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1 (#1) Schooling in Great Britain and in Russia__________________

♦ All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies.

Education is compulsory from 5 to 16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school play group to prepare them for the start of compulsory education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. At primary school children become acquainted with Reading, Writing, Arithmetic and develop their creative abilities, they are taught to sing, dance, play, draw. Primarily children do all their work

with the same class teacher, except for physical education and music, which are often taught by specialists.

Most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same class.

At 11 most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehensives with accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups. Ninety per cent of secondary schools in England, Scotland and Wales are coeducational.

At 16 pupils take a national exam called “GCSE” (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education.

Some 16-year olds continue their studies in the 6th form at school or at a sixth form college. The 6th form prepares pupils for a national exam called “A” level (Advanced Level) at 18. Pupils need “A” levels to enter a university. Other 16-year olds choose a college of further education.

Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with “A” levels from 18. Students study for a degree, which takes on average three years of fulltime study. Most students graduate at 21 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony.

♦ Seven per cent of British Schoolchildren go to private schools. There are 3 levels of private schools: primary schools (age 4 to 8), preparatory schools (age 8 to 13). At the age of 13 children take an examination. If they pass it, they go to public school, where they usually remain until they are 18. Many preparatory and most public schools are boarding schools, the children live at school during the school terms. But though these schools are called public, they are, in fact, private and it can be very expensive to send a child to such a school.

The most famous public schools have a long history and tradition. It is often necessary to put a child’s name on a waiting list at birth to be

2 (#2) Your Family_________________________________________

♦ Our family is large (small, not very large). We are the family of seven (two, three, four, five, six): my mother, my father, my grandmother, my grandfather, my sister, my brother and I. My mother's name is … She is … years old. She is a teacher (a doctor, a worker, an engineer). She is a very nice, kind and clever woman. My father's name is ... He is ... years old. He is a worker (a teacher, an engineer, a doctor, a businessman). He is lather tall and strong. He is a man of strong character - and all of us love him very much. My grandmother's name is ... She is ... years old. She does not work now, she is a pensioner, but she has a lot of work to do about the house. All of us try to help her. My grandfather' s name is... He is... years old. He is a pensioner too. My brother and sister are students (pupils). There names are ... They are older (younger) than me. We are a very good family. We love each other very much. In the evenings, when all the members of our family get together after work and study, we like to watch TV, to read books and newspapers, to talk about different things and to discuss all our problems together. When the weather is good we sometimes go for a walk. We have a small house in the country with a garden and a kitchen-garden. There is much work there and on week-ends we go there and work and have rest all together.

♦ We are 4 at our family: my mother, father, my elder brother and I. I think, our family is friendly, united. We spend much time together, go for a walk in the woods, visit theaters, museums, go to the cinema. My mother's name is Luidmila Mikhailovna. She is an engineer, she works in an office. She is a kind, nice woman. She can cook very well. She is fond of reading. My father's name is Konstantin Alexeevich. He is a sailor. He is a strong, clever man. He often tells me interesting stories about different countries. Father can do a lot of things. He teaches me to repair furniture, to drive a car. My brother's name is Alexei. He is 22 years old. He have been studied in Far- Eastern State Marine Academy for 5 years. Now it is a very difficult period for him: he is passing through state exams. I have my duties about the house. I must go shopping, clean the rooms. It's not difficult for me. I like our home to be clean and tidy. I think home is the nicest place. As proverb says, . There is no place more delightful than home and there are no people more dear than your relatives.

♦ In my opinion family is one of the most important things in one's life. Almost all our life we live within a family. There are five of us in the

very important in family relationship. Tenderness, warm-heartedness and respect must always be present in the family to make it friendly. A lot of activities help members of the family to

be on friendly terms: discussing all the family plans together, going on trips hikes together, visiting museums, theaters, exhibitions and exchanging opinions about them, sharing the same joys and sorrows. If you think of the others in the family you show your love and attention

in everyday life, you can hurt them if you are selfish, not sincere and rude. It is very important to visit relatives on holidays, on birthdays, on anniversaries and develop close relationship. We feel

more affection for our relatives when we are parted from them. The proverb says, " /Absence makes the heart grow fonder". When the family is friendly, everybody has the warmed feelings of returning home where dear relatives are waiting for them. There are different opinions on how children should be treated if they disobey their parents, break the rules, do forbidden things, don't keep their words or promises. Some people think that parents should be patient, kind and understanding. The rules and children's behaviors are discussed in such families. But others believe that children ought always to obey the parents and if they won't they should be punished. From my point of view, such principles won't do a lot of good. Fear and punishment will lead to selfishness, cruelty and lies. But "love and kindness will save the world". We are the family of two. I live with my mother. We don't have such problems as misunderstanding between the members of the family. I think that it is due to the age of my parents and their character. My mother is 40 years old, she is layer. She is a kind, clever and responsible woman. My mother always ready to give me necessary information, moral support and a good advice. It is common knowledge that there is no place like a home. We are dedicated to our homes, we give them much love, care and enthusiasm. A man's house is his castle. I like my home and I want to tell you more about it. I live in Kuprijanov st. in center of our city. We moved into this flat several years ago. Now it is a place where I feel it ease and enjoy every minute of my stay there. We have a washing-machine, a vacuum cleaner, a refrigerator, a freezer, hand-mixer, computer and

other things which I consider to be quite necessary as they make our life easier and help to solve a lot of problems in the shortest possible time. We have 2 rooms, a kitchen and a bathroom. When you drop into our flat you come into a lobby, where you can take off your coat, shoes

3 (#4, 13) The area you live in________________________________

My house is situated in a very picturesque place, has wonderful parks and gardens.

