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Unit XII. Sport

Vocabulary

amateur – любитель, поклонник

archery – стрельба из лука

billiards – бильярд

callisthenics – ритмическая гимнастика

car racing - гонки

championship - чемпионат

chess - шахматы

compete - соревноваться

competition– соревнование

contest – состязание

court - корт

cup match - кубок

cycling - велоспорт

defeat – проигрыш, поражение

javelin throwing – метание копья

diving – прыжки в воду, дайвинг

down-hill skiing – горные лыжи

draughts - шашки

draw – ничья

enthusiast /fan – болельщик, фанат

fencing - фехтование

figure-skating – фигурное катание

goal – гол, финиш, ворота

gymnastics - гимнастика

hang gliding - дельтапланеризм

high/ long jump - прыжки в высоту/ в длину

hurdle races – бег с препятствиями

lawn-tennis – большой теннис

lose – проигрывать, терять

mountaineering – скалолазание

opponent/rival - соперник

point - очко

pole vault – прыжок с шестом

referee/ official/ judge - судья

rowing - гребля

rugby/ rugger - регби

score - счет

skating – катание на коньках

skiing – катание на лыжах

ski-jump – прыжки на лыжах с трамплина

soccer – футбол

spectator - зритель

sportsman/athlete - спортсмен

support/shout for – поддерживать, болеть за

team - команда

to set up a record – установить рекорд

tobogganing – сани, тобогган

tournament - состязание

track and field (athletics) – легкая атлетика

training - тренировка

Victory – победа

weight-lifting – тяжелая атлетика

wrestling – борьба

yachting – парусный спорт

orienteering – спортивное ориентирование

The match ended in a draw. The two teams drew. How many points have they won? The score of the game was six to four. He scored 20 points. Neither side scored in the game.

Ex.1. Read and translate the text.

The Olympic Games

The Olympic Games are an international sorts festival that began in ancient Greece. The original Greek games were staged every fourth year for several hundreds years, until they were abolished in the early Christian era. The revival of the Olympic games took place in 1896, and since then they have been staged every fourth year, except during World War I and World War II (1916,1940,1944).

Perhaps the basic difference between the ancient and modern Olympics is that the former was the ancient Greek's way of saluting their gods, whereas the modem Games are a manner of saluting the athletic talents of citizens of all nations.

The earliest reliable date that recorded history gives for the first Olympics is 776 ВС, although virtually all historians presume that the Games began well before then.

It is certain that during the midsummer of 776 ВС a festival was held at Olympia on the highly civilized eastern coast of the Peloponnesian peninsula. As a testimony to the religious nature of the Games (which were held in honor of Zeus, the most important god in the ancient Greek pantheon), all wars would cease during the contests. According to the earliest records, only one athletic event was held in the ancient Olympics - a footrace of about 183 m (200 yd), or the length of the stadium. Olympics had only local appeal and were limited to one race on one day; only men were allowed to compete or attend. A second race - twice the length of the stadium - was added in the 14th Olympics, and a still longer race was added to the next competition, 4 years later.

When the powerful, warlike Spartans began to compete, they influenced the agenda. The 18th Olympics included wrestling and a pentathlon of running, jumping, spear throwing (the javelin), discus throwing, and wrestling. Boxing was added at the 23d Olympiad, and the games continued to expand, with the addition of chariot racing and other sports. In the 37th Olympiad (632 ВС), the format was extended to 5 days of competition.

In AD 394 the Games were officially ended by the Roman emperor Theodosius, who felt that they had pagan connotations. The revival of the Olympic Games in 1896, unlike the original Games, has a clear, concise history. Pierre de Coubertine (1863-1937), a young French nobleman, felt that he could institute an educational program in France that approximated the ancient Greek notion of a balanced development of mind and body.

Thirteen countries competed at the Athens Games in 1896. Nine sports were on the agenda: cycling, fencing, gymnastics, lawn tennis, shooting, swimming, track and field, weight lifting, and wrestling. The Games were a success, and a second Olympiad, to be held in France, was scheduled.

Beginning in 1924 a winter Olympics was included - to be held at a separate cold-weather sports site in the same year as the Summer Games - the first held at Chamonix, France. In 1980 about 1,600 athletes from 38 nations competed at Lake Placid, NY, in a program that included Alpine and Nordic skiing, biathlon, ice hockey, figure skating, speed skating, bobsledding, and luge. But the Summer Games are still the focal point of the modern Olympics. Among the standard events are basketball, boxing, canoeing and kayaking, cycling, equestrian arts, fencing, field hockey, gymnastics, modern pentathlon, rowing, shooting, soccer, swimming and diving, track and field, volleyball, water polo, weight lifting, wrestling (freestyle and Greco-Roman), and yachting.

Symbols of Olympic Games

Symbolism in the Olympic Games represents in a more understandable way the ideas of the Olympism: peace, fraternity, noble contest.

