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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ

_________

ФГБОУ ВПО

«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ИНЖЕНЕРНЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ»

__________

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

_____________________________________________________________________

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Задания для самостоятельной работы № 3, 4

Для бакалавров, обучающихся по направлению 260800 – «Технология продукции и организация общественного питания»

ВОРОНЕЖ

2011

УДК 43:637.1 (076.6)

Английский язык [Текст] : задания для самостоятельной работы №3,4 / Воронеж. гос. ун-т инженерн. технол.; сост. О.П.Воронова, Е.А. Молодых, С.В.Павлова, Е.Ю. Пономарева, Ю.А. Попова, Л.О. Ряскина – Воронеж : ВГТА, 2010. – 32 с.

Задания для самостоятельной работы составлены в соответствии с требованиями ГОС ВПО подготовки инженеров по направлению 260100 – «Продукты питания из растительного сырья», профилям 260100.01 – «Технология хранения и переработки зерна», 260100.02 – «Технология хлеба, кондитерских и макаронных изделий», 260100.03 – «Технология сахаристых продуктов», 260100.04 – «Технология бродильных производств и виноделия», 260100.05 – «Технология жиров, эфирных масел и парфюмерно-косметических продуктов».. Предназначены для студентов 2–го курса очной формы обучения цикла дисциплин ГСЭ. Предложено две работы в трех вариантах, пояснения к текстам, грамматический справочник.

Составители: ассистенты ВОРОНОВА О.П., МОЛОДЫХ Е.А., ПАВЛОВА С.В., ПОНОМАРЕВА Е.Ю., ПОПОВА Ю.А., РЯСКИНА Л.О.

Научный редактор доцент Е.А. ЧИГИРИН

Рецензент доцент В.В. БЕЗРУКОВА

(Воронежский государственный

педагогический университет)

Печатается по решению

редакционно-издательского совета

Воронежского государственного университета

инженерных технологий

© Воронова О.П.,

Молодых Е.А.,

Павлова С.В.,

Пономарева Е.Ю.,

Попова Ю.А.,

Ряскина Л.О., 2011

© ФГБУВПО «Воронеж. гос.

ун-т. инженерн. технол.», 2011 Оригинал-макет данного издания является собственностью Воронежского государственного университета инженерных технологий, его репродуцирование (воспроизведение) любым способом без согласия академии запрещается.

Домашняя контрольная работа № 3

Изучите информацию, данную в таблице.

modal verb

present

past

future

can

Can

could

Will be able to

be able to

am/is/are able to

was/were able to

Will be able to

must

Must

Had to

Will have to

Have to

Have/has to

Had to

Will have to

Be to

Am/is/are to

Was/were to

-----------------

May/ might

May/might

Was/were allowed to

will be allowed to

Be allowed to

Am/is/are allowed to

Was/were allowed to

will be allowed to

Should

Should

------------

--------------

Ought to

Ought to

-----------

----------------

need

Need

needed

Will need

shall

Shall

---------

--------------

Oбратите внимание на употребление и перевод модальных глаголов.

возможность: могу, умею, возможно

I can read. I will be able to come. Can I help you?

разрешение : можно

You can come.

May I come? – Yes, you may.

запрещение: нельзя, не смей

You mustn’t come. You can’t eat so much. You may not park here. Nobody is allowed to smoke here.

обязательство, приказ: должен, обязан

I have to go now.

I must study hard.

настоятельный совет: следует

You should study hard.

Необходимость совершения действия: нужно

We need to come tomorrow

отсутствие необходимости: не обязательно

You needn’t wake up early.

I don’t have to go there.

побуждение к действию

Shall I translate the text?

Shall we go for a walk?

договоренность, правило , расписание

We were to meet at 7p.m. Monitor is to hand in papers. Buses are to go every 10 minutes.

моральный долг

Men ought to let women go first.

Вариант 1

I. Прочитайте и переведите текст

ALBERT EINSTEIN

Аlbert Einstein is known all over the world as a brilliant theoretical physicist and the founder of the theory of relativity. He is perhaps the greatest scientist of the 20th century. Some of his ideas made possible the atomic bomb, as well as television and other inventions.

