Word formation словообразование

In English there are many word beginnings (prefixes) and word endings (suffixes) that can be added to a word to change its meaning or its word class. The most common ones are shown here, with examples of how they are used in the process of word formation. Many more are listed in the dictionary.

Verb formation (образование глаголов)

The endings -izeand-ifycan be added to many nouns and adjectives to form verbs, like this:

Прилаг-е/ cущ. +-ize, -ify = глагол

ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ

-ize

ГЛАГОЛ

American

legal

modern

popular

ize

Americanize

legalize

modernize

popularize

Ex.They want to make the factorymore modern. They wantto modernize the factory.

СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ/

ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ

-fy

ГЛАГОЛ

beauty

liquid

pure

simple

-fy

beautify

liquefy

purify

simplify


These tablets make the water pure. Theypurify the water.

Adverb formation (образование наречий)

The ending -lycan be added to most adjectives to form adverbs, like this:

Прилаг-е +-ly = наречие

ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ

-ly

НАРЕЧИЕ

easy

main

quick

stupid

-ly

easily

mainly

quickly

stupidly


His behaviour was stupid. He behavedstupidly.

Noun formation (образование существительных)

The endings -er,-ment, -ationcan be added to many verbs to form nouns.

глагол+-er,-ment, –ation = существительное

ГЛАГОЛ

-er, ment, ation

СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ

drive

fasten

open

teach

-er

driver

fastener

opener

teacher

develop

pay

retire

ment

development

payment

retirement

admire

associate

examine

organize

-ation

admiration

association

examination

organization


John drives a bus. He is a bus driver.

Children develop very quickly. Their development is very quick.

The doctor examined me carefully. He gave me a careful examination.

The endings -ity and -ness can be added to many adjectives to form nouns, like this:

Прилагательное + -ity, -ness = cуществительное

ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ

-ity,-ness

СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ

cruel

odd

pure

stupid

-(i)ty

-ty

cruelty

oddity

purity

stupidity

dark

deaf

happy

kind

ness

darkness

deafness

happiness

kindness


Don’t be so cruel.

I hate cruelty.

It was very dark. Thedarknessmade it impossible to see.

Adjective formation (образование прилагательных)

The endings -y, -ic, -ical, -ful, -lesscan be added to many nouns to form adjectives.

Cуществительное + -y, -ic, -ical, -ful, -less = прилагательное

This book contains exercises on grammar. It contains grammatical exercises.

His broken leg caused him a lot of pain. It was very painful.

The operation didn't cause her any pain. It was painless.

СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ

-y, -ic, -ical,

-ful,

-less

ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ

bush

dirt

hair

smell

-y

bushy

dirty

hairy

smelly

atom

biology

grammar

poetry

-ic, -ical

atomic

biological

grammatical

poetic

pain

hope

care

-ful

painful

hopeful

careful

pain

hope

care

-less

painless

hopeless

careless


The ending -ablecan be added to many verbs to form adjectives.

Глагол + -able = прилагательное

ГЛАГОЛ

-able

ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ

wash

love

debate

break

-able

w

You can wash this coat. It's washable.

ashable

lovable

debatable

breakable

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