Colored rings

According to Baron Pierre de Coubertin every one of the five rings symbolized one of the five continents. The conjunction of the five rings symbolized the conjunction of the continents during the athletic events and represents the idea of peace and brotherhood of the whole planet.

The top three circles, from left to right, are blue, black, and red. The bottom two circles, from left to right are yellow and green.

The five rings and their colors represent the five continents of the world: Blue represents Europe, Black represents Africa, Red represents America, and Green represents Oceania. Another reason de Coubertin chose these colors was that every country in the world uses at least one of those colors on their official flag.

The Olympic Flag, measures 2. 06m by 60cm, is completely white with the five circles in the center. In 1920, the rings became the official Olympic symbol.

The Modern Olympic Anthem was presented for the first time in the Athens 1896 Games. It was written by the Greek poet Costis Palamas and composed by the Greek composer Spyridon Samaras.

The Olympic oath on behalf of all participants is recited by an athlete of the host nation. The Athlete’s oath is as follows: “In the name of all competitors I promise that we will take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of the sport and the honor of our teams.”

The best known motto of the International Olympic Committee is “Citus, Altius, Fortius” (Swifter, Higher, Stronger). It was pronounced for the first time on the 7th of March 1891 from the Dominican Father Henry Dinon during the delivery of a prize in the Albert College where he was a priest.

Answer the questions

1. Where did the Olympic Games begin?

2. How often the original Greek Games staged?

3. Were the Games staged during the wars?

4. What is the basic difference between the ancient and modern Olympics?

5. When did the first Olympics take place?

6. What athletic events were in the ancient Olympics?

7. Why are there five rings on the Olympic flag?

8. What is the official motto of IOC?

Ex. 2. What do we call a person who goes in for:

wrestling, cycling, weight-lifting, swimming, diving, running, mountaineering, boxing, skiing, racing, hunting, playing football, playing chess, playing draughts, athletics, skating, playing volleyball, playing basketball, playing hockey.

Ex. 3. Correct the wrong statements

There is no difference between “soccer” and “rugby”. 2. Badminton can be played only indoors. 3. The goal-keeper act as a judge in football. 4. Ice hockey is popular with women. 5. A tennis ball is struck with a club. 6. Women are good football players as a rule. 7. People who play draughts are called chessmen. 8. We use balls when playing badminton. 9. Golf is played on ice fields. 10. Hockey is one of the most popular summer games. 11. Table-tennis and lawn tennis are one and the same game. 12. In hockey a handball and rackets are used. 13. Boxers fight with bare hands. 14. Track and field events are never included in Olympic Games. 15. You may touch the ball with your hands when playing football.

Ex. 4. Enumerate winter sports and games you remember. Make sentences with these words.

Ex. 5. OLYMPIC SPORTS - CROSSWORDS

Across 3. Fast 4. A value between nations 6. You have two when you ski. 9. You do this sport with a board. 12. You are … if you can lift heavy things. 13. Sam is an … 14. You skate on the … 15. First, second, … 17. You must wear it when you ski.

Down 1. Country with the first Olympic Games. 2. In this sport you ski and you use a gun. 3. It is a white metal. 5. Wear them to see very well when you ski. 7. You ski on the … 8. Season of the First Olympic Games in France. 9. An Australian city 10. You use it in a sport and in your house. 11. ‘Plus haut’ in English. 12. If you are fast, your … is important. 16. You must wear it on your head.

Ex. 6. Which sport is the odd one out In each group?

The sentences below may help you.

1 2 3 4 5

football boxing motor-racing surfing running

tennis water polo cycling football swimming

baseball basketball rollerblading swimming surfing

rugby golf golf water polo cycling

Now complete the sentences and fill in the numbers of the groups above.

They all use a ball except ________ Group 

They are all team sports except _________ Group 

They are all water sports except _________ Group 

They are all Olympic sports except _________ Group 

They are all on wheels except _________ Group 

Ex. 7. You are listening to sport on the radio and you hear these words. Which sports do they refer to? Choose from the sports in the box.

1 '... a corner taken by Neville. A lovely header by De Vito and -yes - it's a goal!'

2 '... with just 70 metres to go, Princess Grace is winning. She is a 2-year-old from

Ireland and she is running very well indeed.'

3 '... that was Hans Schiele in the Ferrari doing 187 miles an hour down the straight.'

4 '... Manuel Escobar is on his third shot here at the 17th hole. He is trying to get the ball out of the long grass.'

5.'... the score is 15-40 in this fifth game. Miss Wilson won the first set, but her service is giving her a lot of problems at the moment...'

6 '... the French team are playing with only 14 men. Bouchama has just scored another try, and the score is 28-12. Dutronc kicks the ball forward ...'

boxing cycling football golf high jump hockey horse-racing ice-hockey motor-racing running rugby surfing tennis water polo

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