I think my town is a nice place to live in. The life in our town is quiet and peaceful.

♦ All of us want to live in a warm place with all modern conveniences. But not every person manages to do it. People in different countries live differently. I would like to describe you the average house of English family and Russian family.

Many families in Britain live in flats, but most people live in small houses built close together joined to another on one side only by one wall in common. They are called semi-detached. They are usually consist of 2 floors. British prefer to say upstairs and downstairs to first (ground) floor and second (first) floor. Downstairs are the living rooms. They are a drawing room, a sitting room and a kitchen. Upstairs are the bed rooms, a bathroom and a nursery for the children. The drawing room means that it is the largest room in a house and the one with the best furniture. This is the room where the British receive their quests; though when the familiar friends come in they generally talk in the sitting room, which is used by all the family and is not as formal as a drawing room. Almost in every English house there is a fire-place, it is usually in the sitting room. They think that electricity is cleaner but a coal fire is more homely. Around a house there is a front garden and back garden. The front garden is a smooth grass lawn, you can see also there a few flower beds. Back garden is more useful, but less pretty than front one. Vegetables, potatoes, cabbage, cauliflowers, peas and lettuce are grown there.

This house is a dream for common Russian, but it is a bit simpler in Russia. The majority of Russian population lives in blocks of flats. In a house which is not very large (has 3 or 5 stores or only 1 entrance) everybody knows all secrets of the neighbors and share their negative or positive feelings and emotions with near-living people. When a house is large (has 9 or 16 stores and many entrances) neighbors don.t know even the names of each other. In front of a house there is a children.s playground. There are several flats on one floor. Usual Russian flat consists of entrance hall, two or three rooms, kitchen, toilet and bathroom which are not very large. Some people live in private houses or cottages with gardens around. I think that living in private house or cottage is more comfortable because you have a

4 (#6, 12) Personality______________________________________

♦ Frankly speaking, I have a lot of acquaintance, but not all of them I can consider to be my friends. It’s enough, as I think, to have one or two close friends who are able to understand you and to support you in hard situations. So, there are few people whom I can call my real friends. We have much in common and we enjoy communicating with each other. One of my friends is Sergey. He is 22. I can say that he is handsome man and charismatic person. His face is oval and he has black curly hair and hazel eyes. Sergey is a well-bred, jolly and kind person. We study together in the University. Sergey wants to be a chemist. He studies well because he is greatly interested in his future profession. Sergey is a hardworking man too. Sergey does not have much free time but if he has, he likes to spend it in a good company, consisting of his friends. When we gather together we like to listen to music, both classical and modern one, to watch new films and discuss them. I enjoy talking to him a lot because he knows many interesting facts about famous people, history. His favorite subject at school were history and literature. He is fond of reading. Books have become part and parcel of his life.

We have been being friends for a long time. We trust each other so much that we have some personal secrets which are not revealed to the others. I can tell him about my troubles and I am sure that Sergey would help me and give me a piece of good advice.

Sergey is an intelligent person. He has a deep and genuine interest in people, open-mindedness and inquiring mind. It is necessary for him as a chemist.

I’m happy to have such a good friend as Sergey.

♦ I have a lot of friends. They are my former schoolmates and boys and girls from my neighborhood. But my bosom friend is Olga. She is a pleasant-looking girl of about 17. Olga is not very tall, but she has a strong attractive body, she is pleasantly plump. Olga is always very elegant, she wears clothes of the latest fashion. Her features are very delicate, and her charm is irresistible. She has white curly hair and dark-blue eyes. Her eyelashes are so long and thick, and her eyes seem dark for this reason. Her face is oval and she has a turn-up nose. To cut the long story short - Olga is a pretty girl. But in my opinion, inner beauty is more important than physical one. Olga is a well-bred, jolly and kind person. She is very tactful, shy and sensitive, emotionally stable and witty, generous and good-hearted.

5 (#7) Holidays___________________________________________

♦ There are many national holidays in the world, when people all over the country do not work and have special celebrations. For example in Russia the major holidays are: New Year's Day, Victory Day. The first holiday of the year is New Year's Day. People see the new year in at midnight on the 31st of December. They greet the new year with champagne and listen to the Kremlin chimes beating 12 o'clock. There are lots of New Year traditions in Russia. In every home there is a New Year tree glittering with colored lights and decorations. Children always wait for Father Frost to come and give them a present. Many people consider New Year's Day to be a family holiday. But the young prefer to have New Year parties of their own. The greatest national holiday in our country is Victory Day. On the 9lh of May, 1945, the Soviet Army and its allies completely defeated the German fascists and the Second World War ended. A lot of guests from different countries of the world came to Moscow to participate in the celebrations.

There are fewer public holidays in Great Britain than in other European countries. They are: Christmas Day, New Year's Day, Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday. Public holidays in Britain arc called bank holidays, because the banks as well as most of the offices and shops are closed. The most popular holiday is Christmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It's a big Christmas tree and it stands in Trafalgar Square. Central streets are beautifully decorated. The fun starts the night before, on the 24th of December. Traditionally this is the day when people decorate their trees. Children hang stockings at the end of their beds, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and fill them with

toys and sweets. New Year's Day is less popular in Britain than Christmas. But in Scotland, Hogmanay is the biggest festival of the year. Besides public holidays there are some special festivals in Great Britain. There are also smaller, local festivals in Britain.

In the different countries according to their traditions and history, there is a set of various national holidays. But there is one thing, which unites all of them: a holiday is always fun and pleasure.

♦ New Year is the principal winter holiday, as opposed to Christmas. It is universally recognized as such by both secular and religious people. Whereas New Year is mostly an occasion merely for parties and drinking in the West, most of the traditions associated with Christmas

6 (#9, 10) Traveling________________________________________

♦ Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling. They travel to see other continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy Picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It’s always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun.

Most travelers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them - the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds. Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had. People travel by train, by plane, by boat, by car, by bike and on foot. People travel to have a holidays or to have business. If people have business trips they choose the fastest transport. They often travel by plane or by train. It is very expensive but it is very fast. And if people want to have a rest they choose traveling by boat, by car, on horseback and etc. When you travel by car or by bike you can stop where you want. All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose

one according to their plans and destinations. If we are fond of traveling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or

learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes.

♦ A lot of people are fond of traveling. We can travel by all means of transport: by car, by bus, by train and by air. Travelling by car is interesting, because you can see towns and cities and nature. Travelling by sea is so wonderful!

You can travel to different part of our large country. In the West you enjoy cities and towns that are full of history of our country. You visit museums telling about traditions and culture of Russia. Those, who are

7 (#8, 11) Seasons and Weather______________________________

♦ There are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Every season is beautiful in its own way. When spring comes nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The days become longer and the nights become shorter. The ground is covered with emerald-green grass and the first flowers. The air is fresh, the sky is blue and cloudless, and the sun shines brightly. The trees are full of blossom. The nightingale begins to sing its lovely songs, and sweet melodies may be heard from every wood and park. The days are warm and everything is full of life and joy. After all spring is a time of love. So three months a year we fall in love with the whole world. Spring is followed by summer. The weather is usually fine in summer, but it can be very hot, especially in July. Sometimes there are storms with thunder and lightning. In summer people try to get away from the city noise and spend more time in the open air. They pick mushrooms and berries in the forests, swim in the rivers and lakes, go fishing and boating. Most people prefer to have their holidays in summer. But when picking mushrooms and berries. Autumn begins in September. The days become shorter and the nights become longer. The leaves turn yellow, red and brown and fall to the ground. That is why there is one more name of this season. It is also called Fall. Most birds fly away to warm countries. There is a short spell of dry sunny weather in September which is called Indian Summer. It is a beautiful time when the sky is cloudless, the trees around are golden, the air is transparent and it is still warm. But gradually it gets colder and colder. It often rains in October and November. That is why autumn is an unpleasant season for many people but not for me. In my opinion autumn is the most beautiful season. To my mind it is the time of thinking about what you have done this year when you still have enough time to correct your mistakes. And then comes winter. In winter the sun become very lazy and sets early and rises late. The rivers and lakes are frozen over. Everything is covered with snow. Sometimes it is very cold, about 15-20 degrees below zero. Going out in such weather is not very pleasant. Winter is a good time for sports. People go in for skating and skiing. Tobogganing is also very popular, not as a kind of sports, but rather as fun. As for me, I like all seasons, but as I have already said, I think there is nothing like autumn.

♦ Climate is the weather a certain place has over a long period of time. Climate has a very important influence on plants, animals and humans

large area at your disposal, you don.t have a quarrel with your neighbors when you make a noise or when you listen to the music in high volume, in summer you can get a sunburn in your garden.

In both English and Russian houses people have modern conveniences such as central heating, electricity, gas, cold and hot running water, telephone. They also have different furniture and appliances.

Depending on personality and financial situation people make their house and home.

and hat. I'm very happy to have a room for myself, where I feel quite and comfortable. It is a place where I can relax, read a book and listen to music. There are yellow blinds and a writing

table, a sofa, a bookcase where my favorite books are situated. There are a lot of things in my room which can tell about myself, about my friends and relatives. You can find frames with photos of my parents and best friends on the walls, little pictures. They remind me happy

moments of my life and that is why are very dear for me. You may be surprised, but the most popular and favorite place with all of us is the kitchen. Every Sunday my mother makes a cake and we gather together, discuss our problems and make plans for the next week. Our kitchen isn't large and looks the usual modern kitchen you can see in many other homes. I can tell a lot about my home, but to make a long story short I can say, that speaking about my home, I don't mean a

flat as it is , I mean people, who are dear to me, who love me and are always waiting for me. That is why, wherever I were I would always hurry home.

family: My father - Iliy Nikolaevich, my mother Vera Pavlovna, my elder brother Michael and the youngest child in our family my ten-year old sister Olga. I think it would be right if I begin with my parents. They have been married for 20 years now. They met each other at the institute where they studied together both of them were in their first year then. However it was not until their last year at the institute when they got married. My father is a chief sales-manager in a firm which sells various computer equipment. Many years ago after he had graduated from the institute he became an electronic engineer in one of the Moscow research institutes. His firm has several branches in some other big towns in Russia such as St Petersburg, Voronez, Novosibirsk and others. So he has to travel a lot. My father is an only wager in our family but as he is very good at his job his firm pays him a good salary. However his Saturdays and Sundays are wholly devoted to his family. In youth he went in for sport so we often play either football or volleyball which are his favourite games. My mother is a housewife. A year after she graduated from the institute my elder brother was born and she had to stay at home. Later it was decided that she would run the house and look after the family. My mother is a nice looking woman. She is of medium heigth. Her hair is dark and she usually wears a bun. So most of her time is devoted to housework. Except for the time when soaps are shown on TV. She adores them though my father thinks they are silly. He like most men prefers detective stories and action films. My elder brother is now in his third year at the Moscow State University. He studies at the Geographical faculty. He was keen on Geography when at school and wanted to travel to places yet unknown. I personally think that it was the spirit of adventures that made him go to the Geographical faculty. The youngest member of out family is ten-year old Olga. She goes to the colledge in the neighbouring town and spends there five days a week. So we see her only on Saturday and Sunday and during her holidays. In spite of her age she enjoys living in a colledge and always looks forward to going there after holidays. She has got lots of friends there. Our family is very united and we like to spend our free time together.

