Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
UK and US.doc
Скачиваний:
15
Добавлен:
13.02.2015
Размер:
696.83 Кб
Скачать

Unit 9 Organization of the Federal Government

9. Before reading the text match a word on the left with a definition on the right.

  1. ambassador a) benefits (monetary)

  2. impeachment b) something that serves for amusement

  3. dignitary c) one proposed to fill an office

  4. entertainment d) one who holds high rank in government

  5. aid e) come to an end

  6. nominee f) impose a responsibility on

  7. charge g) accuse as a public official before a tribunal

of misconduct in office

  1. expire h) support, assistance

  2. income i) diplomat sent by sovereign or state as

permanent representative or on mission to

another; official messenger

  1. acquit j) declare a person not guilty of offence; free or

clear a person of blame or responsibility

9.1. Test your general knowledge in the quiz below.

  1. The first US President was

  1. Benjamin Franklin

  2. George Washington

  3. John Adams

  4. Thomas Jefferson

  1. President ............. was impeached over issues relating to the proper treatment of the defeated Confederate states following the Civil War. The Senate, however, fell one vote short of the two-thirds majority necessary for conviction, and he completed his full term of office.

  1. Richard Nixon

  2. Andrew Johnson

  3. William Jefferson Clinton

  1. As a result of the Watergate affair, President ........... resigned from the office after the Judiciary Committee of the House recommended impeachment, but before the full House of Representatives could vote on a bill of impeachment.

  1. Richard Nixon

  2. Andrew Johnson

  3. William Jefferson Clinton

9.2. Before you read the text, discuss these questions:

  1. Who is the President of the US?

  2. What branch is the President head of?

  3. If the President dies, who becomes President?

  4. Name some famous US Presidents.

  5. Who is the leader of your country?

  6. Would you like to be President?

9.3. Now read the text and see if you were right.

President

The President of the United States is chosen in a national election for a four-year term of office, and may be re-elected for a second term. He must be a native-born citizen at least 35 years old. Candidates for the presidency are chosen by political parties several months before the presidential election, which is held every four years (in years divisible evenly by four) on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

The method of electing the president is peculiar to the American system. Although the names of the candidates appear on the ballots, technically the people of each slate do not vote directly for the president (and vice president). Instead, they select a slate of presidential electors, equal to the number of senators and representatives each state has in Congress. The candidate with the highest number of votes in each state wins all the electoral votes of that state.

The electors of all 50 states and the District of Columbia - a total of 538 persons - compose what is known as the Electoral College. Under the terms of the Constitution, the College never meets as a body. Instead, the electors gather in the state capitals shortly after the election and cast their votes for the candidate with the largest number of popular votes in their respective states. To be successful, a candidate for the presidency must receive 270 votes. The Constitution stipulates that if no candidate has a majority, the decision shall be made by the House of Representatives, with all members from a state voting as a unit. In this event, each state and the District of Columbia would be allotted one vote only.

The president starts his or her official duties with an inauguration ceremony, traditionally held on the steps of the US Capitol. The president publicly takes an oath of office, which is traditionally administered by the chief justice of the United States. The words are prescribed in Article II of the Constitution:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.

The oath-taking ceremony is usually followed by an inaugural address in which the new president outlines the policies and plans of his or her administration.

His salary is $200,000 a year, and he also gets an extra $50,000 for expenses; but he must pay income tax on the whole amount. He receives up to $100,000 tax-free for travel and $20,000 for official entertainment, and is provided a home and extensive office space at the White House.

As head of the Executive Branch, the President must carry out the government programs enacted into laws by Congress. He recommends programs and laws to Congress and requests money for federal government operations. The President can veto any bill passed by Congress. If a President «vetoes» or refuses to sign a bill passed by Congress, his veto may be overruled by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress. The President appoints federal judges, ambassadors and hundreds of government officials, and assigns duties to the elected Vice President. If a President dies, resigns or becomes permanently disabled, the Vice President assumes the office until the next election. In addition to a right of succession, the vice president was made the presiding officer of the Senate.

