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Е.Ф. Сыроватская, Е.Н. Белова, А.Б. Комиссаров

Технический

иностранный язык

(в сфере связи и информационных технологий)

Английский

Практикум

САНКТ – ПЕТЕРБУРГ

2015

Рецензент:

кандидат филологических наук,

доцент кафедры И и Р языков СПбГУТ

М.В. Яценко

Утверждено

редакционно-издательским советом СПбГУТ

в качестве учебного пособия

Сыроватская Е.Ф.

Технический иностранный язык (в сфере связи и информационных технологий). Английский язык: практикум для бакалавров, специализирующихся в сфере связи и информационных технологий / Е.Ф. Сыроватская, Е.Н. Белова, А.Б. Комиссаров. СПб.: Издательство СПбГУТ, 2015. – 67 с.

Предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по всем техническим направлениям подготовки бакалавров. Цель издания – развитие навыков перевода технических текстов по специальности.

Пособие содержит современные английские тексты и упражнения по связи и информационным технологиям. Разработано с учетом опыта преподавания английского языка в университете телекоммуникаций.

Содержание

1. UNIT 1

CONVERGENCE IN TELECOMS AND IT ……………………………

2. UNIT 2

MOBILITY …………………………………………………………………..

3. UNIT 3

NETWORKING ………………………………………………………………

4. UNIT 4

MEDIA …………………………………………………………………………

5. APPENDIX 1

(Дополнительные тексты ) ……………………………………………………

6. APPENDIX 2

(Словарь сокращений) ………………………………………………………..

7. APPENDIX 3

(Термины, общеупотребительные слова и выражения в текстах и

упражнениях) ………………………………………………………………..

UNIT 1

CONVERGENCE IN TELECOMS AND IT

1. A modern smart phone is a combination of many different devices. What devices does it replace?

2. Here are definitions of the term “convergence”. Read and translate them.

1. Technological convergence is the tendency for different technological systems to evolve toward performing similar tasks. 

2. Digital convergence refers to previously separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications) and video that now share resources and interact with each other.

3. Convergence is defined more specifically as the coming together of telecommunications, computing and broadcasting into a single digital bit-stream. 

3. Here are the words and word combinations you have to learn.

Apply, arise, artificial intelligence, connection, converge, convergence, convergent, deliver, distinct, emerge, emergence, explore, fixed and mobile operators, historical roots, inspire, joined product, market, multi-level, multiple, permit, rise, service, single, singularity, surround, trace back

4. Read the text and find more definitions of convergence.

Telecommunications convergence

Communication networks were designed to carry different types of information independently. Radio was designed for audio, and televisions were designed for video. The older media, such as television and radio, are broadcasting networks with passive audiences. Convergence of telecommunication technology permits the manipulation of all forms of information, voice, data, and video. Telecommunication has changed from a world of scarcity to one of seemingly limitless capacity.

The historical roots of convergence can be traced back to the emergence of mobile telephony and the Internet. The term properly applies only from the point in marketing history when fixed and mobile telephony began to be offered by operators as joined products. Fixed and mobile operators were, for most of the 1990s, independent companies. Even when the same organization marketed both products, these were sold and serviced independently.

The rise of digital communication in the late 20th century has made it possible for media organizations (or individuals) to deliver text, audio, and video material over the same wired, wireless, or fiber-optic connections. At the same time, it inspired some media organizations to explore multimedia delivery of information. Today, we are surrounded by a multi-level convergent media world where all modes of communication and information are continually reforming, changing the way we create, consume, learn and interact with each other. Convergence in this instance is defined as the interlinking of computing and other information technologies, media content, and communication networks arisen as the result of the evolution and popularization of the Internet as well as the activities, products and services that have emerged in the digital media space.

Telecommunications convergence, network convergence or simply convergence are broad terms used to describe emerging telecommunications technologies, and network architecture used to migrate multiple communications services into a single network. Specifically this involves the converging of previously distinct media such as telephony and data communications into common interfaces on single devices, such as most smart phones that can make phone calls and search the web.

Also included in this topic is the basis of computer networks, wherein many different operating systems are able to communicate via different protocols. This could be the first step to artificial intelligence networks on the Internet eventually leading to a powerful superintelligence via a technological singularity.

5. True, false or no information?

1. Convergence is historically connected with the marketing activities of telephone companies.

2. Television and radio are broadcasting networks dealing with passive audiences.

3. Convergence services become access-independent.

4. From the very beginning fixed and mobile telephony were offered by operators as joined products.

5. The once-separate worlds of media, entertainment and communications have converged.

6. To effectively exploit the new opportunities in the market of telecommunications, service providers must examine current business models.

7. Telecommunications convergence, network convergence or simply convergence, are terms describing fixed phones networks.

6. Answer the questions.

1. How did old media and networks carry information?

2. When did the term convergence emerge?

3. What role did telephone operators play in the emergence of convergent services?

4. How can text, audio, and video material be delivered nowadays?

5. Is a smart phone an example of convergence? Why?

6. What can be considered as the first step to artificial intelligence networks?

7. Continue the sentence.

1. Digital convergence refers to …

a. the way we create, consume, learn and interact with each other.

b. emerging telecommunications technologies and network architecture.

c. previously separate technologies that now interact with each other.

2. Technological convergence is …

a. the first step to artificial intelligence networks. 

b. the tendency for different technological systems to evolve toward performing similar tasks.

c. television and radio broadcasting network.

3. Telecommunications convergence describes …

a. the converging of previously distinct media and data communications into common interfaces on single device.

b. the rise of digital communication in the late 20th century.

c. some media organizations exploring multimedia delivery of information.

8. Use the correct form of the word.

1. The tendency for different technological systems to perform similar tasks is called … (converge, convergent, convergence)

2. Video on demand is an example of … services (converge, convergent, convergence).

3. Distinct media such as telephony and data communications  …into common interfaces on single devices (converge, convergent, convergence).