He was born in 1879 in a small German town. The Einstein family soon moved to Munich, where Albert went to school. Neither his parents, nor his school teachers thought much of his mental abilities. His uncle often joked: "Not everybody is born to become a professor."

In 1895 Albert failed the entrance examination to a technical college in Zurich. A year later, however, he managed to pass the exam and entered the college.

After graduating from the college, Einstein started to work at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. In 1905 he wrote a short article in a science magazine. This was his 'Special Theory of Relativity', which gave the world the most famous equation relating mass and energy (E=mс2), the basis of atomic energy.

Later, he became a professor in several European universities and in 1914 moved to Berlin as a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. After ten years of hard work he created his 'General Theory of Relativity'.

In 1921 Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics.

A Jew, and a pacifist, he was attacked by the Nazis, and when Hitler came to power in 1933 he decided to settle in the United States.

In 1939 Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Roosevelt, at the request of several prominent physicists, outlining the military potential of nuclear energy and the dangers of a Nazi lead in this field. His letter greatly influenced the decision to build an atomic bomb, though he took no part in the Manhattan Project. After the war he spoke out passionately against nuclear weapons and repression.

Einstein died in 1955. The artificial element einsteinium has been named in his honor.

II. Ответьте письменно па следующие вопросы.

1. Why is Einstein generally thought of as being the greatest scientist of the 20th century? 2. When and where was he born? 3. What did his parents and relatives think of his mental abilities? 4. Did he manage to pass his entrance exams at once? 5. Where did E work after graduating from college? 6. When did he create his special Theory of Relativity? Why is it considered to be one of the greatest discoveries ever made? 7. How long did it take him to form his” General Theory of Relativity”? 8. Why did Einstein leave Germany? 9. Why did he write a letter to President Roosevelt? What was it about? 10. Did he take part in the Manhattan Project? 11. What do you know about nuclear weapons? Why are they dangerous? 12. What other outstanding physicists do you know?

III. Cоставьте рассказ об основных фактах биографии Эйнштейна на английском языке.

VI. Cоставьте 10 предложений о любом известном ученом или изобретателе на английском языке.

V

council rubbish paint structure project computer microchip

. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя подходящее слово из рамки только один раз. В рамке есть одно лишнее слово.

Garbage .Collection Goes High Tech

The city of Barcelona is putting microchips in its 18, 000 litter bins to try and make garbage collection easier. By installing microchips in the ... of the bin Barcelona’s ... collectors with a hand-held computer can read how full a bin is, the last time it was emptied, and if it needs a lick of ... “As far as I know this is the first project of this kind in Spain if not in the world,” said a spokesman for the Barcelona city ... about the &113,000 ... .“The aim of the specially designed software is to optimize cleaning ... and litter collection routes,” he said.

VI. Составьте диалог из приведенных ниже предложений. Первая и последняя реплики даны.

1. I hear you are looking for a new sales manager. I think I could work for you.

- Well, I like meeting lots of people. Besides I have some experience in it.

- I lived a long way from the store that's why I quit.

- Yes, but with free weekends.

- Can you tell me what salary is?

- I'm very interested in this job.

- Thank you very much. See you soon.

- That's OK with me.

- Why did you leave your last job?

-Are you looking for permanent employment?

- Here's an application form. You're just the sort of person we need.

- 750 dollars.

- Why are you interested in this kind of job?

14. You start next week.

V

FASCINATE

VARIOUS

CAREFUL

INITIAL

BEGIN

DISCOVER

ACTIVITY

THINK

INSPIRE

II
. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста.

Down House, Home of Charles Darwin

If you want to discover the (1) fascinated life and works of one of the greatest scientific thinkers through a (2) ... of intriguing presentations, exhibits and interactive displays, come to this (3) ... refurbished home.

Down House was Charles Darwin's family home for more than forty years and today stands as a testimony to a man who (4) ... shocked and subsequently revolutionized the way many think about mankind's (5) ... A visit to Down House is a visit of (6) ... for all the family. Enter Darwin's study and see the armchair in which he wrote "On the Origin of Species", explore his theories in terms (7) ... display, and follow the "Sandwalks", Darwin's (8) ... path in his beloved gardens which he paced daily as (9) ... for his thoughts and idea

VIII. Прочитайте тексты о различных изобретениях, определите, какой из заголовков 1-8 соответствует текстам A-G. Каждый заголовок соответствует только одному тексту, при этом один заголовок лишний.

1. Television

2. Motor Car

3. Electricity

4. Photography

5. Telephone

6. Computer

7. Aeroplane

8. Radio

A. The invention that swept the world and changed leisure habits for countless millions was pioneered by Scottish-born electrical engineer John Logic Baird. It had been realized for some time that light could be converted into electrical impulses, making it possible to transmit such impulses over a distance and then reconvert them into light.

B. The name came from the Greek word for amber and was coined by Elizabeth I's physician William Gilbert who was among those who noticed that amber had the power to attract light objects after being rubbed, hi the 19m century such great names as Michael Faraday, Humphry Davy, Alessandro Volta and Andre Marie Ampere all did vital work on electricity.

C. With television, this invention is probably the most widely used and most useful of all leisure-inspired inventions. German engineer Karl Benz produced the first petrol-driven car in 1885 and the British motor industry started in 1896. Henry Ford was the first to use assembly line production for his Model Т car in 1908. Like them or hate them, the invention has given people great freedom of travel.

D. It has been another life-transforming invention. British mathematician Charles Babbage designed a form of computer in the mid-1830s', but it was not until more than a century later that theory was put into practice. Now a whole generation has grown up with calculators, windows, icons, computer games and word processors, and the Internet and e-mail have transformed communication and information.

E. It was the invention that helped shrink the world and brought distant lands within easy reach of ordinary people. The invention of the petrol engine made flight feasible and the American Wright brothers made the first flight in 1903.

F. Leonardo da Vinci had described the camera obscura photographic principle as early as 1515. But it was not until 1835 that Frenchman Louis Daguerre produced camera photography. The system was gradually refined over the years, to the joy of happy snappers and the despair of those who had to wade through friends' endless holiday pictures.

G. Edinburgh-born scientist Alexander Graham Bell patented his invention in 1876. The following year, the great American inventor Thomas Edison produced the first working telephone. With this invention soon becoming rapidly available, the days of letter-writing became numbered.

IX. Выберите единственно правильный вариант.

1. My father says I … go to the party.

a) shall, b) may, c) had to, d) was able to.

2. 1 really ... do some work tonight, but I feel too tired.

a) have, b) mustn't, c) must, d) shouldn't.

3. …you pass the butter, please?

a) may, b) could, c) need, d) shall.

4. ...I use your phone?

a) would, b) will, c) should, d) may.

5. I don't have enough money to take the bus, so I … walk home.

a) must, b) need, c) should, d) have to.

6. Johnny, you...play with knives!

a) can't, b) mustn't, c) needn't, d) will not.

  1. The students…answer the questions in any order they like.

a) must, b) may, c) need, d) had to.

  1. You…take a taxi if you intend to catch the next train.

a) haven't to, b) must, c) have to, d) don't have.

9. A good 1500-metre runner…run the race in four minutes.

a) can't, b) was able, c) can, d) should to.

10. For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the fourth day they…reach them without too much trouble.

a) can, b) could, c) must, d) were able to.

11. Our teacher says we…speak English fluently in a few months.

a) can, b) will able to, c) are able to, d) will be able to.

12. I've been trying for hours, but still I…get through on the phone.

a) can, b) can't to, c) haven't been able to, d) haven't able to.

13. Shall I call the police? - … .

a) Yes, you shall, b) Yes, you will, c) Do, please, d) No, you shan't.

14. Your handwriting …clear, or no one will be able to read it.

a) can't be, b) must, c) must be, d) mustn't be.

15. You…a nuisance when you're a guest in someone's house. a) must, b) must be, c) mustn't be, d) can.

Вариант 2

I. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

ANDREI SAKHAROV

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, an outstanding scientist and public figure, was born on the 21st of May, 1921, into the family of teachers. He graduated from Moscow University in 1942. In 1947 he defended his thesis for the degree of Candidate of Science. In 1953 he defended his Doctorate thesis and was elected member of the Academy of Sciences.

When he was a graduate student Sakharov began to work on the Soviet nuclear weapons programme and soon he suggested a totally new idea for a hydrogen bomb design. But he was getting more and more worried about the consequences of his work. He understood better than anybody else what nuclear weapons meant and he thought about his own responsibility and about the responsibility of the states which possessed such weapons.

In 1968 he wrote an article attacking Soviet political system. He wrote that people needed a democratic society, free of dogmatism.

Sakharov is often called the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, but he became more known as a champion for human rights and freedom. For this work the Nobel Committee awarded him the Peace Prize in 1975. The Committee called him "the conscience of mankind". The Soviet authorities, however, did not allow him to go to Norway to receive the award.

In 1966 he took part in his first human rights demonstration, a one-minute silent protest in Pushkin Square. A year later, he wrote a letter to Communist Party leader Leonid Brezhnev defending imprisoned dissidents.

His international repute as a scientist kept him out of jail, but in 1980 when he protested against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, he was deprived of all his titles and orders and exiled to the city of Gorky. In 1986 Michail Gorbachev invited Sakharov to return to Moscow. He was given back all his titles and orders.

Andrei Sakharov died in 1989. He is remembered by everybody as an outstanding humanist, who could teach and inspire and who foresaw the changes that are taking place now.

II. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. When was Andrei Sakharov born? 2. What were his parents? 3. What university did he graduate from? When? 4. What is Sakharov famous for as a scientist? 5. When did he defend his Doctorate thesis? 6. What conclusion did he come to while working on the bomb? 7. When did he take part in his first human rights demonstration? 8. What prize was he awarded? 9. Why was he exiled to Gorky? 10. Who helped him to come back to Moscow? 11. Why is Sakharov known all over the world?

III. Составьте рассказ об основных фактах биографии

А. Сахарова.

IV. Напишите десять предложений о любом известном ученом или изобретателе.

V. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя подходящее слово из рамки только один раз. В рамке есть одно лишнее слово.

food research progress

fish tank ocean captivity lighting colours

Fish Need To Relax

It's a stressful job, living in a captivity and waiting to be cooked. A Greek university is making ... in getting fish to relax. Researchers say relaxed fish taste better. Fish that are living in a ... under artificial ... often suffer depression and stress,' Professor Safronios from Athens University said. For the last ten years, Safronios has been doing ... in keeping fish in fish .tanks. He found that using different ... in the fish tank with different species of fish, improving the quality of their ... and providing 'play time' in the tanks all help the fish to taste better.

VI. Составьте диалог из приведенных ниже предложений. Первая и последняя реплики даны.

1. I hear you are looking for a new sales manager. I think I could work for you.

- Well, I like meeting lots of people. Besides I have some experience in it.

- I lived a long way from the store that's why I quit.

- Yes, but with free weekends.

- Can you tell me what salary is?

- I'm very interested in this job.

- Thank you very much. See you soon.

- That's OK with me.

- Why did you leave your last job?

-Are you looking for permanent employment?

- Here's an application form. You're just the sort of person we need.

- 750 dollars.

- Why are you interested in this kind of job?

14. You start next week.

VII. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтоб они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста.

Shakespeare's Globe Theatre

The Globe Theatre is a faithful (1) reconstruction of the (2) ...open-air playhouse designed in 1599, where Shakespeare worked and for which he wrote many of his (3) ... plays. The theatre season runs from May to September with (4) ... of the work of Shakespeare, his contemporaries and modern authors. Each year the' Globe Theatre Company rediscovers the (5)(6) ... between the audience and the actor in the unique building.

