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АНО ВПО ЦС РФ

«РОССИЙСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ КООПЕРАЦИИ»

И.В. Балакирева

Д.Г. Васьбиева

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

СБОРНИК УЧЕБНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ И ЗАДАНИЙ

ПО ВНЕАУДИТОРНОМУ ЧТЕНИЮ

ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

для студентов заочной формы обучения

всех специальностей

Москва 2010

Балакирева И.В., Васьбиева Д.Г. Английский язык: Сборник учебных текстов и заданий по внеаудиторному чтению для самостоятельной работы студентов. – М.: Российский университет кооперации, 2010. – 73с.

Сборник учебных текстов и заданий по внеаудиторному чтению для самостоятельной работы студентов по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский язык)» для всех специальностей заочной формы обучения разработан в соответствии с учебным планом от 04.07.2006г. и учебной программой, утвержденной 13.11.2007г.

Рецензент: доцент В.В. Авдеева

Сборник учебных текстов и заданий по внеаудиторному чтению подготовлен для студентов 1-2 курсов заочной формы обучения всех специальностей.

Сборник текстов рекомендован к изданию решением кафедры иностранных языков от 08.02.2010г., протокол №7

©АНО ВПО ЦС РФ

«Российский университет кооперации», 2010

© Балакирева И.В., Васьбиева Д.Г., 2010

От составителей

Настоящий сборник текстов предназначен для студентов I и II курсов заочной формы обучения для экономических специальностей вузов системы потребительской кооперации Российской Федерации.

Цель данного сборника – подготовить студентов к чтению и пониманию оригинальной литературы на английском языке по экономической специальности.

Сборник составлен в соответствии с требованиями программы для студентов I и II курсов заочной формы обучения для экономических специальностей.

Сборник состоит из двух частей. В первой части представлены общенаучные тексты, предназначенные для студентов 1-го курса. Вторая часть сборника – это экономические тексты для студентов 2-го курса.

При подготовке внеаудиторного чтения студент должен уметь:

1) читать и переводить тексты, рекомендуемые преподавателем кафедры;

2) отвечать на вопросы по тексту.

При работе над текстом необходимо выписывать все незнакомые слова в словарной форме в тетрадь. При приеме внеаудиторного чтения тетрадь с выписанными словами следует предъявить преподавателю.

Систематическая работа с текстами, представленными в настоящем сборнике, поможет студенту сформировать умения и навыки беспереводного понимания англоязычных текстов и расширить его словарный запас.

Part II

TEXT 1

Competitive markets

A market is defined as a place where buyers and sellers are in contact with one another to fix prices.

This contact may be established directly, e.g. when retailers buy supplies at the wholesale markets, such as Covent Garden or Billingsgate: or indirectly through specialists, such as the brokers and jobbers on the London Stock Exchange. Physical presence in the market is not necessary; indeed, the Foreign Exchange market is largely conducted by telephone.

Generally speaking, the major markets are such specialised affairs, and dealings are conducted in such large quantities, that the general public is ill equipped to deal upon them. For instance, the minimum contract for wheat on London's Baltic Exchange is 100 tones and minimum contracts for sugar is 50 tones on the London Sugar Futures Market. Such markets are called highly organized markets, and only experts may deal on them.

While absolute perfection in the market is difficult to achieve, some of these institutions come very close to the perfect competition imagined in theoretical economics, and equilibrium price is established in conditions where perfect knowledge of the market and complete absence of friction exist.

(1206)

Notes

1. jobber-маклер, комиссионер

2. equilibrium price - равновесная цена

3. friction - разногласие

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Задание 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is a market?

2. What markets are called highly organized?

TEXT 2

Consumption & production

When production has been achieved, the goods and services produced are used to satisfy the wants of mankind. In consuming created products we destroy the fruits of our earlier labour. The fuel mined is burnt; the cloth woven is worn; the crops harvested are eaten. Consumption destroys production. And we return to our former condition.

We must begin again an endless cycle of production and consumption.

No matter how much we produce, we shall never be able to satisfy men's wants. Appetite grows with feeding and ever growth of output which raises man to a new level serves but to reveal a more extensive horizon.

Information or persuasive advertising may influence our demand of goods. In the free enterprise countries the choices of millions of people take effect through the market. The existence of market is a characteristic feature of such economies and the major commodity markets and financial markets lie at the root of the prosperity of such nations.