4. VoIP is a very popular … offered by many companies (service, serviced).

5. Our fixed phone line is … by Dom.ru (service, serviced).

9. What device is mentioned in the text as an example of convergence? Tell about this device using the text and ex.2.

For example: A smart phone is an example of convergence because …

10. Find other examples of convergence in IT.

11. Match the terms to their definitions.

1) artificial intelligence

a) the quality of something that makes it unusual or strange

2) emerge

b) an area of study concerned with making computers copy human behavior

3) emergence

c) find the origin or cause of something

4) trace back

d) become known

5) singularity

e) the appearance of new things

12. Match the terms to their definition

1) surround

a) multiple things created by a single production process at the same time

2) inspire

b) be all around something

3) convergent

c) allow somebody to do something to happen

4) permit

d) give somebody the desire, confidence or enthusiasm to do something well

5) joint products

e) tending to come together, merging

13. Make up a sentence using the words and phrases.

1. Traced back, to emergence, can be, of mobile telephony and the Internet, the historical roots of convergence. 2. Multimedia delivery of information, some media-organizations, the rise of digital communication, to explore, inspired.

3. Between fixed and wireless telecommunications networks, fixed-mobile convergence (FMC), the trend towards, is, ideal connectivity. 4. The goal of FMC, to and among end users, is, transmission of all data, to optimize. 5. Is becoming, convergence, in the IT world, more and more popular.

14. Find English equivalents.

Выполнять схожие задачи, основные особенности, сети были разработаны для, предлагать продукты, продавать продукты, доставить информацию,

первый шаг к искусственному интеллекту, появление таких услуг, обрабатывать информацию, цифровое информационное пространство, распределять ресурсы.

15. Translate into English.

1. Термин convergenceозначает объединение двух или нескольких технологий в одном устройстве.2. Мобильный телефон позволяет нам делать фотографии и входить в интернет.3. Проводные, беспроводные и оптоволоконные соединения играют важную роль в нашей жизни.4. Это устройство можно рассматривать в качестве примера слияния технологий.

5. Люди создают продукты и потребляют их.

16. Give synonyms.

To design a device, to manipulate data, to permit, to connect, to carry information, to perform, the tendency, to involve, nowadays, current business models, a task, be able, to define.

17. Match these keywords to their definitions and translate them.

  1. Computer. 2. Fax (device). 3. E-mail. 4. Telephone. 5. The Internet.

  1. The machine which is used for sending or receiving copies of letters, pictures, etc. along a telephone line.

  2. An international network of computers. It has electronic mail and provides a large amount of information.

  3. An electronic machine that can store and recall information, do many processes on it.

  4. An electronic system which joins a group of computers. People can send messages to each other on their computers.

  5. A system for sending or receiving speech over long distances.

18. Explain the usage of the verbs “to be” and “to have”. Translate the sentences.

1. Engineers have to do it. 2. Programmer had to do it. 3. Clients will have to do it. 4. The hacker attack is to be stopped. 5. The train was to stop here.

6. This method is to be reported in more detail. 7. The other devices are to be delivered over next 12 months. 8. The problem now is to find the most effective way to convert the minimum expenses into the maximum profit.

19. Insert the necessary pronouns: who, whom, whose, what and which.

1. … will help me? 2. … of these programs is the best? 3. … is your bag?

4. … is your telephone number? 5. … computer is this, Peter`s or Helen`s?

6. …. are you reading? 7. … teaches you information security? 8. … of you am I to thank for this? 9. … do you know about the first transistor computer? 10. …requests are these? 11. Here are the smartphones. … is yours?

20. Translate the words and compare meanings of the suffixes.

Changeable, shapeless, upward, radiate, unknown, deepen, southward, serviceable, usually, tactful, noisily, careless, slowly, misapply, incapable, partly, heater, useful, carefully, observable stars, darkness, compression, discharge, stabilize, inward, conductor, cooperate, interchangeable, amplify, cybernetics, weekly, a weekly journal, high, highly.

Exercises to develop speaking skills.

21. Read and learn these phrases necessary to start to retell a text.

The text

is about …

is devoted to …

concerns …

is entitled.

is centred around …

focuses on …

deals with …

gives a detailed description of …

provides a reader with data on …

includes …

contains a summary of …

offers a new insight into…

refers to...

points out that...

is a new conceptual framework for understanding…

The title/

The heading/

The headline

Is

The purpose/

aim/

intention of the text

is

examine/

assess/evaluate...

22. Using the phrases above, tell about the text “Convergence technologies and services” (5-6 sentences).

23. Read and learn the dialogue.

Device manufacturer (D) and interviewer (I)

I - What are you doing these days?

D - To be honest, I don't know what to do these days.

I - What did you do in the past?

D - We used to make cameras and went digital.

I - What happened?

D - Then everybody wanted cameras on cellphones.

I - What did you decide to do then?

D - We started making those devices.

I - Were they popular among our population?

D - At first. But people are always wanting to upgrade and get the latest models or new gadgets.

I - Are you going to adapt to your customers' needs?

D - We have to, if we want to remain in business. But it is not easy. I went to a technology fair last week and they were demonstrating this jacket and hat that was your phone.

I - Amazing!

D - Yeah, there are so many disruptive technologies, I don't know what is going to happen.

I - Can you make a guess?

D - Maybe we'll have to get into clothing.

24. Using the dialogue above, make up your own dialogue between a TV broadcaster and an interviewer. Use the following text to help you.

TV broadcaster

A lot of broadcasters like us are having a hard time. The problem is that there are lots more channels these days and people also get them through different media. I can download the latest films from the phone company. My children don't even watch TV. They watch video online and their friends send them clips on their mobiles. But we have to survive on our advertising revenue and at the moment that's falling. Things are really not easy, and I'm sure there are some broadcasters that will go out of business.

25. Read and learn another dialogue.

Fixed Telecommunications Networking Provider (F) and interviewer (I)

I - What do you do?

F - We own the fixed telecoms network.

I - How are you doing these days?

F - We've seen a big fall in revenues from voice calls.

I - Oh dear, why is that?

F - Because everything is IP now.

I - Yeah, right. You must be having hard times now.

F - In fact we are now in a great position.

I - Why?

F - Because we are putting intelligence into our network.

I - Could you explain what it means for your company, please?

F - Yeah, sure, it can become an enormous computer, capable of delivering applications.

I - It sounds interesting. Are you sure this new invention will meet your customers' needs? Are you sure they will have all the necessary equipment for that?

F - Absolutely. All our customers need is a broadband pipe into our network cloud and we act as an IT utility - and most people have already got that with an ordinary phone line.

I - You seem to have thought of everything for it to have a success.

F - Of course, it easily makes up for the money from traditional voice calls.

I - Really? What will you do then with the new capabilities?

F - We can provide TV, software, Internet access, email, teleconferencing, all sorts of things.

I - Good luck to you! Thank you for coming.

F - It's a pleasure.

26. Using the dialogue above make up your own dialogue between a TV broadcaster (interviewer) and a search engine provider. Use the following words and phrases.

run – управлять, руководить, запускать

search engine – поисковая система

market share – удельный вес на рынке данного товара (продукции компании)

software license – лицензии на ПО

employees - работники

applications - приложения

do all the data storage – выполнять хранение всех данных

do archiving – выполнять архивирование

do backups – осуществлять резервное копирования

run a data centre – управлять центром обработки данных

expensive laptop – дорогой ноутбук

desktop – настольный компьютер

RAM – оперативная память

Internet access devices – устройства с доступом в Интернет

Access applications – получать доступ к приложениям

from anywhere – с любого места

Additional Reading and Speaking.

  1. Read the text to learn more about the topic.

Convergence technologies and services

Convergence services, such as VoIP, IPTV, Mobile TV, Smart TV, etc., replace the old technologies and are a threat to the current service providers. IP-based convergence is inevitable and will result in new service and new demand in the market. When the old technology converges into the public-owned common, IP based services become access-independent or less dependent. The old service is access-dependent.

Convergent technologies can integrate the fixed-line with mobile to deliver convergent solutions. Recent examples of new, convergent services include:

Video on demand (vod)

Video on demand (VOD) or audio and video on demand (AVOD) are systems which allow users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content when they choose to, rather than having to watch at a specific broadcast time. IPTV technology is often used to bring video on demand to televisions and personal computers.

Fixed-mobile convergence

Fixed–mobile convergence (FMC) is a change in telecommunications that removes differences between fixed and mobile networks. Fixed Mobile Convergence is a transition point in the telecommunications industry that will finally remove the distinctions between fixed and mobile networks, providing a superior experience to customers by creating seamless services using a combination of fixed broadband and local access wireless technologies to meet their needs in homes, offices, other buildings and on the go.

Mobile-to-mobile convergence

Mobile to mobile convergence (MMC) is a term to describe a technology used in modern computing and telephony. The term is an offshoot of fixed mobile convergence (FMC) and uses dual mode (cellular network and Wi-Fi) phones with a special software client and an application server to connect voice calls and business applications via a VoWLAN and/or through a cellular service.

Convergent technologies include:

Ip Multimedia Subsystem

The IP Multimedia Subsystem or IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) is an architectural framework for delivering IP multimedia services. 

Session Initiation Protocol

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a standardized set of formats for communicating messages used to initiate, control, and terminate interactive user sessions with multimedia services such as Internet telephone calls, video conferencing, chat, file transfer, and online games.

IPTV

Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which television services are delivered using the Internet protocol suite over a packet-switched network such as a LAN or the Internet, instead of being delivered through traditional terrestrial, satellite signal, and cabletelevision formats.

Voice over ip

Voice over IP (VoIP) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

Digital video broadcasting – handheld

DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld) is one of three prevalent mobile TV formats. It is a technical specification for bringing broadcast services to mobile handsets.

28. Using the information above work in pairs. You are going to compare convergent services with traditional ones. Use the key words and phrases to help you. You may draw pictures and diagrams to explain your point.

Key words and phrases.

Digital video broadcasting

Voice over IP

IPTV

Session Initiation Protocol

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Location-based services

Mobile-to-mobile convergence

Fixed-mobile convergence

Video on demand (VOD)

Mobile TV

Smart TV

UNIT 2

MOBILITY

1. Read the text.

What is a mobile device?

A mobile device is basically any handheld computer. It is designed to be extremely portable, often fitting in the palm of your hand or in your pocket. Some mobile devices are more powerful, and they allow you to do many of the same things you can do with a desktop or laptop computer.

2. Look at the list of devices. Which of them are mobile and which are not? Explain your choice using ex.1.

Desktop computer, TV-set, smartphone, camera Canon, e-reader, router, tablet computer, laptop computer, monitor.

3. What can you do on the move?

On the move I can do many things. For example, I can … on the move using … .

(Make phone calls, send and receive e-mails, listen to music, read books, check public transportation schedule, search Web, take photos, buy something, watch videos).

4. Here are the words and word combinations you have to learn.

allotment, backlit, boot up, cell service, consume, convenience, data plan, durable, e-paper display, e-reader, eye strain, feature, fit, free update, handheld computer, LCD, mobile OS, monthly fee, mouse pointer, palm, portable, purchase, refresh rate, smartphone, solid-state drive, tablet computer,  touchpad, touch-sensitive, versatile, virtual keyboard, washed out.

5. Read the text.

Mobile Devices

Tablet computers

Like laptops, tablet computers are designed to be portable. However, they provide a different computing experience. The most obvious difference is that tablet computers don't have keyboards or touchpads. Instead, the entire screen is touch-sensitive, allowing you to type on a virtual keyboard and use your finger as a mouse pointer.

Tablet computers are mostly designed for consuming media, and they are optimized for tasks like web browsing, watching videos, reading e-books, and playing games. For many people, a "regular" computer like a desktop or laptop is still needed in order to use some programs. However, the convenience of a tablet computer means it may be ideal as a second computer. Below are some of the main features you can expect with a tablet computer:

Mobile OS: Different types of tablets use different operating systems. Examples include Android and iOS. You'll usually be able to download free updates to your OS as they become available.

Solid-state drives: Tablet computers usually use solid-state drives, which allow the computer to boot up and open programs more quickly. They are also more durable than hard disk drives.

Wi-Fi and 3G/4G: Because they are optimized for Internet use, tablet computers have built-in Wi-Fi. For a monthly fee, you can also purchase a 3G or 4G data plan, allowing you to access the Internet from almost anywhere.

Bluetooth: In order to save space, tablet computers have very few ports. If you want to use an external keyboard or other peripherals, they will often use a wireless Bluetooth connection.

E-book readers

E-book readers (also called e-readers) are similar to tablet computers, except they are mainly designed for reading e-books (digital, downloadable books). Examples include the Amazon Kindle and Barnes & Noble Nook.

E-book readers have either an e-paper display or an LCD:

E-paper: Short for electronic paper, this type of display can usually only display in black and white. It is designed to look a lot like an actual page in a book. Unlike an LCD, it is not backlit, so the text stays readable even outdoors in full sun. Many people consider e-paper to be more pleasant to read because it causes less eye strain. However, it generally can't be used for videos or other applications because the refresh rate is too low.

LCD: This is the same type of screen found on tablet computers and laptops. It's more versatile than e-paper, but it's often more difficult to view in bright sunlight, as the image becomes washed out. Since an LCD screen can display colors, this type of e-reader is better for viewing magazines or books with photos. Many LCD e-readers (such as the Nook Color) are basically tablet computers, as they can perform many different tasks in addition to displaying e-books.

You don't need an e-reader to read an e-book. E-books can usually be read on tablet computers, smartphones, laptops, and desktops.

Smartphones

A smartphone is a powerful mobile phone that is designed to run a variety of applications in addition to providing phone service. Smartphones are basically small tablet computers, and they can be used for web browsing, watching videos, reading e-books, playing games, and more.

Smartphones use touch screens and operating systems similar to those used by tablet computers. Many of them use a virtual keyboard, but others have a physical keyboard, which allows the entire screen to be used for display purposes.

Internet access is an important feature of smartphones. Generally, you will need to purchase a 3G or 4G data plan in addition to normal cell service. Smartphones can also connect to Wi-Fi when it is available; this allows you to use the Internet without using up your monthly data allotment.

A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a mobile device that is used for managing phone numbers, addresses, calendars, and other information. Before smartphones existed, a PDA was usually a separate device. Today, smartphones combine the functionality of a PDA and a mobile phone.

6. True, false or no information.

1. All e-book readers can have only an LCD display.

2. Smartphones and small tablet computers are basically different devices.

3. Tablet computers differ from laptops because they normally don't have keyboards or touchpads.

4. A GPS navigator is nowadays a part of any smartphone.

5. If you have a computer, you can read an e-book.

6. With solid-state drives, tablet computers work quicker and longer.

7. LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer monitors, televisions, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, and signage.

8. Tablet computers are optimized for producing texts.

7. Answer the questions.

1. What portable electronic devices are mentioned in the text?

2. Which of them are described?

3. How do tablet computers differ from laptops?

4. What tasks are tablet computers optimized for?

5. What features do tablet computers possess?

6. What feature is necessary to use external devices with a tablet computer?

7. What examples of e-books do you know?

8. Which display would you prefer: an e-paper one or an LCD? Why?

9. What devices are combined in a smartphone?

8. Continue the sentence.

1. Many LCD e-readers …

a. combine the functionality of a PDA and a mobile phone.

b. can perform many different tasks in addition to displaying e-books.

c. often use a wireless Bluetooth connection.

2. An e-paper display…

a. was usually a separate device.

b. is still needed in order to use some programs.

c. is designed to look a lot like an actual page in a book.

3. The entire screen of a tablet computer allows you …

a. to read books even outdoors in full sun.

b. to use your finger as a mouse pointer.

c. to purchase a 3G or 4G data plan in addition to normal cell service.

4. An LCD screen reader …

a. is better for viewing magazines.

b. causes less eye strain.

c. is used for managing phone numbers, addresses, calendars, and other information.

5. Tablet computers have …

a. an external keyboard or other peripherals.

b. an e-paper display.

c. built-in Wi-Fi.

9. Speak about how a tablet computer is different from a laptop. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of a tablet computer?

10. If you're thinking about buying an e-reader, think about what kinds of things you like to read. Do you mostly read books or magazines? What kind of screen do you think would be better?

11. Smartphones can have virtual keyboards or physical keyboards. What are some advantages and disadvantages to each one?

12. Match the words (1-7) with the definitions (A-G). Translate.

1. Bluetooth. 2. Voice activation. 3. Lithium-ion battery. 4. 3G network. 5. Text message. 6. Call waiting. 7. Voicemail.

A. A power source in cell phones. B. A short, written message sent to or from a cell phone. C. A cell phone feature that alerts of incoming calls during another call. D. A feature that calls a number by speaking instead of by dialing. E. A feature that lets you leave or listen to an electronic message. F. A wireless network that connects a phone with other devices. G. A wireless network that sends and receives data.

13. Make up a sentence using the words and phrases.

1. For consuming, tablet computers, mostly, are, media, designed. 2. Is, in order, some programs, to use, needed, a laptop, still. 3. Of computers, different, different, use, types, operating systems. 4. I, to download, will, free updates, be able, to my OS. 5. Have, very few ports, to save, tablet computers, in order, space.

14. Find English equivalents.

Посылать электронную почту, проверять расписание, сенсорный экран, потреблять энергию, преимущество планшета, множество приложений, такие программы все еще нужны, обновить информацию, экономить пространство, вместо набора номеров, чтобы улучшить качество, важная особенность прибора, проводная связь, оставить сообщение.

15. Translate into English.

1. Мой компьютер очень мощный. 2. Эта особенность позволяет мне скачивать различные программы. 3. Нам требуются как настольные, так и переносные компьютеры. 4. Переносные компьютеры не имеют клавиатуры. 5. Преимущество планшета – в его размерах. 6. У нас есть возможность скачать бесплатные обновления. 7. Как правило, планшетники имеют встроенный Wi-Fi. 8. Мобильные устройства могут выполнять различные задачи.

16. Give synonyms.

To allow, cell phone, extremely, feature, to fit, to purchase, entire, rate, type, usually, quickly, portable devises, convenient, to update.

17. Choose the correct preposition. Translate into Russian.

1. The goal (of/on) scientific research is publication. 2. Scientists become known or remain unknown (by/into) their publications. 3. Good organization is the key (to/from) good writing. 4. Pay particular attention (on/to) those aspects (to/of) editorial style which tend to vary widely (on/from) journal (to/in) journal, such as the style (during/of) literature citation. 5. An improperly titled paper may be virtually lost and never reach the audience (for/with) which it was intended. 6. (with/in) scientific writing generally, and especially (about/in) titles, a good rule is: use the specific word, the familiar word, the short word.

18. Underline complex object. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Tell the secretary what you would like her to do. 2. Seeing the professor enter the room the students rose to greet her. 3. We can expect computer and internet to occupy a central place in distant education. 4. We knew him to be very clever, so we are not surprised that he won in the competition of programmers. 5. The manufacturers would like the time fixed for delivery to run from the 20thJanuary. 6. I want this IT-engineer to help me in repairing my computer.

19. Form comparative or superlative degree depending on sense of the sentence.

Translate into Russian.

1. Transistor computers consumed far (little) power, produced far (little) heat, and were much (small) compared to the first generation. 2. The twenty – second of December is (short) day in the year. 3. Winter is (cold) season. 4. Moscow is (large) than St. Petersburg. 5. London is (large) city in England. 6. Friendship is (strong) that steel. 7. Minicomputers were much (small), and (cheap) than first and second generations of computers. 8. Health is (good) than (wealth).

20. Write out suffixes for: a) the doer of action; b) the action. Translate.

Leader, indicate, worker, speaker, influence, simplify, owner, classify, profiteer, certify.

Exercises to develop speaking skills.

21. Retell the text “E-book readers”.

Use the following phrases and the summarizing techniques.

First

At the beginning

In the first part

In the introduction

the author

the reporter

the reader

argues

writes

states

points out

explains

mentions

is informed

That

what

why

The text

presents

the latest research into/on

a complicated analysis of

a fresh view about/on

a survey of

outlines

the results of a survey

conducted/ carried out

to determine/

to discover

Summarizing techniques.

1) Identify key words (nouns and verbs) in a single sentence (what is the sentence about?).

2) Identify key words (nouns, verbs and adjectives) in a single paragraph (what is the paragraph about?).

3) Identify the topic sentence:

a) Identify the topic (1-2 words)

b) Define a main idea of the paragraph (a 4-8 word sentence)

4) Find supporting and specific details (подробности) in a paragraph.

Remember!

The topic sentence contains the main idea of a paragraph. It tells what the rest of the sentences will be about. It can be the first sentence, the last sentence, the first and last sentence, in the middle, or the topic may be implied (подразумеваемый, невыраженный). If a main idea is inferred (предполагаемый) in a paragraph, look at a title. It will tell what the text is about.

22. Make up your own dialogue between a sales assistant and a customer. Use the following phrases.

Language for a customer:

I want...

I need to...

I'd like to...

It's not very convenient only...

It's important for me to...

Language for a sales assistant:

What I'd recommend is...

I'd go for …

It would be worth getting…

You should get...

You could try...

23. Read and learn the following phrases necessary to conclude a text.

In the end

Finally

At last

The final part/ section

As a conclusion

Summing up his / her thoughts

the author

the writer

the journalist

the reporter

the scientist

emphasizes

concludes

finds the solution

adds/stresses/emphasizes

pretends

hints

that

what

why

if

In conclusion, the author admits/contrasts/demonstrates how...

The author reaches the following conclusion...

Overall, I should highlight that...

I share this opinion….

In my opinion …

To my mind …

From my point of view …

24. Learn the following dialogue between a sales assistant (S) and a customer (C).

S – Hello, how can I help you?

C – Hi, I'd like to buy a new computer. But there are so many types. It is hard for me to choose. Can you help me with that please?

S – Sure, first, I would like you to answer a few questions. Do you prefer a desktop computer, laptop or tablet?

C – I don't know, really, what is the difference between them?

S – Well, tablets are portable and have touch-sensitive screen, whereas desktop computers have keyboards or touch-pads.

C – Touch-sensitive screen? What does it mean?

S – It's kind of a virtual keyboard. It means that you will use your fingers when typing in.

C – WOW, it sounds amazing.

S – What kinds of tasks do you need to do on your PC?

C – Well, I usually watch movies, surf the Web, play computer games and read a lot of books.

S – Good! It means that a tablet computer is ideal for your needs whereas a desktop computer or laptop are needed for other types of programs.

C – Good! I really need it for those tasks. My old PC opened programs very slowly. What about a tablet computer?

S – It definitely works faster, since tablets use solid-state drives. Whereas desktop computers use hard disk drives which are less durable than solid-state ones.

C – Cool! You know I am a student and it is very important for me to be able to carry it with me easily every day.

S – So in this case a tablet is perfect for you. It's lighter than a laptop and a desktop computer.

C – Great, because it is not very convenient only being able to access my files at home. So I want a tablet then. But I need to choose the right tablet.

S – Sure, There are several types of tablets with different operating systems. For example, iOS or Android are the most common types of them. What would you prefer?

C – I am not sure I know the difference between them. Can you explain it to me please?

S – Sure. Most Android-based tablets are produced by Samsung, a Korean company whereas iOS-based devices are made by Apple. Apple devices provide you with less free applications than Samsung ones do. So I'd go for Samsung tablet.

C – I'd like to buy Samsung tablet then. I wonder what other features I can find on tablet computers?

S – All the tablets are Wi-Fi- and 3G-enabled.

C – Awesome/Cool! By the way, I have heard that tablets do not have a lot of ports. Is it true?

S – Unfortunately, it is true, but they do have Bluetooth, that can allow you to connect any peripheral device wirelessly.