♦ The family is very important as a unit in our society. Nothing else but family can be an emotional center of people's life, can be a transmitter of culture and raising children. Every mother feels great affection for her children and tries to bring them up in a proper way. Understanding between the members of the family and consideration for others are

sure he or she get a place. Children of wealthy or aristocratic families often go to the same public school as their parents and their grandparents. Eton is the best known of these schools.

It is situated in Eton, a town about 20 miles west of London, on the River Thames. The school was founded in 1440 by King Henry 4, and some of the original buildings are still standing. Many famous figures from British public life were educated at Eton. Immediately opposite Eton, across the Thames, is Windsor, a town which is closely associated with Eton. Windsor Castle, the largest castle in England and a favourite home of the Royal family,

dominates the skyline the town.

Traditionally, public schools were always single-sex schools but now many of them are

becoming co-educational, both boys and girls attend the school. Eton, however, still remains a

public school for boys only.

♦ In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age of six. When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects , but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities. There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialized, polytechnic, musical, art and others. Nowadays appeared some new types of schools: gymnasiums and colleges.

and is different in different parts of the world. Some scientists think that the world is becoming hotter. If you compare Moscow winter and summer temperatures at the beginning of our century and at its end you will see that climate has really changed. Winters have become warmer. Sometimes there is little snow in January, and there were winters when it rained on the New Year’s Eve. Many people say that it is so because of the greenhouse effect.

♦ The year is divided into four seasons: winter, spring, summer, and autumn. Each season has its good and bad sides. But we can.t forget that in different countries, even in different parts of the country the climate is different. ќOther countries have a climate, in England we have weather› . the English say, because the weather changes more often than in other countries. British winters are mild and springs are cool because of the winds that blow from the Atlantic Ocean. They blow 2 days out of every 3.

In spring sunshine and showers follow each other so often during the day that an umbrella or a raincoat is absolutely necessary in England. The weather in spring is generally mild but sometimes the days are cold. In England summer is the hottest season. It.s time for holidays. People go to the seaside to sunbathe, to swim. Most of vegetables and plants can die from the drought if they aren.t washed. The summer nights are short, but they are wonderful. As for autumn it isn.t so nice. It.s a season of winds and beautiful sunsets. The leaves turn yellow and reddish and fall to the ground and the birds migrate to warm countries. A spell of sunny weather in September is called Indian Summer or .Golden Autumn.. In England September and October are

warm and dry, but November is the foggiest month. In winter in England they have all sorts of weather. Sometimes it rains and sometimes it snows. In England it isn.t so cold in winter as in our country and they don.t get so much snow as we get here in Russia. The rivers in England never freeze, that.s why children there go skating very seldom. When there are 8 degrees of frost in England everyone complains on the cold.

Oh, I nearly forgot to say that the worst thing about the climate in England is thick fog. It is sometimes so thick that cars may run into one another. Each season is good in its own way but my favorite season is summer. Because you can go to the seaside, swim and sunbathe and eat more fruit and vegetables.

fond of hiking travel to the East of our country. High mountains and big woods are full of wonders. It is nice to travel to the South. It's such a wonderful weather there! Sunny days, warm sea, golden sand and much fruit help to have a good rest.

Last year during my vacation I was at a sanatorium in the Crimea on the shore of the Black Sea. After the examinations I had many things to do in the town. When I was quite free I could go to the station, buy a ticket and catch a fast train going to the Crimea.

I like to travel very much, so the way was very interesting for me. Our sanatorium was in a beautiful white building at the seashore. Behind it there was a large park with lots of pretty flowers. Through the window of my room 'I could see the high mountains. I must say that, though I was not quite well then, I had a very good time.

But you can travel not only to different parts of our country; you can visit other countries, too.

It's so exciting to visit different countries and places, but the English proverb says: "East or West… home is best", and it's nice to come back home after traveling.

I think, that traveling is a very useful thing for us, and I enjoy all kinds of traveling very much!

♦ I think that many people like traveling. When you travel you go from place to place, you meet different people, you get to know a lot of interesting things and keep your memories for a long time.

The travel bug comes to people of different ages, often rather late in life. People retire, their children live separately, sometimes it's necessary to forget some sad facts or events - there can be so many reasons - they start travelling. It's impossible in our country, I'm afraid, because many old people here are penniless, but there in America or Canada people travel just by a camper and enjoy the best of life. They don't worry about visas, they can change their direction… I envy them.

Well, I like to travel, too. And I want to tell you about the most impressing place I have been to. I think that the most beautiful thing is not the thing created by people, but the thing created by nature.

fall on New Year in Russia. The welcoming of the new year is considered the most significant occasion of the winter.

The New Year's tree is identical to a Christmas tree in the West. It is decorated in the same way, with ornaments, lights and garland. Stars are usually perched atop the tree rather than angels, and ornaments of a religious nature as well as nativity scenes are notably absent.

