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10.I-MUTATION is an important type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted, and/or a front vowel is raised, if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/.The term is usually taken to processes in the early Germanic languages. i-mutation is particularly important because it was productive in the prehistory of the Germanic languages and led to many alternations that are visible in the morphology of these languages, due to the prevalence of inflectional suffixes containing an /i/ or /j/.I-mutation affects vowels as follows: æ-e, e-i, a-æ, o-e, ō-ē, u-y, ea-ie, ēo-īe

29.GRIMM’S LAW Several main processes occurred to separate the Germanic language family from the rest of the Indo-European languages. The most famous of these is undoubtedly the set of sound-changes known collectively as "Grimm’s law", after the famous German linguist Jacob Grimm. the effects of Grimm’s law can frequently be seen in pairs of modern English words which have different histories, but which can be traced back to the same Proto-Indo-European ancestor. Thus, an "English" word like ‘foot’ is related to a "Latin" word like ‘pedal’ through Grimm’s law Specifically, Grimm’s law affected the PIE (Proto-Indo-European) stops according to the following scheme: 1. IE voiceless plosives [p,t,k,] correspond to Germanic voiceless fricatives [f,o,h]

So p-f пять-five, t-o три-three, k-h (lat) cardia-heart

2. IE voiced plosives [b,d,g] changes into Germanic voiceless plosives [ p,t,k,]

So b-p яблоко-apple , d-t два-two , g-k (lat) ego-ic(old Eng)

3.IE aspirated plosives [bh,dh,gh] correspond to Germanic voiced plosives without

aspiration

So bh-b bhrator-brother(oe), dh-d madhu-medu(old E), gh-g ghosti-gasts(Gothic).

1st consonant shift or Grimm’s law 1822 deals with plosives –plosivess or voiceless stop underwent changes in Germ. Lang.

18. STRONG VERB They were divided depending on the type of vowel change.For ex:1-i-a-i-i(writan-wratan-writon-writen);2-io-ea-u-o(ciosan-ceas-curon-coren).In late ME a very significant change took place:the 2 different root vowels in the past singular feet away together into one,because sing.Was used more often+process of anology with weak verbs.The best preserved classes in ModEngl are to rise,to ride,to shine;3a to drink,to speak,to sing;6 to take,to shake.Some of the strong verbs transformed into weak verbs(help-helped)

1)past tense is formed by changing a root stressed vowel(rIsan-rAs),2)PII used with the help of suff. –enaccompaining with root vowel interchange(takan-taken,bEran-boren).3)IE type 4)root-words non-derivatives 5)non-productive 6) ¼ of all number=300 7)in all germ. Lang.-7 classes

19.WEAK VERBS Class 2 deserves our special attencion(lician-licode-licod(like)).The significant element-o-preceeding the dental suffixes -d&-t in the past and participle 2.The further development of non-root part of the verbs was from the –ode to the –d/t,the vowel –e supposingly comes from thet origin form.Number of irregular verbs grow in number.

1)past tense is with the help of dental suffix –d,-t(lIcian-lIcode)2)PII used with the help dental suffix (cEpan-cEpt)3)German type 4) derivatives from nouns,adj., strong verbs. 5) productive 6) ¾ of all number=900 7)in OE-3classes,Gothic-4 classes of 3 classes class 2 is worth special attention.

37.THE RISE OF FUTURE FORMS

In OE there was no form of the future tense.

The analitical form of future developed on the basis of free syntactic combination: pret-pres—scullan= to be due+inf.< anomal—willan=to wish.Isolated examples of both combinations used to express future without any modal meaning attached to them and c.b. observed in OE. In ME such instances were more common, esp. With shall+inf. Which makes possible to regard as a new and 1 form for the future. In 14-15 cent.WILL increases its frequency, in Earle New Eng. Becomes another auxilary for the future. Rule for the differentiation shall, wil depends on a person introduce in 17 cent. By John Walls. Form ‘ll appeared in 17 cent.commonly in 3rd person.

16.VOCOBULARY SYST. NE

Both quantative&qualitive.

15 CENT.-Eur.-Renaissance, Eng. Involved.Latin –internat. Lang. Of new science. All new features of R. Life had far-reaching influence on Eng. Lang. American Indian gave Eng. Mainly terms of music,arts.Wide use of Latin – a number of words borrowed from classical lang-s. Italian words belong mainly to sphere of art: violin,balcony,motto. Spanish-diff. Spheres of meaning:armada, desperado,tornado. Latin-- : more numerals borrowed; verbs in –ate: aggravate, frustrate, narrate.: -ute: attribute,pollute.;Adj: -ant/ent:arrogant,occident.:-ior: superior, inferior. Greek words-terms of science, polit, life.—international words.:aristocracy, democracy.Borrrowings from colonial lang.,French:North American: potato,tobacco,colibri.: South: puma,guano. French loan denotes things and notional typical of feudal culture: ball< ballet. Stress often remains on the last syll. As in Fr.: intrigue,serenade. 18-20 cent.:Germ-kindergarten; Persian-caravan;Artificial Greek: telegraph. Russian: samovar, tsar. International words:from Latin, Greek.:geometry,zoology.

7. WORD ORDER OE

Any part of the sentence could occupy any place in it.Towards the end of the OE period,we can observe a fixing word order with preference for the subject to be placed at the head of simple sentence&main clauses.The most common word order in late OE were S-P-O(subject,predicate,object).SPO-non-dependent clauses(And heo sealed him pone mete-And she sold him that food);SOP-occurred when the object was pronoun or independent clause(Ic pe secre-I to you say);PSO-occurred chiefly in questions.

21. RISE OF PERFECT FORMS

Developed from free syntactic combinations habban+ pat.2 agree in number & case nominative.Part.2 lost its inflections & position became fixed. The auxileries

lost their lexical meaning & became empty words.The verb –to be stopped to be used for perfect meaning.The evolution of the verbs shows the same tendencies as of the noun: gradual greater regularity & simplification.The English verb system has become more complex,both formally & functionally.3 new gramatic categories came into existence: voice,aspect & order.

5.POSITION OF ENG,ROLE

English has now inarguably achieved global status. Whenever we turn on the news to find out what's happening in East Asia, or the Balkans, or Africa, or South America, or practically anywhere, local people are being interviewed and telling us about it in English.English is used in over 90 countries as an official or semi-official language. English is the working language of the Asian trade group ASEAN. It is the de facto working language of 98 percent of international research physicists and research chemists. It is the official language of the European Central Bank, even though the bank is in Frankfurt and neither Britain nor any other predominantly English-speaking country is a member of the European Monetary Union. It is the language in which Indian parents and black parents in South Africa overwhelmingly wish their children to be educated. It is believed that over one billion people worldwide are currently learning English. English around the world has been the extent to which Europeans are adopting it as their internal lingua franca. English is spreading from northern Europe to the south and is now firmly entrenched as a second language in countries such as Sweden, Norway, Netherlands and Denmark.

English has without a doubt become the global language

30.Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s and *x, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became respectively voiced *b, *d, *z and *g.

The later hist. Of voiced fricatives : Z becomes R in western Germ. And Northern Germ. Lang.-RHOTACISM :was vs were (from Germanic *was vs *wēzun)

17. OE VERB The OE verb,like the noun&adj-e,was highly changeable part of speech&all its grammatical categories were expressed with the help of inflexions.

was a highly inflected part of speech,all forms were expressed with help of inflections.4 gram. Cetegories with finit forms:1)tense-present,past,2)mood-indicstive,subjunctive,imperative)3)person-1,2,3 4)number-sing,pl. OE verb had no analitical forms-all syntectical. 4 morfological types of verb:1)strong=300 verbs-modern irregular, 2)weak=900-regular, 3)preterite-present=12v.-modal qualities of 1),2), 4)anomalous-be,will,go,do

23. OE VOCABULARY is mainly homogeneous.Loan-words are insignificant part of it. Among native words-1) common Indo-European words:substantives –mOdor=moher, nama=name,niht=night.;adjectives: neowe=new, riht=right.; verbs; sittan=sit, beren=bear. 2)common Germanic words: subst.: heall=hall, earm=arm.: adj.: earm=poor,;verbs: findan=find,steorfan=die. 3)specifically Eng.words.,not found in other lang.-very few: clipian=call.

32.CHAUCER “CANTERBURY TALES”

14th cent. the age of Chaucer.The son of london wine merchant.Obtained a fairy complete medieval education, but no evidence of Oxford, Cambridge. In youth-one of the servants in the family of Lionel. 1367-a valet in the Royal Houshold---didlomatic messenger to king. Was abroad.(?1340-1400). Early works- of feudal lit. Esp the French. Cant. Tales-greatest work. Unfinished.-a prologue,24 stories, all but 2 are in verse. About tales- he managed to give a most vivid picture of contemporary England: a gallery of life – like portraits taken from all walks of life. Knights, doctors, monk, sailor,The stories are told by people of diff.degrees, very skillfully painted.Of similar character are the breaks which link some stories together. Not known when each part was written. But combination into a whole- the later period of his life. Used his native dialect- contemporary London English. In rhymes nore e-formes than is characteristic of London type in general.

1.OLD GERM LANGUAGES. subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by about 470 million people in many parts of the world:Germ.: Germany,Austria, Dutch: Holland,the Hague.Eng-GB,Can, NZ, S.Afr, Ind,Austr. According to dialectical differences-North-, West-, East-Germanic.. 1st, 2nd groups survived. The East Germanic group, to which such dead languages as Burgundian, Gothic, and Vandalic belong, is now extinct. However, the oldest surviving literary text of any Germanic language is in Gothic. The North Germanic languages, also called Scandinavian languages or Norse, include Danish, Faeroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish. The West Germanic languages are English, Frisian, Dutch, Afrikaans, German, and Yiddish. According to Pleny- Germ tribes existed of 5 groups:east-Vindily(ghots, burgundians) West-Ingaevons(North sea, netherlands),Istaevons(river Rhine), Herminons(South) North-hilleviones-Scand. Terr. Main features: Phonet.:Stress: whereby the stress usually falls on the first or root syllable of a word. 1 cent-free, tonic, Germ lang – fixed, dynamic. Vowel syst: short vow. Tend to become more open, long-more close.—were neither short[o], long [A]. Consonants: 1st cons shift deals with plosives.According to Grimm's law, certain consonant sounds found in the ancient Indo-European languages underwent a change in the Germanic tongue, the sounds p, t, and k in the former became f, Q,h, ; b, d. G—p, t, k; bh, gh, dh—b, d, g.respectively in the latter, as in Latin pater, English father. Before the 8th cent. a second shift of consonants took place in some of the West German dialects. For instance, under certain circumstances, d became t, and t became ss or z.Grammar: irregular verbs: bind-bound/ binden-band(germ). All Germanic languages have strong and weak verbs; that is, they form the past tense and past participle either by changing the root vowel in the case of strong verbs (as in English lie, lay, lain or ring, rang, rung; German ringen, rang, gerungen) or by adding as an ending -d (or -t) or -ed in the case of weak verbs (as in English care, cared, cared or look, looked, looked; German fragen, fragte, gefragt). 2 forms of declining of adj.: strong(preceeding adj. Includes demonstrstive pronoun that developed later on the definite article), strong. Lexical : words with no cognates outside Nouns: land, cow, sea, wife. Pronouns- all, each. Adj.: dead, broad, soft. Verbs: dpink, live, sing, drive.

20. PRETERITE-PRESENT VERBS OE

It were past-present verbs.In OE there were 12 such verbs,6 of them survived in ModEngl(owe,ought,can,dare,shall,may,must).Most the preterite verbs didn’t indicate actions,but express a kind of attitude to an action denoted by another verb.Also used like a modal verb&eventually developed into modern modal verbs.Originally the present tense forms were past forms.Later this forms acquired a present meaning,but preserved many formal feature of the past tense.

