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Topic 8. Programming languages

The process of writing pro­gram instructions is called coding. The instructions will be writ­ten on a form called a coding form. The instructions we write will be recorded in a machine-readable form using a keypunch, key-to-tape, or key-to-disk, or entered directly into computer memory through a terminal keyboard.

The instructions must be written according to a set of rules. These rules are the foundation of a programming lan­guage. Programming languages have progressed from machine-oriented languages that use strings of binary Is and Os to prob-lem-oriented languages that use common mathematical and/or English terms.

There are over 200 problem-oriented languages. The most common of them are COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, RPG, BA­SIC, PASCAL, ,


COBOL was the most widely used business-oriented pro­gramming language. Its name is an acronym for Common busi­ness-Oriented language. COBOL was designed to solve prob­lems that are oriented toward data handling and input-output operations


The FORTRAN IV language is oriented toward solving prob­lems of a mathematical nature. The name FORTRAN comes from the combination of the words formula translation. The version of FORTRAN TV has been designed as algebra-based programming language.


It was developed in Dartmouth College as an easy-to-learn programming language for students and inexpe­rienced programmers. Its key design goal is simplicity. BASIC has become a very popular language in systems where many users share the use of a computer through terminals and it has become a universal language for personal computers.


PASCAL was invented in 1970 by Professor Niklaus Wlrth of Zurich, Switzerland. It was named alter die mathematician Blaise Pascal, who invented one of the earliest practical calcu­lators. PASCAL is a mathematically oriented programming lan­guage and, as such, is most commonly used in.mathematics, engineering, and computer science departments of colleges and universities.

My future profession.

Hi! Nowadays being an educated person is very important. To get my profession I study in USATU on the faculty of informatics and robotics. I learn GeoInformational systems. It includes : geodesy , cartography or map creation stuff, programming, and many other thing that concern Earth. I like studying here very much , because I think that it’s very interesting to know about the planet you live on. And I’m also excited with map creation . People will use maps created by me or my mates. So I will study hard to improve my knowledge. I want to became a real specialist in the field of map production. And I hope that what I’ve learnt here will be useful to all people. That ‘s how I see my future profession. (Good Luck My Sweety) .

The Internet.

Hi! At the moment the Internet plays a very big role in the sphere of information. The Internet binds continents, people from very distant countries. It provides an fast message transfer. It takes only seconds to message delivery. Could people imagine such stuff even 50 years ago. Surely not. The Internet allows you to find any information you need on the web. You just have to know how and where to look for. Several clicks and you got it. The Internet offers you on-line shops. You can buy anything you wish. You don’t even have to leave your home. Everything will be delivered to your door. You can virtually visit museums, concerts, galleries.

You can watch movies , listen to music, watch stars through the telescope. So the Internet offers us a vast number of things . And that’s why I like it for. (Let’s have fun baby) .