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Contents

Unit 1. FRIENDS 4

Unit 2. ADRENALIN 9

Unit 3. RELATIONSHIPS 16

Unit 4. PARTY 26

Rio Carnival Says “No” to Violence 30

Unit 5. EDIBLE 33

Unit 6. TIME 40

Unit 7. NEWS 48

Unit 8. JOURNEY 56

Unit 9. OPINIONS 62

Unit 10. Childhood 72

Unit 11. AGE 79

New Ageism Laws Let Older Bankers Sue for Millions 82

Unit 12. STYLE 85

Models under 16 banned in London 90

APPENDICES 92

Appendix 1. RECORDING SCRIPTS 92

Unit 9. OPINIONS 97

Men Funnier than Women, Says Scientist 97

New Ageism Laws Let Older Bankers Sue for Millions 98

Appendix 2. USEFUL PHRASES FOR WRITING ESSAYS AND RENDERING TEXTS 100

(a) Sentence variety 103

Appendix 3. WRITING SAMPLES 104

Unit 1. Friends

Vocabulary

Look up the translation of the following words and word combinations in the dictionary:

  1. admire (v) Which famous person do you admire most?

  2. anonymously (adv) If you give something anonymously, you give it without telling people who you are.

  3. average (adj) How many numbers does the average young person have on their mobile phone?

  4. on average (phr) On average, how many friends do young people communicate regularly with online?

  5. brief (adj) The film La Vie en Rose reminded David how brief life can be.

  6. brush (against) (v) If something brushes against you, you feel it touch your body.

  7. confide (v) If you confide in someone, you tell them your private thoughts and feelings.

  8. dinner party (n) A dinner party is a nice meal for several guests that is eaten in the evening at a friend’s home.

  9. dive (off) (v) If you dive off something, you move suddenly from it towards the ground.

  10. dream dinner / party / holiday etc (phr) Your dream dinner party is one where you invite all your favourite people.

  11. fall in love (phr) La Vie en Rose reminded David how wonderful it is to fall in love.

  12. fear (n) My greatest fear is standing on stage in front of thousands of people and forgetting what to say!

  13. funeral (n) A funeral is a ceremony for someone who has died.

  14. gift (n) A “gift” is another word for a “present”.

  15. go separate ways (phr) When Will and Tina graduated from university, they went their separate ways.

  16. guilty pleasure (n) A guilty pleasure is one you enjoy but feel slightly ashamed of.

  17. improve (v) Technology has improved the world in some ways, but not in others.

About you: Q & A

  1. Take it easy (phr) “What are you doing this weekend?” “I’m just relaxing and taking it easy.”

  2. keep busy (phr) If you keep busy, you always have something to do.

  3. lifestyle (n) Will earns much more money than Tina so they have very different lifestyles.

  4. a living (n) “What do you do for a living?” “I’m a doctor.”

  5. local (adj) She was looking for someone to share the house and put an advertisement in the local newspaper.

  6. memory (n) Your earliest memory is the first thing you remember doing as a child.

  7. mortal (adj) All human beings are mortal – we are all going to die.

  8. realise (v) David was happiest before he realised his family were all mortal.

  9. receive (v) Do you prefer giving or receiving gifts?

  10. remind (v) The film reminded David of how brief life is.

  11. rent (v) Tina and Will rented the same house.

  12. replace (v) Technology has replaced a lot of face-to-face interaction.

  13. research (n) Hi, Carole, can I ask you a question for some research we’re doing?

  14. satisfaction (n) I don’t earn a lot but I get a lot of satisfaction from my job.

  15. share (v) We shared the same house for nearly three years.

  16. on stage (phr) When an actor is on stage, he or she is performing in a theatre in front of an audience.

  17. straightaway (adv) If something happens straightaway, it happens immediately.

  18. stressed (adj) Does technology make us happier or more stressed?

  19. be supposed to be doing sth (phr) I’m sorry, I’ve forgotten what I’m supposed to be doing.