40. NEGATION

In OE “ne” obviously inherited from IE which usually preceded the verb.Ne is often fused with the verbs:beon,wesan,habban,witan,willan(nis=ne+is)

Multiple negation was perfectly normal in OE. Fushion sometimes took place with other parts of speech. “ Ne”

was strengthened by means of other words: naht-ne +ah +wiht (no one thing).In MidE developed into the negation “not” which was still is placed after the verb.(OE-ne+verb;ME=verb+not)

Gradually “ne” fell out of usage.

4.ENGLISH SPEAKING WORLD.VARIETIES English is a Germanic Langua.It is estimated that there are 300 million native speakers and 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language. It is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status. English plays a part in the cultural, political or economic life of the following countriesAustralia Bahamas Bermuda Canada Ghana Ireland Jamaica Kenya Malta New Zealand Nigeria PakistanSouth Africa United Kingdom and its dependences United States of America and its dependencies Zimbabwe. 18C- India,7 years’ war-Canada, Australia,NZ, Oceania-colonized.Beg 20c-South Africa.Local paculiarities depending on condotions of countries and populations. Hybrid lang-dialects in Pacific area and Africa.-local structure,Eng. Vocabulary. Pidgin Eng,Kroo Eng.

13.Adjectives Had the double system of declinations .Most adjectives can be declined strong or weak. Whether the strong or weak form is used is not governed by the noun with which it is used. Instead, it is governed by how the adjective is used. There are three ways in which an adjective may be used: it may stand alone -- for example "The man is old",it may qualify a noun -- for example "The old man",it may follow a demonstrative or possessive pronoun -- for example "My old friend" or "that old man".In the first two cases, the strong form of the adjective is used. Only in the last case, when the adjective follows a pronoun, is the weak form used. - weak adjectives are used with demonstratives.  eg. se swifta hund (the swift dog) Since weak adjectives are very similar to weak nouns. Like nouns, adjectives also have a gender. The gender used for an adjective must agree (be the same as) the gender of the noun being qualified.

Singular Plural

SINGULAR Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders

NOMINATIVE -a -e -e -an

ACCUSATIVE -an -an -e -an

GENITIVE -an -an -an -ra, -ena

DATIVE -an -an -an -um

Returning now to strong adjectives. - strong adjectives are used alone.  eg. swifte hundas (swift dogs).

SINGULAR Masculine a- Neuter a- Feminine o-

NOMINATIVE til til tilu

ACCUSATIVE tilne til tile

GENITIVE tiles tiles tilre

DATIVE tilum tilum tilre

PLURAL

NOMINATIVE tile tilu tile, -a

ACCUSATIVE tile tilu tile, -a

GENITIVE tilra tilra tilra

DATIVE tilum tilum tilum

9.OE CONSONANTS

All the con-s were subdivided into plosive&fricative.The most universal distinctive feature in the con-t system was the difference in length.Long con-s are believed to have been opposed to short ones on a phonetic level,they were mostly distinguished in intervocal position.

OE- no +affricats, sibilats,only ss/z.Wesst Germ lang.- 1st most consonants lenghtened after short vowel before j.-process- Wesr-Germ. Doublingof cons.- Germination.: fuljan—fullan, bedd,mann. Long cons. Disapear in ME, phonemic opposition through quantaty lost. Cons. More stable than vow. Sonorants m, n, l:; plosives p, b, t, d; +k, g. In most positions have not been subjected to any noticable changes. OE – no sibilats like ш,ж , no affricats like ч, дж. All but ж developed on boundary of OE+ME.Ж – French. : k’ – ts –cild=child.: d’—dз-ecge{gg}=edge; sk’—S:fisk=fish. In borrowings – stress on final syll, but phonetic tendencies-- closer to beginning—changes due to receprical assimilation.Oe- pairs of frikatives f-v, s-z,th were treated as positional variants of allophonems.In intervocal position they appeared as voiced fricatives. ME-allophonemes become independent phonemes.:ris[s}-risan[z]. Sounds x, x’ were not vocalized until ME- turn into i, u: lenghten the preceiding vowel:nicht-ni:t-night. In final pos. x=f:rough{x=f} . j,r underwent positional changes, were vocalized finaly and before cons., but continue to be used initially: yeer[je:r]+year[jэ:].16 cent [э] appears-connected with changes of vow. Before r, vocalization of r: i+r, u+r/ o+r, e+r.

24. WORD-FORMATION IN OE.

OE words fell into 3 types:

1.simple words (root words) with simple stem-land, good;

2.words with 1 root- morpheme & 1 or more affixes – meeting;

3.compound words, whose stems were made up of more than 1 root morpheme.

OE vocabulary develops in 2 ways:1) forming new words fron elements existing in lang.,2)words from other lang. 1st is much more important in OE. Word-building types:1)creating new words by means of morphological elements;.2)building new words from syntactical groups.; 3)by using new words in new meaninf. Morphological word-building is subdivided into affixation,composition. Substantive suffixes:-ere, -estre,-en, -nis,-nes,-dom,-lAc, -hAd,-scipe. Adjective suff:-ede, -ihte,-en,-sum,-full. Verb suffixes: -s,-ett. Prefixes:A-, be-,for-, mis-,of-, on-,to-,wan-. Composition: substantives,adj.,verbs.Compound substantives:1) subst+subst :эefentId=evening time: 2) adj+subst: cwicseolfor=quicksilver. Compound adjectives:1)subst+adj: wIn-sэed= satiated with me;2)adj+adj: widely known; 3)adj+subst:glad-minded.

38. AGREEMENT AND GOVERNMENT

OE was a synthetic or inflected type of lan-ge. It showed the relations b/n words

& expressed gramm. Meaning.

Agreement is mainly used in attributive groups, to denote syntactical relations b/w adj. Or pronoun and substantive: salt sea= salt see(acc.); Qэere bEc= that book(dat.). Government-a type of syntactical connection on phrase level characterised by a substantive or pronoun standing in certain case dependent on head word requiring this particular case: andsware onfOn= receive an answer(acc.) nEosin hUses= approach the house(gen.);hyre sэede= said to her(dat.)

2. ORIGIN OF ENGLISH

The making of Eng l-story of 3 invasions&a cultural revolution.

The Roman conquest.In 55BC the Romans under J.Caesar landed un Br,but soon return to Gaul.Later his landing advanced as far as the Thames,the stay was short too.The perman conquest began in 43AD(Claudius).The Romans colonized the country,Latin lang superseded the Celtic dialects.The Romans ruled Br for 4 cent up to 5thcent.

The Anglo-Saxon conquest.The epoch of the British king Arthur(5thcent).Later the Germ settlement comprised 7 kingdoms:Kent,Essex,Sussex,Wessex,East Anglia,Mercia,Northumbia.The most important in the history of Ang-Saxons culture was in 597AD.With the arrival of St.Augustine&other monks.The conversion England to Christianity was a gradual a peaceful process.

The Viking invasions.AD750-1050-the mass movement of Scandinavian people,began as raids&ended as conquest&settlement.Raids began in AD793.By the mid of 9thcent half of the country-in Viking’s hands.870-attacked Wessex(king Althered).Alth in 878 won a signal victory,as a king of Wessex,Althered had a sovereignty over people,who lived in the south-west centre countries.Evidence of the way Saxon&Dane-in the place-names:saxon place-names end in –ham,-stowe,-sted,-ton(Brighton,Worthing,Clapham);end in –by-Danish origin.about 900 words(man,wife,mother)-Scandinavian origin.

21. RISE OF PERFECT FORMS

Developed from free syntactic combinations habban+ pat.2 agree in number & case nominative.Part.2 lost its inflections & position became fixed. The auxileries

lost their lexical meaning & became empty words.The verb –to be stopped to be used for perfect meaning.The evolution of the verbs shows the same tendencies as of the noun: gradual greater regularity & simplification.The English verb system has become more complex,both formally & functionally.3 new gramatic categories came into existence: voice,aspect & order.

39. NON-FINIT FORMS OF VERB OE

The infinitive & the participle. The inf. had no verbal. gram. cat. Being a

Verbal noun by origin it had a sort of reduced case system: 2 forms which roughly

corresponded to the nom. & the dat. cases of nouns. The part-e was a kind of verbal adj- e which was characterized by certain verbal features. Part-e 1(present)

was opposed to part-e 2 (past).Though voice & tence distinctions; it was active & expressed present or simultaneous process & qualities, part-e 2 expressed states &

qualities resulting from past action & was contrasted to part-e 1 as passive to active. Part.1 was formed with the help of suffix-ende, part 2 had stem of its own.

It was commonly marked by the prefix-ge.bindan-bindende-zebundan. Part-s were declined as weak & strong & agreed with nouns in number, gender, case.

The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. The common ancestor of all languages comprising this branch is Proto-Germanic, spoken in approximately the latter mid-1st millennium BC in Iron Age Northern Europe. The largest Germanic languages are English and German, with approximately 380 and 120 million native speakers respectively. The group consists of other notable languages, such as Dutch with 22 and Afrikaans with 16 million speakers; and the Scandinavian languages including Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic, and Faroese with a combined total of about 25 million speakers. The SIL Ethnologue lists 53 different Germanic languages and dialects.

14. Comparative and Superlative Forms

Positive,comparative&superlative-the degrees of comparison.

- normally the comparative is formed by adding ‘-ra’ and the superlative by adding ‘-ost.’ eg.  halig (holy)  haligra (holier)  haligost (holiest) - some comparative and superlative forms are irregular, like their modern English equivalents. eg. god (good)  betera / selra (better)  betst / selest (best)

6.OE VOWELSHigh changebility of vowels,changes paradigmatic( whole syst),syntagmatic.(cert. Classes of words,syll.) The second major complication in the OE vowel system is the fact that OE makes a phonemic distinction between "long" and "short" vowels. In OE, this distinction is indeed primarily one of duration--a long vowel lasts longer than a short one. For example, the OE word for 'good' was "god" with a long "o"; the OE word for 'God' was "god," with a short "o."Short vow. More stable, less changeble.

Within vowels –stessed differ from unstressed.OE- all vow. Could occur in unstressed position. ME- unstressed vowels were leveled under neutral [э] sound.Late Mid Eng- final unstressed [э] weakened , reduced to zero.—appesr many monosyllabic words.

Undergone positional changes due to assimilation: i-umlaut, palatal mttation(change in a vowel sound brought by a sound of following syll.) OE diphthongs, which are quite distinct from those in ModE, consisting of "ea," "eo,". The best way to think about these is that they each are pronounced as a single syllable (never two syllables) and are pronounced approximately as if your tongue moves from the position of one vowel to the other in the process of producing the vowel.Early OE - "ie" and "io."- replaced by y, eo.

27. LATIN LOAN Some words had been borrowed from Lat=500.Classified into 2 layers: 1)the oldest –directly from Romans before the Anglo-Saxons settled in Br.or from Celtic inhabitants of Br. These are names of objects of material culture,names of products from Roman merchants.: strэet, weall=wall,pipor=pepper. Latin substantive castra=camp made part of names of cities of Roman epoch:Chester.2)words concerning religion and church,taken after the introduction of Christianity.-words which directly or indirectly belong to the sphere of religion,church:biscop, episcopus,apostol. Under Lat. Influence-new meanings:eastron-1st spring holiday—Easter. New terms created on pattern of Eng words: зOdspell=gospel.=good news.

Rennaissans: more numerals borrowed; verbs in –ate: aggravate, frustrate, narrate.: -ute: attribute,pollute.;Adj: -ant/ent:arrogant,occident.:-ior: superior, inferior.

25.FRENCH LOAN Norman conquest—penetration of french words into Eng.-12cent., climax-13-14cent. Fr.- lang. Of courts, debates in Parliament. Many words denoted things and notions connected with life of Norman aristocracy, life of rulling classes nd Fr. Nobility. Main spheres of Fr. Words: 1) Government, court, jurisdiction.: baron, noble, government, royal, court. 2) Army, millitry life: army, mail, castle. 3) Religion,church: religion, saint. 4)Town professions: bocher, peintre. 5) Art notions: art, colour,emage. 6) Amusements: plesir,leysir. Other words –not connected with specific sphere: air, place, river,change.

French substantives were derived by means of the suffix –ance, -ence: ignorance, arrogance. ++ diminutive suffix –et: coronet=small crown. –able, -ible—meaning “capable of undergoing the action denoted by the verb stem” : admirable,tolerable.

Prefixes dis-, des- wih negative meaning came into Eng. As part of French verbs disappoint, disagree.

17cent.- French loan denotes things and notional typical of feudal culture: ball< ballet. Stress often remains on the last syll. As in Fr.: intrigue,serenade.

3. CHRONOLOGICAL DIVISION.

According to the state of unstressed endings: OE -the period of full endings(sunu-son),5thcent-the Germ tribes,angles,saxons invaded Br,the Roman conquest; Mid Eng -leveled endings.Vowels of unstressed endings have been leveled under a neutral vowel,1100-1500-the introduction of printing(1475),the end of the war of roses(1485)&the declay of the feudalism; Mod Eng –lost endings.Ending is lost altogether(sone-son),1500-nowadays-the period of Shakespeare(1500-1616);

22. RISE OF PASSIVE FORMS

OE didn’t posses the category of voice outside the part.2(was found in non-contact position). As the result of the phonetic reduction( beon- be) & part.2 lost its inflexion to zero.The contact position of part.2 with the auxiliary preceding & - was- becoming more & more common in the 15th century. In the 15th century passive constructions could be already used.

35. ROOT-STEM DECLENSION IN OE

In early OE the root-vowel in some forms was subjected to phonetic changes,

if the grammatical changes contained the sound [i] the vowel was narrowed. After the ending was dropped the mutated vowel turned out to be the only marker of

the form. The interchange of root-vowels had turned into a regular means of form-

building used similarly with inlexions. This peculiarity of the root-stems is of

considerable consequence for later history & has left traces in ModE.

36. DO-FORMS

In ME the verb -don- used to express a causative meaning. Do- in poetry. In the 16-17th cen-y the periphrases with –do used in all types of sentences. In 17th cent-y

-do was found in negative sente-s & questions, simple forms in affirmative. In the 18th the periphrases with do fell –it made the statement emphatic.-------done-anomal verb(gan,willan,can);появл с-ма времен(не только 2 вр)появл необх добавить что-то, чтобы сущ форма SPO-добавили done

8.The Great Vowel Shift 14-17c. was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language, generally accomplished in the fifteenth century, although evidence suggests it began as early as the fourteenth century. The shift continued for some time into the sixteenth century, spreading toward the non-metropolitan and non-port areas. It represented a change in the long vowels.Great Vowel Shift is one of the historical events marking the separation of Middle and Modern English.All 7 vowels came into motion and systematic change= quantative changes in the syst. Of vowels and appearance of defthongs. Its the process of 2 stages:1st-[i:]&[u:]became diphthongs,2nd-ei-ai;au=eu Basically, the long vowels shifted upwards; that is, a vowel that used to be pronounced in one place in the mouth would be pronounced in a different place, higher up in the mouth. it raised (and in one case fronted) Middle English long vowels, causing the high long vowels to become diphthongs, as the mid long vowels became high long vowels and so on.

During the GVS some names of eng letters were changed:

ME NE

i: ai:

e: i:

a: ei:

o: u:

12. NOUN This basic form that does not change throughout its inflection is called the stem. There are, consequently, two parts of a Old English word that you must note: the stem and the case ending. The stem contains the meaning of the word and its gender (masculine, feminine, or neuter). The case ending will tell you (1) how the noun is being used in its sentence, and (2) whether the noun is singular or plural. Largst group- A-stem(ja-, wa-)m,n gender.O-stem(-jo,-wo) f gender.U-stem-m,f gender. I-stem-all. –vocalic stems(strong declination). Weak declination-consonantel stems-n-stem, root stem(m,n,f)

All Old English nouns possess what is called "gender". That is, a noun will be masculine, feminine, or neuter.Beg. of ME- gender dissappeared. Number- the most stable grammatical cathegory.OE- plurality shown depending on the stem. NE-plural ending –es. ME—division into stems disappears, gender disappears,4-case syst.=2 case syst.(leveling,ending).Reasons:phonetic-reduction of final unstressed –e. Growing number of prepositions as case endings.Scandinavian influence(east) .