C – Great! What model would you recommend?

S – Well, this one is the latest and have all the features you need for your tasks. So it would be worth getting Samsung ST530.

C – Cool! I'll take it. Thank you for your help.

S – You are welcome.

25. Learn the dialogue between a sales assistant and a customer.

S – Hello, how can I help you?

C – I need some suggestions on updating my mobile technology.

S – Can you tell me what you use at the moment? I am sure I'll be able to recommend something appropriate.

C – Well, I am a technology student. I've got an old desktop computer and GSM phone. The problem is that I'm on the move so much. It's not very convenient only being able to access my information when I am at my dormitory. And it is impossible for me to carry my PC every day.

S – Oh, I see. What kinds of tasks do you need to be able to do when you are away from home?

C – Well, I want the basic functionality of my phone and desktop computer. I want to make and receive voice calls and voice mail. I send and receive emails all the time and sometimes I need to be able to read the attachments. I also need to download large files for my studies. I would also like to update my calendar on a daily basis. I usually watch movies, surf the Internet, read books online and play computer games. I'd like to be able to do all these things on the move.

S - OK, well, what I'd recommend is that you have a hand-held device such as a smartphone. How much weight do you want to carry around?

C – I don't mind carrying around something a bit heavier as long as I can do everything I need to do.

S – How often do you create documents when you are on the move?

C - I often have to create or amend documents or presentations when I am on the move, that's important to me.

S – So I'd go for Super Mob 360 phone which is GSM- and GPRS-enabled for voice, data, and location-based services. It acts as a PDA and a mobile phone. It's also Wi-Fi and 4G- enabled, So you can surf the Net whenever you want.

C – It's fantastic! What else can I do with it?

S -You can use your fingers when typing in since most smartphones have touch screens. Not only can they provide you with phone calls but also they can run a lot of applications. So you can find it useful in your studies and game playing.

C – It's wonderful. But can I use a physical keyboard?

S – Sure. Some smartphones do have physical keyboards. Would you like to buy one?

C – I wouldn't. Can I have a smartphone with touch screen, but use a peripheral device if I want to later?

S – Of course. Super Mob 360 is Bluetooth-enabled, so you can connect any peripheral device wirelessly.

C – 'Wow, that sounds great! I'd like to buy this smartphone please.

S – Great! I'll check on the system to see if we have it in stock. One second please. Yeah, we have it in stock. Go to a checkout. I'll bring it to you in a minute.

C – Thank you for your help.

S - You are welcome.

Additional Reading and Speaking.

26. Read and translate the text.

Location-based services

Location-based services (LBS) are a general class of computer program-level services that use location data to control features. As such LBS is an information service and has a number of uses in social networking today as an entertainment service, which is accessible with mobile devices through the mobile network and which uses information on the geographical position of the mobile device. This has become more and more important with the expansion of the smartphone and tablet markets as well.

LBS include services to identify a location of a person or object, such as discovering the nearest banking cash machine (a.k.a. ATM) or the whereabouts of a friend or employee. LBS include parcel tracking and vehicle tracking services. LBS can include mobile commerce when taking the form of coupons or advertising directed at customers based on their current location. They include personalized weather services and even location-based games. They are an example of telecommunication convergence.

LBS include applications that depend on the user location to provide a service/information that is relevant to the user at that location. LBS normally use mobile devices with positioning ability to provide the service or information to the user. LBS can be used for personal or professional purposes.

Several categories of methods can be used to find the location of the subscriber. The simple and standard solution is GPS-based LBS.  GPS is based on the concept of trilateration, a basic geometric principle that allows finding one location if one knows its distance from other, already known locations.

GSM localization is the second option. Finding the location of a mobile device in relation to its cell site is another way to find out the location of an object or a person. It relies on various means of multilateration of the signal from cell sites serving a mobile phone. The geographical position of the device is found out through various techniques like time difference of arrival (TDOA) or Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD).

Many other Local Positioning Systems are available, especially for indoor use. GPS and GSM do not work very well indoors, so other techniques are used, including Co-Pilot Beacon for CDMA Networks, Bluetooth, UWB, RFID and Wi-Fi.

Some examples of location-based services are:

  • Recommending social events in a city;

  • Requesting the nearest business or service, such as an ATM, restaurant or a retail store;

  • Turn by turn navigation to any address;

  • Assistive Healthcare Systems;

  • Locating people on a map displayed on the mobile phone

  • Receiving alerts, such as notification of a sale on gas or warning of a traffic jam;

  • Location-based mobile advertising;

  • Asset recovery combined with active RF to find, for example, stolen assets in containers where GPS would not work;

  • Сontextualizing learning and research;

  • Games where your location is part of the game play, for example your movements during your day make your avatar move in the game or your position unlocks content;

  • Real-time Q&A revolving around restaurants, services, and other venues.

27. Give a short summary of the text above.

28. What kind of LBS are useful for…

- drivers?

- gamers?

- tourists?

- ordinary people?

UNIT 3

NETWORKING

1. Read the text about the concept of Global Network Infrastructure.

A global network is any communication network which spans the entire Earth, and global span was achieved in 1899. The telephony network was the second to achieve global status, in the 1950s. More recently, interconnected IP networks (principally the Internet, with estimated 2.5 billion users worldwide in 2014), and the GSM mobile communication network (with over 6 billion worldwide users in 2014) form the largest global networks of all.

Setting up global networks requires immense, costly and lengthy efforts lasting for decades. Elaborate interconnections, switching and routing devices, laying out physical carriers of information, such as land and submarine cables and earth stations must be set in operation. In addition, international communication protocols, legislation and agreements are involved.

  1. Answer the questions.

1. How many global networks exist nowadays?

2. Which of the established networks is nearly out of use, and why?

3. Which of the global networks is the most used one?

4. What steps are necessary to set up a global network?

5. Why does it take decades to set up a global network?

  1. What specialists are involved in establishing a global network? Tell in brief about their tasks. Use the following forms.

To set up a global network … are needed. Their task is … .

… are involved in establishing a global network. They are responsible for … .