The Constitution gives Congress the power to establish the order of succession after the vice president. At present, in the event both the president and vice president vacate their offices, the speaker of the House of Representatives would assume the presidency. Next comes the senator elected by that body to preside in the absence of the vice president and then Cabinet officers in designated order.

Under the US Constitution a sitting President may be removed from office before his term expires only by an impeachment process. Article II, Section 4 reads: «The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. The impeachment process begins with the House of Representatives. If upon sufficient evidence, the House drafts a «bill of impeachment», which must be approved by two-thirds of its membership, trial in the Senate, with the Chief Justice of the United States acting as the judge and the Senators as the jury, follows. Only one American President has ever been impeached: Andrew Johnson, who was tried and acquitted in 1868. But 1974 saw an equally historic confrontation arising out of the «Watergate» affair, which centered on illegal campaign contributions and involved top-level administration officials, including President Richard Nixon. Before a trial could take place, however, President Nixon resigned his office, and Gerald R. Ford, then Vice President, succeeded him. The transition was quick and orderly as the business of the nation went on.

9.4. Answer these questions:

  1. Can a person be President for 10 years?

  2. Someone is 30 years old. Can this person be President?

  3. How much money does President get a year?

  4. What are duties of the President?

  5. Does the President appoint senators?

  6. How may a sitting President be removed?

  1. Discuss the following chart. Compare the duties and powers of the US President with those of the President of your country.

THE PRESIDENCY

TERM OF OFFICE:

Elected by the people, through the electoral college, to a four-year term;

limited to two terms.

SALARY:

$200,000 plus $50,000 allowance for expenses, and up to $100,000

tax-free for travel and official entertainment.

INAUGURATION:

January 20, following the November general election.

QUALIFICATIONS:

Native-born American citizen, at least 35 years old and at least 14 years

a resident of the United States.

CHIEF DUTY:

To protect the Constitution and enforce the laws

made by the Congress.

OTHER POWERS:

To recommend legislation to the Congress;

to call special sessions of the Congress;

to deliver messages to the Congress;

to veto bills;

to appoint federal judges;

to appoint heads of federal departments and agencies and other principal federal officials;

to appoint representatives to foreign countries;

to carry on official business with foreign nations;

to exercise the function of commander-in-chief of the armed forces;

to grant pardons for offenses against the United States.

9.6. Before reading the text match the department on the left with its responsibility on the right

  1. Treasury a) advises the President on foreign relations

  2. Defense b) protects the nation’s natural resourses

  3. Justice c) helps develop domestic commerce

  4. Agriculture d) acts for the government in legal matters

  5. Labor e) looks after the interests of farmers

  6. State f) is responsible for the nation’s security

  7. Interior g) looks after the interests of nonfarm workers

  8. Commerce h) manages finances, collects taxes

  9. Education i) helps provide affordable housing for the nation and

stimulates urban renewal programmes

  1. Energy j) pays benefits to workers and their families,

provides grants to help pay the medical costs of the

poor.

  1. Health and k) establishes the nation’s overall transportation

Human Services policy

  1. Housing and l) is responsible for the research development and

Urban Development demonstration of energy technology

  1. Transportation m) provides services and benefits to veterans of US

military service.

  1. Veterans affairs n) establishes policy for and administers federal aid-

to-education programmes.

9.7. Test your general knowledge in the quiz below.

  1. The executive branch is vested in the ... .

  1. President

  2. Vice-President

  3. President’s Cabinet

  4. President, Vice-President and President’s Cabinet.

2. The Constitution delegates... specific powers to the Cabinet.

  1. all the

  2. no

  3. some

  1. The Cabinet consists of ... departments.

  1. eighteen

  2. sixteen

  3. fourteen.

  1. The political power of the ... is second only to that of the President.

  1. Vice-President

  2. Secretary of State

  3. Attorney General

9.8. Before you read the text, discuss the following questions.

  1. What branch is responsible for administering and executing the laws?

  2. Who are the Cabinet officials appointed by?

  3. What term do the Cabinet officials serve?

  4. In the USA it is customary for the Cabinet to resign when the President’s term ends. Is it the same in your country?

  5. What department ranks ahead of other departments in prestige and seniority?

9.9. Now read the text and see if you were right.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]