15.PERSONAL PRONOUNS OE pronouns-same classes:personal,interrogative,posessive,relative,demonstrative.. Personal were declined like nouns according to 4 case syst. 3rd person-3 genders.1st,2nd-3 numbers-sing, dual. pl, the 2nd person singular pronouns disappeared from the language, remaining only in poetic speech and in some dialects in the north of England They showed agreement with the noun(the 1st&2nd forms),while the forms of the 3rd person behaved like noun&didn’t agree with a noun

N. ic wit wE 2 pers. Sing. pu 3 person sing. pl .

G. mIn uncer Ure,User Pl. зE m f n

D. mE unc Us Dual. зit M. hE hEo hit hIe hI

Akk.mE un Us hio hy hEo

G. used as oblique case ii attributive function

11.CHANGES IN VOCABULARY SYSTEM ME developed internal processes and by borrowing words and word-building morphems fron other lang. In sphere of internal development-such facts as deriving new words by means of affixation and devoloping of meaning in accordance with developments in social life.: OE sellan=give—narrowed meaning—sell-give money ME.

26.SCANDINAVIAN LOANS. A CONSIDERABLE PART OF HE VOCABULARY WAS COMMON TO Eng. And Scandinavian dialect.Many words—same root, different endings.: sunu=son OE, sunr Scand. Another part of Scand. Vocabulary didn’t correspond to English.It is in this sphere that Scandinavian dialects influenced English, this influence covered a “considerable semantic field,including both political terms and everyday words.: lagu=law, wrang=wrong,callen,call. Even 3rd person plural personal pronoun was taken over from Scand. In ME docs—preposition at preceding the infinitive as Scand.++ some millitary terms: fylcian=form=a military unit. Scand elements- part of geo names:Derby, Langtoft.

28. PECULIARITIES OF OE POETRY

In 1476 William Cagston set up his press in Westminster & more books were printed. 16th cent-y in schcols observations observations of grammar, vocabulary,style. It was Renesainse. The period of Shakespeare. the style was conservative &

all words needed new meanings & polysim. began to develop. The most important literary work was the heroic poem “ Beowulf”, which consists of 2 columns.” Pecularities: the absence of capital letter & they had different shapes.

31. REDUCTION OF UNSTRESSED INFLECTIONS.

Unstressed vowels had lost many of their former distinctions. The tendehcy towards phonetic reduction operated in all subsequent periods of the history . In early ME the pronunciation of unstressed syllables became increasingly indistinct.

The occurance of only 2 vowels neutral sound & [i] in unstressed vowels appeared

in borrowed words or developed from stressed ones. Some were reduce to the neutral sound or dropped. In unstressed syllables 5 monophtongs.

33.RISE OF ARTICLES

The use of articles in the age of Chaucer is often similar to what we find in English nowadays – Whan the sonne was to reste( when the sun set).The development of the definite article is usually connected with the changes in the declension of adj-es. Another factor, which was the changing function of the word order. Relative freedom in the position of words in the OE sentences made it possible to use word order for communicative purpose. The growth of the articles is their connections both with the changes in syntax & in morphology.

The communicative functions passed to the articles & their use became more

regular.

34. SPELLING CHANGES ME

They attempted to use a separate letter for each distinct sound. ME spelling

had many changes. The introduction of printing & the spread of books

perpetuated the written forms of the words reproduced from the manuscripts.

The use of double conso-ts became less frequent, double letters were sometimes

employed to show that the preceding vowel was short. Late 17th-18th had a

stabilizing effect on the development of eng. spelling. Innovations are a few

new digraphs which were adopted with borrowed words, such as –ph-ps-NE

photograph; g- genre. ModE spelling shows the pronunciation of words in

late 14-15th . Mod spelling is conventional & conservative, but seldom phonetic.

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