  1. Here are the words and word combinations you have to learn.

Adhere, address space, circuit-switched telephone network, core network, implement, implementation, intermediate node, land cables, link, message switching, microwave transmission link, node, packet switching, private branch exchange (PBX),public switched telephone network(PSTN), publictelephone operators(PTO), terminal node, span, submarine cables, switch, switching and routing devices, telephone exchange, transmission link, virtual network operator (VNO).

  1. Read and translate the text.

Telecommunications network structure

A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes, links and any intermediate nodes which are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals. The transmission links connect the nodes together. The nodes use circuit switching, message switching or packet switching to pass the signal through the correct links and nodes to reach the correct destination terminal.

Each terminal in the network usually has a unique address, so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space.

Examples of telecommunications networks are:

computer networks

the Internet

the telephone network

the global Telex network

telephone network is a telecommunications network used for telephone calls between two or more parties. There are a number of different types of telephone network:

  • A landline network where the telephones must be directly wired into a single telephone exchange. This is known as thepublic switched telephone networkor PSTN.

  • A wireless network where the telephones are mobileand can move around anywhere within thecoverage area.

  • A private network where a closed group of telephones are connected primarily to each other and use a gateway to reach the outside world. This is usually used inside companies and call centers and is called a private branch exchange (PBX).

Public telephone operators(PTOs) own and build networks of the first two types and provide services to the public under license from the national government.Virtual Network Operators(VNOs) lease capacity wholesale from the PTOs and sell ontelephonyservice to the public directly.

The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication. The PSTN consists of telephone lines, fiber optic cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone cables, all interconnected by switching centers, thus allowing any telephone in the world to communicate with any other. Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core network and includes mobile and other networks, as well as fixed telephones.

The technical operation of the PSTN adheres to the standards created by the ITU-T. These standards allow different networks in different countries to interconnect seamlessly. The E.163 and E.164 standards provide a single global address space for telephone numbers. The combination of the interconnected networks and the single numbering plan make it possible for any phone in the world to dial any other phone.

wireless network is any type of computer network that uses wireless data connections for connecting network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and enterprise (business) installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using radio communication. This implementation takes place at the physical level (layer) of the OSI model network structure. Examples of wireless networks include cell phone networks, Wi-Fi local networks and terrestrial microwave networks.

cellular network or mobile network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as acell siteorbase station. In a cellular network, each cell characteristically uses a different set of radio frequencies from all their immediate neighboring cells to avoid any interference.

When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission.

Although originally intended for cell phones, with the development of smartphones,cellular telephone networksroutinely carry data in addition to telephone conversations.

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM): The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system. The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones.

  1. True, false or no information.

1.Telecommunications network nodes are connected via transmission links.

2. A public switched telephone networkor PSTN is a radio network distributed over land areas.

3. A cellular network consists of telephone lines, fiber optic cables and undersea telephone cables.

4. The first global network was established using electrical telegraphy.

5. The GSM mobile communication network is used by over 6 billion people worldwide.

6. In a mobile network a large number of portable phones communicate with each other via base stations.

7. The PSTN includes now different networks.

7. Answer the questions.

1. What nodes does a telecommunication network consist of?

2. What switching do these nodes use?

3. What examples of telecommunications networks do you know?

4. How many types of telephone networks are mentioned in the text?

5. Who owns and builds landline network sand wireless networks?

6. How many systems is the GSM network divided in?

7. What standards allow different networks in different countries to interconnect?

8. What is a PBX?

9. What is the difference between PTOs and VNOs?

  1. Continue the sentence.

1. A private network is…

a. a radio network distributed over land areas called cells.

b. usually used inside companies and call centers.

c. operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators.

2. Each terminal in the network has …

a. examples of telecommunications networks.

b. a different set of radio frequencies from all their immediate neighboring cells to avoid any interference.

c. a unique address, so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients.

3. GSM is the most common …

a. standard used for a majority of cell phones.

b. type of computer network that uses wireless data connections.

c. combination of the interconnected networks and the single numbering plan.

4. Wireless networking is a method …

a. to avoid any interference.

b. to avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building.

c. to communicate with each other moving through more than one cell during transmission.

  1. Match the words (1-6) with the definitions (A-G). Translate.

1. LAN. 2. PBX. 3. Wi-Fi 4. GPS. 5. PSTN. 6. GSM.

  1. Public Switched Telephone Network. A country`s telephone network.

  2. Private Branch Exchange. A telephone system bought and used by a company in their office.

  3. A network which covers a small physical area, for example one building.

  4. A system which uses radio signals to allow a broadband connection to the Internet.

  5. A system which allows receiver to identify its position anywhere on earth.

G. A worldwide standard for mobile phones making phones from one operator compatible with a different operator in another country.

  1. Make up a sentence using the words and phrases.

1. Decades, it, to set up, a global, takes, network. 2. In the network, called, is, the address space, the collection of addresses. 3. A huge, there, of different types, are, amount, of telephone networks. 4. For any phone in the world, it, possible, to dial any other phone, the combination of the interconnected networks, makes. 5. A lot of different tasks, perform, displaying e-books, can, many LCD e-readers, in addition to.

  1. Find English equivalents.

Физические носители информации, требовать огромных усилий, установить глобальную сеть, достигнуть терминала, внутри зоны охвата, различный набор частот, использовать беспроводные информационные соединения, большинство сотовых телефонов, избегать помех, наземные телефонные сети, сложные телекоммуникационные узлы связи, общаться через базовые станции.

  1. Translate into English. Use the construction „infinitive as attribute”.

Глобальная сеть, которую нужно установить; носители информации, которые будут использоваться; подводные кабели, которые следует изготовить; узел терминала, который будет заменен; помехи, которые необходимо устранить; уровень помех, который нужно достигнуть; беспроводные телефонные соединения, которые требуется обновить; качество сотовых телефонов, которое будет улучшаться; радио частоты, подлежащие изменению; зоны охвата, которые будут увеличены.

