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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………….3 1. Etymological background of Modern English (MnE) Vocabulary…………5

2. Native Words in English……………………………………………………..5

3. Borrowings in English………………………………………………………..6

3.1. Classification of borrowings according to the borrowed aspect…….7

3.2. Classification of borrowing according to the degree assimilation……9

3.3. Classification of borrowings according to the language from which they were borrowed………………………………………………………………….10

CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………14

ANNEXES………………………………………………………………………15

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………....17

Introduction

It is impossible to imagine language which wouldn't contain loans speaking another language. So, in English language there is a set of the words which have come from Ancient Rome, Greece, Italy, Spain and Germany. Many of them are assimilated and have taken quite British form.

Most words in Modern English are perceived as British, regardless of their origin. In fact which have equivalents in other Germanic languages group. They constitute less than half of English vocabulary. In the other parts are words of foreign origin. Among them are words borrowed from Latin, French, Greek, Spanish, Italian, Scandinavian, Russian and other languages. This is because people are closely communicated with each other, share experiences, enrich the world of science and culture.

A majority of the words used in English today are of foreign origin. English still derives much of its vocabulary from Latin and Greek, but we have also borrowed words from nearly all of the languages in Europe. In the modern period of linguistic acquisitiveness, English has found vocabulary opportunities even farther afield. From the period of the Renaissance voyages through the days when the sun never set upon the British Empire and up to the present, a steady stream of new words has flowed into the language to match the new objects and experiences English speakers have encountered all over the globe. Over 120 languages are on record as sources of present-day English vocabulary.

Topic: «Native Words and Borrowings in English»

The Aim of work is due to the fact that English language has undergone great changes among the Germanic languages, so that was in very close contact with other languages. This work represents the importance and necessity of borrowing in the vocabulary of the English language and our everyday lives. All language are regularly borrowings words from other language, so, a few elements of native words in English and classification of loan-words are presented in this work.

To achieve the aim we have defined such tasks:

  1. Familiar with advanced theoretical material this topic.

  2. The reason for borrowing words from other countries.

  3. To determine the classifications of borrowings in Modern English vocabulary.

  4. Present different typed borrowings in English.

1. Etymological background of Modern English (MnE) Vocabulary

The important task of lexicology is the study of the origin of words making up the vocabulary of a language. The branch of lexicology which studies the origin of words and their genetic ties with words in the same and other languages is called etymology.

The vocabulary of MnE is extremely heterogeneous from the etymological point of view. It can be subdivided into two main parts - the native stock of words, which is the historical basis of the English vocabulary, and the borrowed stock of words consisting of various etymological strata borrowed from different languages.

Borrowings enter the language in two ways: through oral linguistic intercourse (by immediate contact between two peoples) and through written speech (by indirect contact through books, etc.).

Oral borrowing took place chiefly in the early periods of history, whereas in recent times written borrowing gained importance. Words borrowed orally arc usually short (e.g. inch, mill, street) and they undergo more changes in the act of adoption. Written borrowings (e.g. communiquй, belles-lettres, naпvetй) prйserve some peculiarities of the original language: they are often rather long and their assimilation is a long and laborious process.

It has been estimated that up to 70 per cent of the words making up , the MnE vocabulary came from nearly all the languages of the world [10; 15]

2. Native Words in English By the Native Element we understand words that are not borrowed from other languages. A native word is a word that belongs to the Old English word-stock. The Native Element is the basic element, though it constitutes only up to 20-25% of English vocabulary.

Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorder from of the English language. It was spoken from about A.D. 600 until about A.D. 1100, and most of its words had been part of a still earlier form of the language. Many of the common words of modern English, like home, stone and meat are native, or Old English, words. Most of the irregular verbs in English derive from Old English (speak, swim, drive, ride, sing), as do most of the English shorter numerals (two, three, six, ten) and most of the pronouns (I, you, we, who). Native words are subdivided into two groups: a) Indo-European Elements: since English belongs to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European group of languages, the oldest words in English are of Indo-European origin. There are several semantic groups:

  • words expressing family relations: brother, daughter, father, mother, son;

  • names of parts of the human body: foot, eye, ear, nose;

  • names of trees, birds, animals: tree, cow, wolf, cat;

  • names expressing basic actions: to come, to know, to sit, to work;

  • numerals: one, two, three, ten, etc.

b) Common Germanic words are not to be found in other Indo-European languages but the Germanic. They constitute a very large layer of the vocabulary:

− nouns: hand, life, sea, ship, winter;

  • adjectives: free, deep, heavy, grey;

  • verbs: to buy, to drink, to go, to live, to make;

  • adverbs: again, near, forward;

  • preposition: after, at, by, from, for.

Native words have a great wordbuilding capacity, form, a lot of phraseological units, they are mostly polysemantic.

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