  20. survey (v) If you do a survey, you ask a lot of people their opinion about something.

topic (n) A topic is a subject you talk or write about.

Adverbs of frequency/Adverb phrases of frequency

  1. all the time Sharon texts all the time.

  2. every day/week/weekend She calls me on Skype from Australia every weekend.

  3. from time to time Adam texts from time to time, but not very often.

  4. normally Carole normally uses the telephone.

  5. now and again Now and again she uses Skype.

  6. occasionally Adam texts occasionally, but not very often.

  7. once/twice/three times etc He checks his emails twice a day.

  8. rarely I rarely write letters nowadays.

  9. regularly A lot of young people regularly use messaging.

Communication and Technology (Keeping in touch)

  1. chat (with) (v) Sharon is always online and chats with friends every evening.

  2. check one’s email (phr) How often do you check your email?

  3. close friendship (phr) A close friendship is one in which two people know each other very well.

  4. communicate (v) Nowadays a lot of people communicate regularly online.

  5. contact (v) How do you usually contact your friends – by phone, email or text?

  6. email (n) How often do you check your email?

  7. face-to-face (adv) Do you prefer communicating online or face to face?

  8. face-to-face interaction (phr) Technology has replaced a lot of face-to-face interaction.

  9. (online) messaging (n) Sharon uses online messaging to chat with her friends.

  10. mobile phone (n) How many numbers do you have on your mobile phone?

  11. online (adv) Do men or women spend most time online?

  12. by phone/email/text (phr) How do you usually contact your friends – by phone, email or text?

  13. pick up the phone (phr) Carole usually contacts her friends by picking up the phone.

  14. Skype (n) Skype is a technology that allows you to use your computer like a telephone.

  15. social networking (n) Facebook and myspace are social networking sites.

  16. text (v) Adam texts from time to time but usually uses the phone.

Friendship expressions

  1. become close friends (phr) We had a lot in common and quickly became close friends.

  2. click (straightaway) (v) We clicked straightaway and I told Will he could move in.

  3. come from different backgrounds (phr) If two people come from different backgrounds, they have very different lifestyles.

  4. drift apart (v) Their lifestyles are very different now and they’ve drifted apart.

  5. fall out (phr v) If two people fall out, they have an argument.

  6. get on well (together) (v) We get on well together and are close friends.

  7. go one’s separate ways (phr) After university, they went their separate ways.

  8. have a lot in common (phr) We have one thing in common – we’re both crazy about football.

  9. have one’s ups and downs (phr) Everyone has ups and downs – good moments and bad moments.

  10. hit it off (v) When two people hit it off, they like each other a lot.

  11. be opposites (phr) Despite being friends, Antonia and Jackie are opposites in many ways.

  12. Smb will always be there for smb (phr) Although our lifestyles are different, Tina will always be there for me.

Meeting friends unexpectedly

Asking for news

  1. What are you up to these days? (phr) “What are you up to these days?” – “Oh, keeping busy, you know.”

  2. What have you been up (phr) “What have you been up to lately?” – “Not a lot, really.”

Saying you’re in a hurry

  1. Better get back to the office. (phr) “Better get back to the office. See you.”

  2. I’m afraid I can’t stop. (phr) “I’m afraid I can’t stop. Take care.”

  3. Look, I must dash. (phr) “Look, I must dash” – “I’ll give you a call.”

Goodbyes

  1. I’ll give you a call. (phr) “Look, I must dash.” – “I’ll give you a call.”

  2. See you. (phr) “Better get back to the office. See you.”

  3. Take care. (phr) “I’m afraid I can’t stop. Take care.”

Supplementary Reading

1. Think over your answers to the questions below before reading the text:

  1. Who can people turn to when they have a problem?

  2. Think about your friends: Have you ever looked after them when they were sick? Have you ever helped them to recover from a personal crisis? Have you ever told them a painful truth which concerned them? Have you ever given them something that was yours?

  3. How can people make and be great best friends?

2. Read and translate the text: