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10.Discuss the electoral system.

The House of Commons is the only chamber in the British Parliament which is elected at General Elections. British subjects and citizens can vote provided they are 18 and over, resident in the UK, registered in the annual register of electors and not subject to any disqualifications. The UK is divided into 659 electoral districts, called constituencies of approximately equal population and each const, elects the member of the HC. No person can be elected except under the name of the party, and there is little chance except as the candidate backed by either the Labor or the Conservative party. In every constituency each of the 2 parties has a local organization, which chooses the candidate, and then helps him to conduct his local campaign, in a British election the candidate who wins the most votes in elected, even if he doesn't get as many as the combined votes of the other candidates. The winner takes it all. This is known as notorious majority electoral system that is often criticized for being unfair to smaller parties that have very little chance to send their candidate to the Commons. It is often argued that the British system of elections is so unfair that it ought to be changed, by the introduction of a form of proportional representation. It aims to give each party a proportion of seats in Parliament corresponding to the proportion of votes it receives at the election. As soon as the results of a general elections are known, it is clear which party will form the government. The leader of the majority party becomes Prime Minister and the new House of Commons meets. The chief officer of the HC is the Speaker. He is elected by the House at the beginning of each parliament. His chief function is to preside over the House in the debate. The Speaker must not belong to any party. G Brown

11.British government

The party which, wins most seats (but not necessarily most votes) at a general election, or which has the support of a majority of the members in the House of Commons, usually forms the. government. On occasions when no party succeeds in winning an overall majority of seats, a minority Government or a coalition may be formed. The leader of the majority party is appointed Prime Minster by the Sovereign, and all other ministers are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The majority of ministers are members of the Commons, although the Government is represented by some ministers in the Lords Since the late 19 century the Prime Minister has normally been the leader of the party with a majority in the House of Commons. The monarch's role in government is virtually limited to acting on the advice of ministers.

The Prime Minister informs the Queen of the general business of the Government, presides over the Cabinet, and is responsible for the allocation of functions among ministers, recommends to the Queen a number of important appointments. Ministers in charge of Government departments, who are usually in the Cabinet, are known as 'Secretaries of State or 'Ministers', or may have a traditional title, as in the case of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Postmaster General, the President of the Board of Trade. All these are known as departmental ministers. The Lord Chancellor (the Speaker of the House of Lords) holds a special position, being a minister with departmental functions and also head of the judiciary in England and Hales.

Ministers of State (non-departmental) work with ministers in charge of departments with responsibility for specific functions, and are sometimes given courtesy titles which reflect these particular functions. More than one may work in a department. Junior ministers (generally Parliamentary Secretaries or Under-Secretaries of State) share in parliamentary and departmental duties. They may also be given responsibility directly under the departmental minister, for specific aspects of the department's work.

The largest minority party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and its own 'shadow cabinet’ whose members act as spokesmen on the subjects for which government ministers have responsibility. The members of any other party support or oppose the Government according to their party policy being debated at any given time.The Government has the major share in controlling and arranging the business of the House. As the initiator of policy, it dictates what action it wishes Parliament to take.

A modern British Government consists of over ninety people, of whom about thirty are heads of departments, and the rest are their assistants. Until quite recent times all the heads of departments were included in the Cabinet, but when their number rose some of the less important heads of departments were oat included in the Cabinet. The Prime .Minister, decides whom to include.

The Cabinet is composed of about 20 ministers and nay include departmental and non-departmental ministers. The prime ministers may make changes in the size of their Cabinet and may create new ministries or make other changes.The Cabinet as such is not recognized by any formal law, and it has no formal powers but only real powers. It takes the effective decisions about what is to be done. Its major functions are: the final determination of policies, the supreme control of government and the coordination of government departments. More and more power is concentrated in the hands of the Cabinet, where the decisive role belongs to the Prime Minster, who in fact determines the general political line of this body. The Cabinet defends and encourages the activity of monopolies and big business, does everything to restrain and suppress the working-class movement. The County Councilor county) is the most important .unit of local government. The District Councils-for districts.

12.The 20th century witnessed an intensive process of decolonisation of the British Empire(the last Br. colony Hong Kong was reverted to China in 1997). A tendency to decolonise grew into a desire to form a great family, a special union, for economic, cultural & social reasons. The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, most of which are former British colonies, or dependencies of these colonies (the exceptions being the United Kingdom itself and Mozambique). The Commonwealth is an international organization through which countries with diverse social, political, and-economic backgrounds co¬operate within a framework of common values and goals, outlined in the Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism. free trade, multilateralism, and world peace.Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth, recognized by each state, and as such is the symbol of the free association of the organization’s members. This position, however, does not imply political power over Commonwealth member states. In practice, the Queen heads the Commonwealth in a symbolic capacity, and it is the Commonwealth Secretary-General who is the chief executive of the organization. The Commonwealth is not a political union, and does not allow the United Kingdom to exercise any power over the affairs of the organization’s other members. Elizabeth II is also the Head of State, separately, of sixteen members of the Commonwealth, called Commonwealth realms. As each realm is an independent kingdom, Elizabeth II, as monarch, holds a distinct jjtk for each.

Every four years the Commonwealth's members celebrate the Commonwealth Games, the world's second-largest multi-sport event after the Olympic Games. Commonwealth Dayton the 2nd Monday in March. The Commonwealth secretariat provides the central organization for consultation & co-operation among member states. Established in London in 1965, headed by the heads of Government & financed by member Governments, the Secretariat is responsible to Commonwealth Governments collectively. The Secretariat promotes consultation, disseminates info on matters of common concern, & organizes meetings & coferences. Membership criteria: be fully sovereign states; recognise the monarch of the Commonwealth realms as the Head of the commonwealth; accept the English language as the means of Commonwealth communication; respect the wishes of the general population vis-a-vis Commonwealth membership The Commonwealth's objectives were first outlined in the 1971 Singapore Declaration, which committed the Commonwealth to the institution of world peace: promotion of the pursuit of equality and opposition to racism; the fight against poverty, ignorance, and disease; and free trade. To these were added opposition to discrimination on the basis of gender, and environmental attainability. These objectives were reinforced by the Harare Declaration in 1991.

The Comnonwealth is also useful as an international organisation that represents significant cultural and historical links between wealthy first-world countries and poorer nations with diverse social and religious backgrounds.

13.Today Britain is no longer the leading industrial nation of the world, which it was during the last century. Today Britain is 5th in size of its gross domestic product(GDP).Britain's share in world trade is about 6%, which means that she is also the 5th largest trading nation in the world. Trade with the countries of the European Union, Commonwealth countries.British economy based on private enterprise. The policy of the government is aimed at encouraging & expanding the private sector. Result: 751 of the economy is controlled by the private sector which employs 3/4of the labour force. Less than 2% of working population is engaged in agriculture. Due to large-scale mechanization productivity in agriculture is very high: it supplies nearly 2/3 of the countries food. The general location of industry: 80% Of industrial production –England. In Wales, Scotland & Northem Ireland level of industry is lower than in England. This gap between England & the outlying regions increased because of the decline of the traditional industries, which are heavily concentrating in Wales, N.Ireland, Scotland. GB may be divided into 8 economic regions: 1) the South industrial & agricultural region 2}the Midlands 3)Lancashire 4)Yorkshire 5)the North 6)Scotland 7) Wales & Northern Ireland

THE SOUTH ECONOMIC REGION The most: important region in terms of industry & agriculture. Includes: all the South of England, both the South-East & the South-West. London -centre of everything (called the London City Region). Clothing, furniture-making & jewellery. London's industries: electrical engineering, instrument production, radio engineering, aircraft production, the motor-car industry, London -centre of the service industries, tourism.

OXFORD: educational centre; a large motor works were built in its suburb. CAMBRIDGE: its industries connected with electronics & printing. LUTON: major centre of car production. The Thames valley is an area of concentration of electronic engineering/ microelectronics. The South -major agricultural region of GB.

14.The problem of Northern Ireland is closely connected with religion because the Irish people can be divided into 2 religious groups: Catholic and Protestants. At the same time it as clear that the lighting between these 2 groups is closely connected with the colonial past, in 1169 Henry 2 of England started an invasion of Ireland. Although a large part of Ireland came under the control of the invaders, there wasn't much direct control from England during the middle ages. In the 16th century Henry 6 of England quarreled with Rome and declared himself Head of the Anglican church, which was a protestant church. Ireland remained Catholic, and didn't accept the change. Henry 8 tried to force them to become Anglican. He also punished them by taking most of their land. This policy was continued by Elizabeth I. But the Irish Catholics never gave up their struggle for independence and their rights. At the end of the 18th century there was a mass rising against the English colonizers which was crushed by the English army and in 1801 a forced union was established with Britain. All through the 19th century the "Irish question" remained in the centre of British polities. After a long and bitter struggle the southern part of Ireland finally became a free State in l921. Ulster where the protestants were in majority remained part of the UK. The Irish free State declared itself a Republic in 1949 and is known as the Irish republic of Eire. It is completely independent and its capital is Dublin. Northern Ireland had its own Parliament at Stormont in Belfast and government which was responsible for its province's life. But from the beginning the parliament was in the hands of Protestants while the Catholics didn't have equal rights with the Protestants. In 1969 .conflict started between these 2 groups and so the British government closed the local parliamentand sent in die British army to keep the peace. But there were no peace. On he Catholic side is the Irish Republic Army which wants to achieve a united reland by terrorism and bombings. On the Protestant side there are also secret terrorist organizations.

