diction. Figures of construction are deviations from the regular syntactical pattern, the use of construction aimed at intensifying the meaning. Figures of diction deal with sound effects.

The distinction b/w them is sometimes obscure. There are a number of cases, when they are closely linked and tend to overlap (litotes, climax, zeugma).

A somewhat diff-t class-n, which is widely spread nowadays is called a Functional classification. Accord.to it all styl-ly relevant EM fall into figurative means, which embrase all kinds of the trnsfer of m-ng. It may not be only: – w-ds, but - w-combinations, - phonemes

Expressive l-ge means, which don’t evoke images, but intensify the expressive power of an utterance through special arrangement of the w-ds.

Modern classification. The present state of development of liguistics allows to give a new interpretation of accumulated (накопленные) facs.

Thus many ling-ts (Paulo, Arnold, Ahmonova) refer tropes to the paradigmatic level, because they may be regarded as paradigmatic units in the mind of the reader, because they may be based on the associations of a chosen w-d with others close to it in the m-ng (She is a beutiful loli of the valley).

In tropes transferred m-ng is practically the interrelation b/w 2 types of lex.m-ng:

  • dictionary (logical, direct)

  • contextual contextual m-ng of the w-d is set up (противопост.) against the direct m-ng (Some of books should be tested, some – swallowed and very few – chewed and dejested)


- metaphoric

- metonimic

- mixed groups

All these gropes have one feature in common. The expressive means are built on the presence of some common features of the objects, described and some others, known to the reader.


Classifications of tropes

Descriptive Tropes

Tropes Expressing Relations

A. Tropes based on comparison

1) simile

2) metaphor

3) personification

A. Relations of identity

1) synonyms

2) periphrasis & euphemism.

B. Tropes based on constant connections (contiguity)

1) metonymy

2) synecdoche

B. Relations of contrast

1) antithesis

2) oxymoron

3) irony

C. Mixed group

1) allegory

2) antonomasia

3) epithet

C. Relations of difference

1) climax (gradation)

2) bathos

3) hyperbole

4) litotes

Zeugma and pun - a marginal case between lexical and syntactic devices.

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