Folklore holds that Ded Moroz ("Grandfather Frost") is charged with the responsibility for delivering presents on New Year's Eve. He is a large, bearded and grandfatherly man resembling Santa Claus, although he has no saintly identity, nor sleigh nor reindeer. He is sometimes said to be dressed in blue rather than red - this is a point of contention. Either way, he emerges on New Year's Eve with a gargantuan, overflowing sack of gifts and dispenses them to each family. The actual procedure of doing this is not a significant component of the mythology; he doesn't come down the chimney, but it doesn't really matter how he gets into your dwelling. Perhaps through the front door, perhaps through the window - who knows?

Instead of elves to help him, Ded Moroz has his grand-daughter Snegurochka ("Snowy"), with whom he lives somewhere in the northern forest. Snegurochka is generally portrayed as an attractive young blonde girl, often dressed in light winter attire and sometimes a red cap. Presents are also given on New Year. There is no requirement of waiting until the morning of New Year's Day to open them; instead, they are usually presented and opened shortly after greeting the New Year at midnight.

♦ Christmas is celebrated in Russia as a religious holiday. Because the Russian Orthodox Church does not recognize the Gregorian calendar, religious events are timed according to the Julian calendar. This means that Christmas falls on the 7th of January. In point of whether New Year and Christmas have always held their respective positions, my knowledge is rather weak. As far as I have been told, New Year has always held a position of eminence, yet it is safe to assume that its position as the dominant affair of the winter was bolstered by the official atheism of the Soviet regime. Christmas was stripped of official recognition as a holiday after the 1917 revolution, and it was not re-established as such until 1992, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

She did well at school and was always ready to help their friends to cope with difficult home assignments.

She is fond of reading books. Olga thinks the one book isn't enough to read, she generally has two or three books going at once. Olga has a lot of books at home and she buys them wherever she goes. She says that the books are of great help any time and they always must be at hand.

Besides, my best friend is fond of music, especially classic one. She likes to listen to the music and relax. Olga goes in for sports and she is a member of our school volley-ball team. Our coach says she is a very gifted sportsman.

Olga always manages to be amusing and cheerful, energetic and enthusiastic.

She is in a habit of helping her parents, because they always have a lot of work to do both at work and about the house. She is a sunny soul by nature and always takes the slightest excuse to be amused. My best friend has an imagination and her own style. She usually writes nice compositions, because she is an educated person.

Olga is an easy-going girl, and when sometimes it comes to quarreling, she tries to make it up at once. As I have already told you, she is a helpful person and always tried to do her best to help somebody when lie has some problems. In a word - she has a noble look and bright spirit.

8 (#14) Traffic_____________________________________________

♦ The British are enthusiastic about mobility. They regard the opportunity to travel far and frequently as a right. Some people spend up to two or three hours each day getting to work in London or some other big city and back home to their suburban or country homes in the evening. As elsewhere in Europe, transport in modern Britain is dominated by the motor car and there are the attendant problems of traffic congestion and pollution. The first one was solved by the not admitting private transport in the center of London, and the second one is being solved.

Nearly three-quarters of households in Britain have regular use of a car and about a quarter have more than one car. The widespread enthusiasm for cars is, as elsewhere, partly a result of people using them to project an image of themselves.

Mostly in public transport only immigrants and tourists can be seen. The second reason of usage own cars it is the passion for privacy. Being in your car means being in your castle.

The British are not very keen on scooters and motorcycles. Millions of bicycles are used, especially by younger people, but only at University cities.

The number of routes situated near historical center of London is huge.

The system of getting into the bus is the same as in Russia right now – through the driver’s door. If there’s no place for sitting in the bus you are not admitted (just a few people can stay in the bus). But in rush hour it doesn’t takes you long to wait another bus. On the each bus stop there’s a map that you can consult.

As for underground it is surely unique place. It does not work all day round but every station works according to it’s timetable. Metro stations are very plain and cant be compared to Moscow ones looking like palaces. As a rule they are very dirty also. The seats in the trains are very comfortable, but the ceilings are very low, and if your height above 1m85 you can bump against the ceiling. It can take you 15 min to wait for the next train if you miss the first one.

♦ The TFL Oyster card is London's travel smartcard. It can store your season ticket or Pre Pay (pay-as-you-go travel), or a combination of both. You simply touch it on the card readers at Tube and DLR stations, on buses and at tram stops. Paying for transport in London with cash is much more expensive than using an Oyster card so, since you are certain to use the Tube or buses while you are in London, we

9 (#15) Health and Medical Care______________________________

♦ When we are ill that means we have a headache, a stomach ache, a sore throat, a cold, or a pain in some parts of the body, we call a doctor. He examines us and diagnoses the illness. He takes our temperature and our pulse. He examines our heart, our lungs, our stomach or the part where we have pain, and tells us what the matter is with us. The doctor prescribes medicine, and gives us a prescription, which we take to the chemist's, who makes up the medicine. If you follow the doctor's orders, you get better; if you disobey the doctor, you may get worse, and even die. We must obey the doctor, if we want to get better. If we have a temperature, we must stay in bed and take the medicine he prescribes. If we cannot get better at home we must go to hospital. If we are too ill to walk, we go to hospital in the ambulance. After our illness we can go to a sanatorium until we are strong again. When we have toothache, we go to the dentist's. He examines our teeth, finds the tooth which hurts us, stops or extracts it. Now here in Russia health system incorporates a variety of medical institutions. The medical service in Russia is of two kinds. Some state establishments give their employees medical insurance cards. They guarantee the people free of charge medical assistance. Some medical establishments charge fees for treatment. They may be rat-her high, but our medical service now uses all modem equipment and medicines and provides qualified medical help to all people.