The Northern Ireland Assembly of 108 members was restored in 1998. Elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly were held in November 2003.However many difficulties still exist' to make this local parliament a workable body because of the confrontation between the parties representing the Protestant and Catholic communities. The Northern Ireland Assembly was established as part of the Belfast Agreement and meets in Parliament Buildings. The Assembly is the prime source of authority for all devolved responsibilities and has full legislative and executive authority. Elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly took place on the 7th March 2007 and the Northern Ireland Assembly was restored on the 8th of May 2007.

15.Americans seem strangely oblivious to historic developments in Europe these days that could mean a profound change in this country’s relations with Europe as a whole, and with Britain in particular. The process of European integration is reaching a new stage, with not only Economic and Monetary Union but also the beginning of a common security and defense policy. No one seriously questions the wisdom and enlightened statesmanship of the U.S. policy that has supported European integration over many decades. But the contemporary phase of that process is bringing us into uncharted territory. It raises major questions about the future cohesion of the Atlantic Alliance and about the future of the "special relationship" that the United States has long enjoyed with Britain.The Anglo-American tradition embodies a very special conception of political and economic liberty, as well as a certain seriousness about international security and, indeed, about the moral unity of the West. These Anglo-American values as thoroughly vindicated by history and, therefore, worthy of the most vigorous defense.

Since the Eisenhower era, the United States has been urging Britain into Europe, initially to strengthen the resolve of the Europeans as Cold Warriors and more recently out of habit and to be a force for good government in Europe. Today, all polls in Britain show that about 70% of people in the U.K. do not want to go farther into the EU, although about half believe that the country may ultimately do so anyway. EUROPE helped bring down two of Britain’s recent prime ministers, Margaret Thatcher and John Major. But at least they were casualties of weighty conflicts over their country’s future in the European Union (EU). On June 4th Gordon Brown may be mortally wounded by nothing grander than election results for the European Parliament.The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-three independent member states. Most of them were formerly parts of the British Empire. They co-operate within a framework of common values and goals, as outlined in the Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace. The Commonwealth is not a political union, but an intergovernmental organisation through which countries with diverse social, political, and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status. Its activities are carried out through the permanent Commonwealth Secretariat, headed by the Secretary-General; biennial Meetings between Commonwealth Heads of Government; and the Commonwealth Foundation, which facilitates activities of non-governmental organisations in the so-called 'Commonwealth Family'. The symbol of this free association is the Head of the Commonwealth, which is a ceremonial position currently held by Queen Elizabeth II. Elizabeth II is also the monarch, separately, of sixteen members of the Commonwealth, informally called the Commonwealth realms. As each realm is an independent kingdom, the Queen, as monarch, holds a distinct title for each, though, by a Prime Ministers' Conference in 1952, all include the style Head of the Commonwealth at the end; for example: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Australia and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. Beyond the realms, the majority of the members of the Commonwealth have separate heads of state: thirty-two members are republics, and five members have distinct monarchs: the Sultan of Brunei; the King of Lesotho; the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (or King) of Malaysia; the King of Swaziland; and the King of Tonga.

Working with Belarus

The UK is a leading member of the European Union. The 27 current member states of the EU have agreed to work together on issues of common interest, where collective and co-ordinated initiatives can be more effective than individual state action. UK relations with Belarus are conducted within the framework of the EU Common Position towards Belarus.

The UK also enjoys bilateral co-operation with Belarus in a range of areas. Following an intense period of negotiations, the two countries concluded an Agreement on conditions for the recuperation of Belarusian minors in the UK. The Agreement, which came into force on May 22, now makes it possible for British charitable organizations to resume their valuable work.