The Globe also welcomes (7) ... theatre companies to share the impact Shakespeare's plays have had worldwide. Today, audiences of this’ (8) ... O' sit in a gallery or stand (9) ... as a grounding in the yard, just as they would have done (10)... 400 years ago. Performances use simple sets, rely on (11)... light, and are open to the elements (bad weather).

RECONSTRUCT

ORIGIN

GREAT

PRODUCT

ENERGY

RELATON

NATIONAL

WOOD

INFORMAL

NEAR

NATURAL

VIII. Прочитайте следующие тексты, определите, какой из заголовков A-I соответствует текстам от 1-7. Каждый заголовок соответствует только одному тексту, при этом два заголовка лишние.

A. Transport

B. Celebrity

C. Shopping

D. Guide to Comedy

E. Business

F. Nature

G. Health

H. Crime

I. Politics

1. Shot in England, where it was sometimes screened as simply a Double Decker, this US comedy-adventure for children proved popular on both sides of the Atlantic. The story centered on a group of children whose clubhouse was a double-decker bus situated in a junk yard. The show made a lasting impact of its genera­tion, probably owning to the repeats that ran during subsequent holidays.

2. Imagine coming out of your home, or back to the car park from a shopping trip you discover that your car isn't where you left it. What should you do? Call your local police station — you'll find their number in the phone book. The police will rarely attend the scene of the crime because there isn't much they can do. Instead they will alert patrolling officers and also pass the details on the Police National Computer (PNC), and the details of your stolen car will be circulated across the country.

3. They use sunlight and the green in their leaves to make sugar from carbon dioxide (which they breathe in with their leaves during the day) and water. This sugar is then used to give the plant energy so that it can grow. The process is called photosynthesis and is the most important process on the planet.

4. Great emphasis is placed on their theatrical window displays, in particular during Easter and Christmas. The store is known primarily for its food hall, which features such English favourites as teas, biscuits, mar­malades and the very British picnic hamper.

5. A balanced diet is essential for good health, whether you are an elite athlete or embarking on your first fitness programme. Whatever your sport or exercise regime, you can optimise your training to reach your goal by “eating for energy”.

6. United Nations weapons inspectors who returned to Iraq before the war found no evidence that Iraq still had nuclear, chemical or biological weapons programs. Since the fall of Saddam in April, the US-led weapons hunt also has turned up no evidence that Iraq still had nuclear weapons program, and had released dozen of scientists held for questioning about such weapons.

7. Customers with bicycles may not travel on trains advertised to arrive at London Paddington between 07.45 and 09.45, nor depart from Paddington between 16.30 and 18.30 Mondays to Fridays. There are no restric­tions on Saturdays, Sundays or Bank Holidays.

IX. Выберите единственно правильный вариант.

1. My father says I … go to the party.

a) shall, b) may, c) had to, d) was able to.

2. 1 really ... do some work tonight, but I feel too tired.

a) have, b) mustn't, c) must. d) shouldn't.

3. …you pass the butter, please?

a) may, b) could, c) need, d) shall.

4. ...I use your phone?

a) would, b) will, c) should, d) may.

5. I don't have enough money to take the bus, so I … walk home.

a) must, b) need, c) should, d) have to.

6. Johnny, you...play with knives!

a) can't, b) mustn't, c) needn't, d) will not.

7. The students…answer the questions in any order they like.

a) must, b) may, c) need, d) had to.

8. You…take a taxi if you intend to catch the next train.

a) haven't to, b) must, c) have to, d) don't have.

9. A good 1500-metre runner…run the race in four minutes.

a) can't, b) was able, c) can, d) should to.

10. For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the fourth day they…reach them without too much trouble.

a) can, b) could, c) must, d) were able to.

11. Our teacher says we…speak English fluently in a few months.

a) can, b) will able to, c) are able to, d) will be able to.

12. I've been trying for hours, but still I…get through on the phone.

a) can, b) can't to, c) haven't been able to, d) haven't able to.

13. Shall I call the police? - … .

a) Yes, you shall, b) Yes, you will, c) Do, please, d) No, you shan't.

14. Your handwriting …clear, or no one will be able to read it.

a) can't be, b) must, c) must be, d) mustn't be.

15. You…a nuisance when you're a guest in someone's house. a) must, b) must be, c) mustn't be, d) can.

Вариант 3

I. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

MICHAEL FARADAY

Michael Faraday, English experimental physicist, was born in 1791 in a poor family. The boy began to work as an apprentice at a bookbinder’s shop at an early age. One day a man entered a shop and found the boy studying an article on electricity. The man was surprised to a boy so interested in such a difficult subject and gave him four tickets for the lectures at the Royal Institutions.

The boy went to the lectures and made notes of what he heard. At the end of the lecture he came to Sir Humphrey Davy, the great English scientist, and showed him his notes. Davy was surprised. Later he made Faraday his assistant and helped him in his education.

Faraday had many important discoveries. Among his works are the concept of the magnetic field and the magnetic “lines of force”, production of new kinds of optical glass, and research on electrolysis.

Faraday produced the first mechanical motion by means of a permanent magnet and an electric current. This is the principle upon which the modern electric motor is based.

Faraday was very modest and he loved his work more than honors. He refused to become President of the Royal Society and also refused to be knighted.

II.Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. When was Michael Faraday born? 2. How did the boy begin to work? 3. Where did he work? 4. What article was Michael studying when one day a man entered a shop? 5. Who is Sir Humphrey Davy? 6. How did Sir Humphrey Davy help Faraday? 7. What are the most famous Faraday’s works? 8. How did Faraday produce the first mechanical motion? 9. Faraday wasn’t very modest, was he? 10. Did Faraday agree to become President of the Royal Society?

III.Составьте рассказ об основных фактах биографии Фарадея на английском языке.

IV. Напишите десять предложений о любом известном ученом или изобретателе.

V. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя подходящее слово из рамки только один раз. В рамке есть одно лишнее слово.

selfishness dangerous frightened cared companion decisions occasionally

Travelling alone

Debbie Chaplin, a medical student, travelled by herself for eight months last year in Asia and South America. "I wasn't (1) frightened by the idea of doing a long trip without a (2) ... . Some people think that wanting to travel alone is a sign of (3) ..., but you are freer when you can make all the (4) ... on your own. At the beginning, or when I was ill, I (5) ... felt lonely, but I made many friends so I wasn't always by myself. Being a woman alone wasn't a problem either, but I was (6) ... to avoid obviously (7) ...situations. In some countries people stared and made rude comments. Sometimes I reacted aggressively because I was annoyed, but I never worried about my safety. I will definitely travel like that again. Next time I will be more patient and I won't try to do so much."

VI. Составьте диалог из приведенных ниже предложений. Первая и последняя реплики даны.

1. I hear you are looking for a new sales manager. I think I could work for you.

- Well, I like meeting lots of people. Besides I have some experience in it.

- I lived a long way from the store that's why I quit.

- Yes, but with free weekends.

- Can you tell me what salary is?

- I'm very interested in this job.

- Thank you very much. See you soon.

- That's OK with me.

- Why did you leave your last job?

-Are you looking for permanent employment?

- Here's an application form. You're just the sort of person we need.

- 750 dollars.

- Why are you interested in this kind of job?

14. You start next week.

VII. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста.

EXACT

SIMILAR

KNOW

IMPORTANT

INFORM

BELIEF

LAW

NECESSARY

BRIGHT

PROFESSION

LUCK

My real parents

People tell me I take after my mother. We have (1) exactly the same blue eyes. Actually, I don't know whether there is any (2) ... between my birth mother and me. I have no (3) ... of her because I was adopted as a baby. The fact that I am adopted is of no (4) ... to me. I don't want to look for (5) ... about my birth parents. Your real parents are the ones who love and look after you - that's what I (6) ... My mother is a (7) ... ; she works very hard and often comes home late. She sometimes worries (8) ... that this makes her a bad mother. She says her children (9) ... her life and she would like to spend more time with us. My father is a (10) ... artist and works at home. They are the best parents in the world. It was the (11) ... day of my life when they adopted me.

VIII. Прочитайте статью. Определите, какой из заголовков A-G соответствует выделенным частям статьи от 1 до 6. Каждый заголовок соответствует только одной части, при этом один заголовок лишний.

A. Out for the night

B. On the move

C. Eat like a native

D. In deep water

E. Keep well

F. Make the right impression

G. Watch out for the wildlife

The call of the wild

1. First make a fire – modern travelers can use a camera lens to do this. Now choose your menu. Lion meat can taste like beef if it is slowly pot-roasted, and monkey meat is much improved by marinating it beforehand. Crocodile tail is a delicacy, a white fish meat which tastes similar to lobster. Ostrich eggs are very rich and creamy and are excellent scrambled. Big leaves will serve as extra plates; a small twig, peeled and sharpened, is a fork.

2. To prevent painful blisters on feet, put soap on the inside of your socks before setting out. Plants have been used in healing wounds from the earliest days. Yarrow used to be carried into battle to stop bleeding. It also has antiseptic qualities and can be chewed to relieve toothache. Crushed strawberries help to soothe sunburn.

3. Most insects are harmless but don’t rely on this. I was once bitten by a hunting spider. Within a short time my body had become paralyzed and my heart was hammering as though I’d run up a mountain. I was freezing cold, but at the same time sweat poured off me, and the pain was excruciating. It was two weeks before I recovered enough to walk.

4. Sand is lovely to sleep in. Wriggle until it fits your shape. To be warmest in your sleeping bag, you should take off your clothes so that your body heat circulates properly. Old newspaper provides excellent insulation so screw some up loosely inside your sleeping bag.

5. Travelling with pack animals can be a maddeningly slow business. Donkeys walk at about 4 km an hour for 12 hours; a sturdy camel carries 250 kg with ease, walks at about

5 km an hour and covers about 27 km a day. But its speed and distance are better if it marches by night and rests by day. To obtain a camel, look in desert headquarters for retired army animals. Nomads often do not want to sell because their animals represent wealth.

6. Shabby, scruffy clothes will affect people’s attitude to you; if you look respectable, you will usually be treated with respect.

IX. Выберите единственно правильный вариант.

1. You … have been delighted when you won the competition.

a) can, b) must, c) may, d) could.

2. He … have lost his way. He knows the city well!

a) would, b) might, c) mustn’t, d) can’t.

3. ‘ … you ride a horse along a public footpath?’ ‘No, it’s forbidden.’

a) may, b) can, c) must, d) might.

4. Like any top sportsmen he … train very hard when he was fighting.

a) must, b) should, c) has to, d) had to.

5. You haven’t eaten for a whole day? You … be starving.

a) must, b) ought to, c) shouldn’t, d) have to.

6. There was a woman with a big hat right in front of me. I … see a thing.

a) can’t, b) may not, c) need, d) couldn’t.

7. When you were ten, … you ride a bike?

a) might, b) could, c) had to, d) was able to,

8. I don't have enough money to take the bus, so I … walk home.

a) must, b) need, c) should, d) have to.

9. A good 1500-metre runner…run the race in four minutes. a) can't, b) was able, c) can, d) should to.

10. For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the fourth day they…reach them without too much trouble.

a) can, b) could, c) must, d) were able to.

11. Our teacher says we…speak English fluently in a few months.

a) can, b) will able to, c) are able to, d) will be able to.

12. I've been trying for hours, but still I…get through on the phone.

a) can, b) can't to, c) haven't been able to, d) haven't able to.

13. Shall I call the police? - ... .

a) Yes, you shall, b) Yes, you will, c) Do, please, d) No, you shan't.

14. Your handwriting …clear, or no one will be able to read it.

a) can't be, b) must, c) must be, d) mustn't be.

15. You…a nuisance when you're a guest in someone's house. a) must, b) must be, c) mustn't be, d) can.

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