♦ People nowadays are more health-conscious than they used to be. They understand that good health is above wealth.

To be healthy we should avoid different bad habits that can affect our health. In my opinion, smoking and drinking too much alcohol, are the worst ones. It's common knowledge that smoking and drinking can shorten our lives dramatically. Smoking, for example, causes a number of heart and lung diseases, such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. Besides, it makes your teeth yellow and skin unhealthy. Fortunately, in recent years smoking has received a lot of bad publicity, and fewer people smoke nowadays. Some companies don't employ people who are smokers. Smoking has been banned in most public places because everyone agrees it does harm to our health. I don't smoke, because I don't want to have unhealthy skin and teeth and die young.

Smoking and drinking are joined by less dangerous habits, such as skipping meals, eating unhealthy food, or even overeating. Of course,

I think it is very important to be fit and healthy, and it is necessary to take care of your health. Being fat, in fact, can cause real problems. It is harder for fat people to get a good job, or even

to make friends. If you want to do well, you must be thin. That's why I go in for sports on a regular basis. I have been doing aerobics for three years and I feel great. I am not enthusiastic about strict dieting, but I try to eat only low-fat food, and fruit and vegetables which are rich in vitamins.

Personally I believe that regularity in life promotes our health. Sleeping eight or nine hours, getting up early, regular meals, a healthy diet and going in for sports is really a good way to live.

♦ If we caught cold, have a splitting headache, have a clogged nose, cough, are running high temperature, we must go to the policlinic. First we come to the registry. The registry clerk on a duty asks our name, address, age and occupation .He writes out some slips because several specialists will examine us. Some of them will listen to out heart and lungs, some will check up our kidneys, liver, stomach, eyesight, and hearing. The others will make our blood analysis, take

our blood pressure and x-ray us.

Our district doctor sees his patients in consulting room 4. A nurse gives us a thermometer to take our temperature. We must keep it under an armpit. Last time my temperature was 37,9.The doctor asked what my trouble was. He offered to sit down in a chair and to strip to the waist. He felt my pulse. It was faint and accelerated. Then I lay on the examination couch and the doctor palpated my abdomen. He asked me from what disease I suffered in my childhood. I suffered from scarlet fever .Now I felt dizzy and was damp with sweat. The doctor filled in my card and diagnosed the case as the flu.

When he wrote out a prescription for some medicines: pills, powder, drops, and mixture. He also advised me to take a scalding footbath, to put a hot water bottle to my feet, to have hot tea with raspberry jam. That would keep my fever down. The result of my x-ray examination and blood analysis was normal. I had the prescription made at the chemist's. I followed the prescribed treatment to avoid complications. Every day I took a tablespoonful of mixture 3 times a day and some pills. In two days I was better and in a week I recovered from my illness. I began to take care of myself. Now I go in for sports because sports make me strong, healthy and cheerful.

from your left shoulder. 7. Have plenty of fruits and vegetables all the year round "An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Of all things people probably have diseases most. There is nothing more unpleasant

than being taking ill. If you are running a temperature, have a splitting headache feel deezy or cough you go and see a doctor or send for him at once. She or he will come and feel your pulse, take your temperature, listen to your heart, tested your lungs, measure your blood pressure, etc. Certainly, he or she will prescribe some medicine which you can get made up at chemists [drug-store] At chemist's shop you can get different kinds of medicines: pulls, tablets, ointments and many other things. I remember one of my most serious illnesses. It was four years ago. Illness started unexpectedly. Early in the morning I woke up and felt deezy and feverish. I had a splitting headache and terrible cough. My nose was running, I was sneezing all the time. I could hardly recognize my own voice. Besides Iwas running a high temperature. The doctor asked me to strip to the waist, then sounded my lungs, felt my pulse, examined the throat. I had phenomena and I was to be taken to the hospital. I had to stay for a month there and obliged to get a lot of penicillin injections. In the long run I recovered of course. But most of all I'm afraid of visiting a dentist. Toothache can't be compared with anything else. Extracting a tooth or having a tooth field are quite common things but now painful.

11 (#17) English Food______________________________________

♦ The English usually have 4 meals a day: breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. Breakfast can be a full ќEnglish breakfast› of cornflakes with milk and sugar, or bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, tea or coffee.At midday everything is stopped for tea. Most offices and small shops are closed for an hour. The English like what they call “good plain food”. They must be able to recognize what they are eating. Usually they like steak, roast beef, Yorkshire pudding and fish and chips.

Afternoon tea is taken at about 5 o.clock, but it can hardly be called a meal. It is a cup of tea and cake or biscuits. At the weekends afternoon tea is a special occasion. Friends and visitors are often invited to have a chat over a cup of tea.

Dinner is the most substantial meal of the day. It usually eaten at 7 o.clock. The first course may be soup (though the English don.t like it very much). The main course will often be fish or meat, perhaps the traditional roast beef of old England, and a lot of vegetables. The next course will be something sweet and often cooked, such as fruit pie. Last of all there may be cheese, often with biscuits.

It is common knowledge that the English are very fond of tea. They like to have ќa nice cup of tea› 6 or 8 times a day, sometimes even more.

Russian people have 4 meals a day too. Traditional Russian foods are pelmeni and pancakes. The Russian often have a nice meal on Sunday, with all their family, grandparents, grandchildren, and so on. The meal can go on for long time, maybe three, four hours. As for me I prefer Russian food, because English food isn.t tasty.

♦ The two features of live in England that is possibly give visitors their worst impressions are the English weather and English cooking. English food has often been described as tasteless. But it would be unfair to say that all English food is bad. Many traditional British dishes are as good as anything you can get anythere.

Meals and mealtimes in England are not the same in all families. The English usually have 4 meals a day: breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner.

Breakfast is the first meal of the day. But it is often rather hurried and informal meal. Most people do not have a full breakfast at all apart from a hot drink. People who do have a full breakfast say

that it is quite good. Breakfast can be a full .English breakfast. of cornflakes with milk and sugar, bacon or eggs, toast and marmalade, tea or coffee.

12 (#19) The Writer and Painter, the Musician____________________

♦ Pushkin is the most important Russian writer of all time, like Shakespeare in England or Dante in Italy. Pushkin provided the standards for Russian arts and literature in 19th century.

Pushkin was born in Moscow in 1799 into an upper-class family. In 1811 he entered a lyceum at Tsarskoe Selo. The education offered at the lyceum shaped Pushkin's life.

Pushkin was Russia's greatest poet. In his works he was first influenced by 18th century poets, and then by Lord Byron. Finally he developed his own style, which was realistic but classical in form. This writer, called by many "the sun of Russian literature", belongs among the foremost poets and writers of the world.

♦ William Somerset Maugham is one of the best known English writers of the 20th century. He was not only a novelist, but also a one of the most successful dramatist and short-story writers. He was born in Paris in 1874. His parents died when he was very little and the boy was brought up by his uncle, clergyman. After his parents death the boy was taken away from the French school which he had attended, and went for his lessons daily to the apartment of the English clergyman at the church . At the age of ten the boy was sent to England to attend school. In 1890 he went abroad and studied at the University of Heidelberg from which he returned to England in 1892 and as his parents had destined him for the medical profession, he became a medical student at St Thomas.s hospital in London. His experience in treating the sick gave Maugham material for his first work Lisa of Lambeth(1897). After that, although he became a fully ualified

doctor, Somerset decided to devote his life to literature. .I didn.t want to be a doctor. I didn.t want to be anything but a writer.. Soon after the publication of his first novel Maugham went to Spain and travelled widely to all parts of the world. He visited Russia, America, Africa, Asia. The technique of the short story had always interested Maugham. DeMaupassant and Chekhov influenced him but he developed a form of a story that has unmistakable Maugham.s flavor.

Somerset Maugham has written 24 plays, 19 novels and a large number of short stories. The most mature period of his life began in 1915, when he published one of his most popular novels, Of human Bondage. Maugham wants the readers to draw his own conclusion about the characters and events described in his novels. The other most prominent works by Somerset Maugham are: Cakes and

century. He was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking, bizarre, and beautiful images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in 1931. Salvador Dalí's artistic repertoire also included film, sculpture, and photography. He collaborated with Walt Disney on the Academy Award-nominated short cartoon Destino, which was released posthumously in 2003. Born in Catalonia, Spain, Dalí insisted on his "Arab lineage," claiming that his ancestors descended from the Moors who invaded Spain in 711, and attributed to these origins, "my love of everything that is gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes."

Widely considered to be greatly imaginative, Dalí had an affinity for doing unusual things to draw attention to himself. This sometimes irked those who loved his art as much as it annoyed his critics, since his eccentric manner sometimes drew more public attention than his artwork. The purposefully sought notoriety led to broad public recognition and many purchases of his works by people from all walks of life.

♦ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. His output of over 600 compositions includes works widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. Mozart is among the most enduringly popular of European composers and many of his works are part of the standard concert repertoire. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest composers of classical music.

office. VR goggles and gloves allow the customers to build their own kitchen from thousands of options. In fact there are countless applications for VR. Say, children will be taken to visit castles of the past and medical students will be able to practice without using real people.

♦ To answer the question whether science does us good or does it brings disaster isn’t a simple task. We should take into consideration many facts. On the one hand a lot of outstanding discoveries made the life of the people more comfortable and pleasant. Without scientific discoveries and inventions no progress would be possible. Thanks to discovery of electricity we can listen to the radio, watch TV, see films, people learned how to produce steel and metal alloys – now we use railways and airplanes.

Development of chemistry led to new synthetic fibers and people got more clothing and food. People learned to use scientific achievements in curing incurable earlier diseases.

But on the other hand such outstanding discoveries of the 20th century as atom fission led to creation of the weapons of mass destruction. We should say that science has a potential for both good and evil.

Alfred Nobel invented a new explosive (dynamite) to improve the peacetime industries of road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men.

He was born in Stockholm on October 21st 1833, but moved to Russia with his parents in1842. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, where Alfred began his own study of explosives in his father’s laboratory. He had never been to school or university, but had studied privately and by the time he was 20 was a skillful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Russian, English, German, French and Swedish. He was very imaginative and inventive.

His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars, and thus between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause, until his death in 1896. His famous will in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding discoveries in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.

Medical men use laser to cure and investigate diseases and the same time laser can be used for destruction.

Achievements of biology and chemistry are also used to cause damage to people.

10 (#16) Wonders of the Modern World_________________________

♦ When Charles Babbage, a professor of Mathematics at Cambridge university, invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he couldn’t imagine the situation we find ourselves in today. Nearly everything we do in the world is helped, or even controlled by computers, the complicated descedants of his simple machine. Just as television has extended human sight across the barriers of time and distance, so the computers extend the power of the human mind across the existing barriers. Computers are used more and more often in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficent than human beings. They have much better memories and they can store much information. No man alive can do 500000 sums in one second, but a computer can. In fact, computers can do many of the things we do, but faster and better. They can predict weather, and ever play chess, write poetry or compose music. Computers are one of great importance in modern hospital.