The initiative in production is taken by businessmen called 'entrepreneurs', who combine land, labour and capital to create goods and services.

Consumption destroys production; 'wants' devours 'utilities'.

Since resources available to mankind are limited, we must exercise choice.

Thus, 'utilities' - are goods and services that have the power to satisfy the 'wants' of mankind.

(1358)

Notes

1. destroy the fruits of our earlier labour - уничтожать плоды прежнего труда

2. no matter - не имеет значения

3. in the free enterprise countries - в странах свободного предпринимательства

4. take effect through the market - оказаться под влиянием рынка

5. lie at the root - лежать в основе

6. devour - зд. поглощать, пожирать

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Задание 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What lies at the root of the prosperity of a nation?

2. What are 'utilities'?

TEXT 3

CREDIT CARDS

The use of credit cards has increased dramatically over the last years. The original credit card companies, VISA (Barclaycard, Trustcard) and MasterCard (Access) have now been joined by credit cards which are issued by retail outlets for use in their own stores such as Marks& Spencer, Debenhams, or by groups of stores such as the Sears card. Credit cards can be used as a means of payment in their own right. Some (such as Barclaycard, Trustcard) can also be used as a cheque guarantee card.

Credit card customers are given a credit limit on the credit card account and can buy goods and services up to this amount. The credit account is totally separate from any bank account that is held. Goods and services can be bought at any retail outlet which displays the credit card signs and most retailers will accept payment by one of several cards.

When the card is used for purchasing, the customer must sign the sales voucher and the signature is then compared to the signature on the card. Copies of the vouchers have the details of the card embossed upon them by a special machine and they also show the details and amount of the sale.

A copy of the sales voucher is given by the retailer to the customer and a copy is sent to the credit card company through the local bank branch from which the retailer receives payment. Increasing numbers of retail outlets are now using terminals for such transactions, where information held on the magnetic stripe on the back of the card is read by the terminal. This information is sent to the credit card company by electronic means thereby eliminating the need for vouchers.

Each month the cardholder receives a statement from the credit card company which details all his purchases in the month, together with the total amount outstanding and any minimum amount that needs to be paid.

When he receives the statement the customer can:

  • pay the full amount of the balance;

  • spread the payments over a period of months. These payments can be made;

  • by post;

  • through a bank account using a credit slip;

  • by regular monthly Direct Debit.

When the full balance is not settled each month, the customer is charged interest on the outstanding balance and this provides the Card Company with a main source of income. The company also receives an income from the retailer who has to pay a percentage of the sale, between 1% and 5% to the credit card company.

(2400)

Notes

1. emboss - вырезать

2. outstanding - неуплаченный

3. eliminate-ликвидировать

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Задание 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Are there any credit limits on the credit card account?

2. What can the customer do when he receives the statement?

3. When the customer is charged interest?

TEXT 4

CO-OPERATIVE RETAIL SOCIETIES

The first successful 'Co-op' store was founded in 1844 in Toad Lane. Rochdale, by twenty-eight weavers nowadays remembered as the 'Rochdale Pioneers'. The idea was to buy foodstuffs at wholesale prices and sell them (to members only) at market price. Profits were divided among members in proportion to the value of their purchases. The share-out (dividend) took place twice a year. By 1845 there were 74 members.

The Co-operative movement spread rapidly. Societies were set up in towns all over the UK. In 1862 the members voted to set up a wholesale organization, the Co-operative Wholesale Society. This society not only supplied the retail societies like any ordinary wholesaler but also ran factories, farms, transport services and even tea gardens to provide everything the retail societies needed. The retail societies joined the wholesale society in exactly the same way as the ordinary members joined the retail society. All the profits of the Co-operative Wholesale Society are shared among the member retail societies, and all the profits of the retail societies are shared among the members. Thus in the end all the profits return to the members of the retail societies, whose purchasing power actually keeps the Co-operative movement going. However, these days the cumbersome distribution of profits to members by a special dividend day every six months has been discontinued and other systems (Co-operative stamps for example) have been developed.

(1489)

Notes

1. weaver - ткач, ткачиха

2. cumbersome distribution - обременительное распределение

3. keep the Co-operative movement going - поддерживать кооперативное движение

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Задание 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What are 'Rochdale Pioneers' famous for?

2. How are the profits shared in the co-ops?

TEXT 5

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