  1. Translate into English.

1. Два дня тому назад мы посетили фирму, которая устанавливает наземные телекоммуникационные сети. 2. Cуществуют различные виды телекоммуникационных сетей.3. Нам показали оптоволоконные кабели, которые доходят до помещений клиентов. 4. Что качается меня, я предпочитаю использовать беспроводные сотовые телефоны. 5. Зона охвата этих устройств достаточно велика. 6. Кроме того, качество связи постоянно улучшается. 7. Cмоей точки зрения, самое лучшее качество предоставляет спутниковая связь.8. Использование этого вида связи позволяет нам

избежать помех. 9. В общем и целом следует внедрять все доступные телекоммуникационные технологии. 10. Мы должны также учитывать стоимость устройств, которые будут использоваться в области телекоммуникаций.

  1. Give synonyms.

To span, collection, a set of laws, to establish, interference, storage, via, bugs, field of developing, to consist of, to exist, the costly process, to realize, to use, to join.

  1. Translate into Russian. Explain the sequence of tenses.

1. They were informed yesterday that the company had paid all the accounts promptly. 2. The secretary said that she had prepared all the documents. 3. He informed the customers that their firm had ordered new equipment. 4. The sellers stated in their offer that orders were executed within six weeks. 5. The buyers stated in their enquiry that they had been cooperating with the firm since 2012. 6. The importers informed the suppliers that they wanted to know when delivery would be made, as the computers were urgently required.

  1. Choose the correct voice. Translate.

1. Currently information technology (is impacting/is impacted) all walks of life all over the world. 2. Computerized databases are extensively (using/used) to store all sorts of confidential data of political, social, economic or personal nature to support human activities and bringing various benefits to the society. 3. However, the rapid development of information technology globally also (has led/has been leading) to the growth of new forms of national and transnational crimes. 4. These crimes (having/have) no boundaries and may (affect/affecting) any country across the globe. 5. The new boundaries, which (manifest/are manifested) in the monitor screen, passwords etc. have (created/been created) new personalities, groups, organizations, and other new forms of social, economic, and political groupings in the cyber world of bits.

  1. Translate the following words into Russian. Say how they were formed.

Security-card-operated, day-to-day, word-processor, office-worker, risk-taking, ´export - ex´port, ´import – im´port, readable, installation, beautiful, helpless, disabled, misunderstand, understandable, briefly, impossible, aviator, amplify, amplifier, amplification.

Exercises to develop speaking skills.

  1. Compare different kinds of networks. Use the following phrases.

Contrast (сопоставление)

Comparison (сравнение)

  • However

  • Although/even though

  • Though

  • But

  • Despite/in spite of (несмотря на)

  • While

  • Whereas

  • On the one hand...

  • On the other hand…

  • Similarly

  • Likewise

  • UnlikeY, … (В отличие от...., ..)

  • On the contrary

  • Vice versa

  • X is better than Y

  • The best device is X

  • Also

  • Just as

  • Just like

  • Similar to

  • Same as

  • Not only... but also....

19. Learn the following dialogue between a global network provider and an employee.

- Hi how can I help you?

- You know my boss gave me a new task to set up a network. So I would like to know how I can do this. Can you explain it to me please?

- Sure. First you need to know that it requires a lot of efforts. Are you prepared for this?

- Of course. My job is important to me. So I will give it a try then.

- OK. The next thing to know is what global network is.

- What is it?

- It includes IP networks and the GSM network, mobile communication networks.

- As I understand, this knowledge helps me decide what equipment I need to set up a network. Am I right?

- Exactly! You need to purchase switching and routing devices.

- Are they costly?

- They might be. Check it up in various stores and compare prices.

- I can do this.

- Then make an agreement with the telecommunications company.

- Will the telecoms provider be able to recommend switching and cabling devices to me?

- It seems to me it may. But I would advise you to check them up yourself so as to get prepared for the meeting with this company more efficiently.

- Thanks a lot.

20. Learn the following dialogue between a trainee and employer.

- Hi, how can I help you?

- I have just been accepted to the company as a trainee. But I have some questions to ask about networks.

- Fire away!

- Can you explain what the difference between wireless and cellular networks is?

- Sure. A wireless network uses wireless data connections for connecting network nodes whereas a cellular network uses radio frequencies from neighboring cells.

- Oh I see. How is a wireless network managed?

- Radio communication helps it to be implemented and administered.

- I see. Can you give examples of a wireless network please?

- Of course. It includes cell phone networks, Wife local networks or terrestrial microwave networks.

- What about a mobile network? I did not quite understand what it is.

- Well, There are several interconnected cells that provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. Base stations serve each cell. These base stations and cells help mobile phones transmit data and telephone conversations between each other and to fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network.

- So if I am moving between cells when talking to a friend in Germany, a certain base station in a certain cell picks up a signal and makes our call possible. Right?

- Exactly!

- Thanks a lot for your help.

- You are welcome!

21. Learn the following dialogue between a customer and a sales assistant.

- Hi, can I help you?

- Sure, I would like to purchase a cell phone but I have no idea what certain characteristics (features) mean. Can you explain some to me please?

- Fire away!

- What is the GSM network exactly?

- It is the most common standard that is used for cell phones.

- I see. What does it stand for?

- It stands for Global System for Mobile Communications.

- I see. What does it include?

- Well, it consists of the switching system, the base station system and the operation and support system.

- How is a call made via this network?

- Well, the base station picks up a signal from your cell phone and then sends it to the operation and support station which in turn sends it to the switching station. The switching station then transmits your call to its destination.

- So the switching station is like a connecting unit between my cell phone and the base station then?

- Sure.

- I see. Thanks a lot.

- You are welcome!

22. Work in pairs.

Student A. Explain to your partner how telecommunication between terminals operates with the help of the text provided.

Student B. Listen to Student A and then explain how the switched telephone network (PSTN) operates with the help of the text provided.

23. Work in pairs.

Group/Pair A: list all the advantages of networks.

Group/Pair B: list all the disadvantages of networks.

Then consider how the disadvantages can be minimized.

Additional Reading and Speaking.

24. Read and translate the text.