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Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Pulmonary Tuberculosis is caused by infection of the lungs with the tubercle bacillus. Pulmonary lesions are due almost entirely to the human form of the tubercle bacillus, as distinct from the bovine type, which is mainly responsible for glandular and bovine tuberculosis. The bacilli lodge in the lungs and set up a chronic inflammation of a specific type. They produce areas of infiltration which have a characteristic tubercle formation; hence the name for the organism.

Task 7

In the text in Task 6 there are also some cause effect relationships which are not clearly marked by cause effect expressions. Find these relationships and rewrite the sentences which contain them so that the cause and effect are clearly marked.

Cause and effect are obviously closely related. The following sentences contain the same expression, yet one focuses on cause while the other focuses on effect.

1. Because of his depression, he overate. 2. He overate because of his depression.

(effect of) (cause) (cause of) (effect)

When you write about cause effect, you can decide for yourself whether the cause or the effect is most important to you, and that is what you will focus on. There are many ways of expressing causal relations in English. The simplest way of showing cause is:

because + clause (contains verb).

e.g. The war started bepause the economic situation was desperate.

because of / on account of + phrase (no verb)

e.g. The war started because of / on account of the desperate economic situation.

In speech because is the most common way of expressing causal relationships. However, writers use a wide variety of expressions for these relationships.

Task 8

Hospitals have to be particularly careful to avoid accidents of all kinds, and fire is a very serious danger in hospitals. The following text explains some ways in which fires in operating theatres can be avoided. Read the text, paying special attention to expressions showing cause effect relationships, then work with a partner to answer (a) and (b) below.

Industrial and Medical Hazards of Static Electricity

Although static electricity is of practical importance nowadays in only a few specialized applications, it can produce hazards in industry and in hospitals. If the charge built up to any great proportions, it would spark over to an uncharged conductor, and might set alight flammable materials in the process. A very dry atmosphere will help the build-up of charge and this is one of the reasons why a reasonably high relative humidity of around 65% should be maintained throughout any factory and hospital. In oper­ating theatres the rubbing of overshoes on a composition floor or of gowns against a plastic table top can cause large charges to accumulate. Sparking here could cause the ignition of some of the volatile gases used in operational procedures, which would have serious results. The presence of an electric field may also cause the malfunction of delicate apparatus. The floors of an operating theatre should always be metallic, and there should be conducting paths from the top of the operating table to the floor. Casters on instrument tables must have conducting rubber tyres.

  1. Underline the expressions which show cause effect relationships. Clearly label each cause (C) and effect (E).

  2. Indicate the degree of certainty which the writer gives to these relationships, i.e. are the effects certain/probable/possible?

Task 9

Refer to the diagram to complete the following text about the erosion of the land caused by rivers and glaciers. You can make changes in the grammar of the text to express cause effect as you wish, but the facts must be correct.

When rain falls on mountains, it collects in depressions in the rock. The extreme cold ………………….. the ice to freeze and glaciers to form. The ice melts and freezes again ……………… changes in temperature. Erosion of the rock of the mountain depression occurs ……………… the continual melting and refreezing, and is ……………….. the action of wind moving the water. Eventually, the water wears away the rock enough ……………. a small stream which carries deposits of soil and rock which …………………….. further erosion, gradually enlarging the stream bed. The weather, too, acts on rocks and soil, to split, break and wear away. The stream grows larger until eventually it reaches the old age stage. The silt from the river is deposited into the sea, ……………… sandbars, spits and promontories.




beginning of stream

stream reaches sea


A Choose a scientific or sociological concept which involves at least one cause effect relationship, and investigate it to be sure you understand it clearly. Then write a text in which you describe this concept and make the causal relationship(s) clear. Write for an intelligent adult who is not familiar with this concept. Be sure to follow the honesty principle as well as the clarity reality and relevance principles. Although your text is intended to be tactual and informative, you should try to make it interesting too. Remember particularly to use a variety of sentence types; to provide clear topic sentences and to support any generalizations you make.

B Does viewing violence on television lead to a more violent society?

  1. Discuss this question with one or two other students, taking into account the views which follow.

  2. Use the discussion to help you plan and write an answer to the question, focusing in particular on possible causes and effects. Be careful to observe the honesty principle, since you will have to take into account more/than one point of view about this question.

Watching violence on television is beneficial and helps decrease violent behaviour because viewers get rid of some of their own aggressive impulses through viewing and thereby reduce the likelihood that they will perform aggressive acts.

Violence on television is different from real violence in that it is heavily ritualised. We know, as we approve of the death of the villain under a hail of police bullets, that we would not approve in the same way if a real-life villain were shot in front of us in real life.

A number of cases have been reported of young children or teenagers duplicating a violent act previously seen on television. In fact, in one instance, the parents of a victim took legal action against a TV network, claiming that a programme shown during the hours when chil­dren were watching was responsible for a brutal attack on their 9 year old daughter. The three youngsters responsible admitted that they had copied the method of assault shown on the programme.

I have read about studies which indicate that exposure to violence in the context of a TV drama decreases emotional responsiveness to real-life aggression in news films in both children and adults.

Looking back

Now that you have finished this unit you should be familiar with cause effect structures in text and with expressions which make different levels of claim about certainty. You should be able to produce texts which identify and express cause and effect accurately and clearly, using suitable expressions of certainty, and of cause effect.

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