British Ambassador Nigel Gould-Davies said: “I am delighted that we have reached this important agreement. This will directly benefit thousands of Belarusian children. The Belarusian authorities have indicated their readiness to discuss additional issues, in particular the age limit for respite visits that has been introduced. The present agreement will help facilitate further dialogue”.

The British Embassy will be also deploying its unique mobile biometric project to collect biometric fingerprints from children in the regions, saving them a long journey to Minsk. Cordon Braun:

I believe that our ties with America founded on values we share constitute our most important bilateral relationship,And it is good for Britain, for EU,that the relationships with USA became stronger.Part of the ED try to isolate Belarus after condemning elections in March.the EU has already imposed a visa ban on 30 officials, recently Western governments pay much attention to the ? of Belarus, practically in each high level meeting of EU it is discussed.

16.Great Britain has a Parliamentary government based on the party system. When the political parties began to form in the 18" century certain distinguished persons emerged as leaders. Before the 17th century, there were rival groups of nobles who might struggle for power, as in the WARS OF THE ROSES(1455-85) and there were representatives of different religious principles, but there were no political parties in the modern sense. During the Civil war 1640-1660} the division between the aristocratic supporters of the Anglican Church who fought for the King, and the middle-class Puritans who took the side of Parliament, reflected a difference in religious and political principles, as well as economic interests which prepared the way for future party distinctions. In the 19'' century the two-party svstem reached its solid modern form. By the 20" century the two parties were the CONSERVATIVES and THE LIBERALS, direct descendants of the Tory and Whig Parties. The principal source and philosophy of the LABOUR Party was the FABIAN society, formed in 1884, though the party itself was founded much later. The group was led by such intellectuals as Bernard Shaw and Sydney Webb The Fabians opposed the doctrine of class warfare and substituted evolution for revolution. The LABOUR Party adopted this doctrine. The LABOUR PARTY was founded in 1906. After the 1world war it proclaimed its socialist ideas, its socialist programme called for nationalization, equalities of wealth. Today the LABOUR PARTY advocates a mixed programme based on the platform of social-democratic reformism. It has abandoned nationalization and may be regarded as a party centre to the left. In 1997, 2001 and 2005 it won three consecutive general elections thus becoming a party of government with Tony Blair, its leader, becoming prime Minister. Membership of the party is also mixed, though the majority are members of trade unions. Despite the domination of the industrial workers the influence of the middle- and upper-class members of the party shouldn't be underestimated. THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY is the other chief party, it was officially formed in 1867 on the basis of political groups of the English landed aristocracy. In the course of its long existence it has inherited or adopted both political beliefs and political interests. One of the most important things it has accepted are the teachings of John Locke about government and about property. Locke taught that men naturally possess certain weighty rights, the chief being life, liberty and property. One of the characteristic concepts of the CONSERVATIVES is that the state must protect property; and that private property widely distributed is the best solution for society. The modern TORY concept of democracy includes social and economic reform, government responsibility for health, education and social security, and a certain measure of economic planning. THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY has no official permanent programme. Before the general election the party issues a pre-election manifesto which states the main aspects of the home and foreign policies of the future Conservative government if the party wins the election. The members of the CONSERVATIVE PARTY come from various groups, although they are not easy to distinguish. Among them there are the country aristocracy consisting of big landowners, smaller farmers and businessmen in small towns and cities. There are also many working-class people who vote for CONSERVATIVE candidates because they believe in social reform.

As a result of the split in the LABOUR PARTY in 1981 a new party was formed, the SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC PARTY. The two parties acted together in one block in the elections of 1983 and 1987. In 1988 these two parties finally merged together under the name the SOCIAL-LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY or simply THE LIBERAL DEMOCRATS, which is the third most important political party in the country, though not as influential as each of the two noted above. The new party takes a centrist stand in the political life of the country. Its political platform remains vague, it reflects a diversity of views of the members of the two former parties. In the political system of Great Britain the LIBERAL DEMOCRATS occupy an intermediate position between the LABOUR and THE CONSERVATIVE parties and advocate social reforms. The social basis of the party is formed of the middle class intellectuals. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF MINOR PARTIES in Great Britain: the SCOTTISH NATIONAL PARTY, THE WELSH NATIONAL PARTY. There are several political parties in NORTHERN IRELAND: THE ULSTER UNIONISTS ( PROTESTANT and LOYALIST-loyal to London) . THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC and LABOUR PARTY (catholic), The Ulster Democratic Unionists(Protestant Loyalists), the SINN FEIN (Irish for "We ourselves", catholic).

The USA

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