Computers play a very important part in our life. They help people in their work and studies. They save us a lot of time. While at the University I often made use of the Internet to collect information for my test papers and compositions.

Computers give access to a lot of information. It is possible to find data and descriptions, chapters from necessary books… to make a long story short, everything you need.

Ordinary computer can remember only the data stored in the hard disk. Now scientists have desighned machines, that are capable of learning from experience and remembering what they have learned.

Every day I do my morning exercises and have a cold rubdown to prevent myself from catching cold. There is a good proverb: An apple a day keeps doctor away. That's why I eat a lot of fruits and vegetables.

In case of sudden and severe illness or an accident calls are made to the first aid station. There the doctors are on duty all day long. There are many ambulances there. The ambulances are equipped with everything necessary to give the first aid. The patient is transported to hospital. There he is taken to the reception ward first. After questioning and examination the doctor fills in the patient's case history. Then a patient is given special clothes and is put to some ward for treatment. The doctors make their daily round there. They examine patients and prescribe different medicines and treatments.

When a patient is completely cured, he is discharged from the hospital. There are different departments in the hospital. They are: a surgical department, therapy, and the department of infectious diseases.

♦ Medicines are not meant to live, an English proverb says. Yes, that's true and we may add that good health is better than the best medicine. If your health is good, you are always in a good mood. You have a sound mind in a solid body, as an Old Latin saying goes. The English proverb "Sickness in the body brings sickness to the mind, expresses the similar idea, but from the different point of view. The profession of a doctor is one of the most noble, respected and needed

in the worlds, as we turn to a doctor for advise at the hardest moments of our life, when we fall ill or suffer from pain or some disorder in our body and soul. We complain of low medical treatment, poor equipment of hospitals, difficulties in getting this or that medicine and so on. What a pity we start to value our health only when it is necessary to take medicine. Taking medicine is an unpleasant thing of course, and if we want to avoid it, we should go in for sport and keeps ourselves fit. Physical exercises to my mind are necessary. Physically inactive people catch cold more often than those who do plenty of exercises. Physical exercises are good pastime. That is true that good health is better than the best medicine. If you do early exercises you feel refreshed you have a good posture and that makes you felled so pay attention to the way

you stand waken sit. Here some rules for good health. 1. Take long walks in the open air as often as you can. 2. Keep your body clean. 3. Keep your teeth clean. 4. Wear clean clothes. 5. Sleep with your window open. 6. When you are reading or writing let the light come

they are not quite as deadly as smoking or drinking alcohol, but they also affect our health.

If we eat too much, we'll become obese, and obesity leads to serious health problems. A lot of people like drinking coca cola and coffee, and enjoy pizzas and hamburgers. But what is tasty is not always healthy. Fast food makes you fat, that's why Americans are the fattest people in the world.

In recent years eating habits have undergone a change. People are encouraged to eat less fat and more fibre. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity and heart disease. High fibre and low fat foods can now be found in all shops and supermarkets. Salads, beans, and fruit have taken the place of steak and ice cream. The fashion for health food is growing all the time.

Many people feel they are too fat, even if their doctors disagree. And a lot of people try to improve their fitness. There are a lot of ways to lose weight and avoid gaining it. Perhaps the most popular of them is following a diet. If you want to lose weight, you should cut out snacks and desserts, and cut down on fat. People have also become more aware of calories, the energy value of food. Some people count the number of calories they eat every day; so that they can try to take in fewer calories and lose weight. This is called a calorie-controlled diet. Manufacturers are increasingly producing special foods with fewer calories for slimmers.

But excessive dieting may be dangerous, too. Some people refuse to eat meat as they consider it harmful. They say a vegetarian diet reduces the risk of cancer and vegetarians live longer than others. I can't agree with them, because meat is an excellent source of good nutrition. In my opinion, it's wrong to put down a food simply because excessive amounts can cause health problems. Consumed in moderate amounts, meat is perfectly good for our health.

To my mind, the only way to stay healthy and to keep fit is by going in for sports. Among the benefits of regular exercise are a healthier heart, stronger bones, quicker reaction times and more

resistance to various illnesses. Besides, you can eat and drink as much as you want because you are burning it all off.

To be healthy, it is also very important to spend a lot of time in the open air. It is useful to go for a walk before going to bed, or to air the room.

strongly recomend that you get an Oyster card. The Underground is divided into six Zones. Zone 1 being Central London and increasing the further out you travel from the centre. Most of the homestay we arrange is in Zone 2. Last trains run around midnight.

The last buses and tubes leave central London at around midnight but there is also a network of night buses. When travelling on a London bus, you must ring the bell once to indicate that you want to get off at the next bus stop. There are two sorts of taxis in London: black cabs and minicabs. Black cabs stop if their light is on and you wave at them. A good place to get a taxi is a railway station or a large hotel. You may wish to tip the driver about 10-12 per cent of the fare although this is not essential. Minicabs are private and are usually called by telephone. They are generally cheaper than black cabs, especially at night and weekends. However the drivers are not licenced in the same way as black cabs and may not know London so well.

All this shows that science can take good forms and evil forms. What form does it take depends on the way people work with science. It is impossible to stop progress, to stop people to investigate and explore the world. But people should care it wouldn’t be led in wrong direction.

Scientists need you thinking in a new much broader way than before. In this respect the education and cultural level are of great importance. They have to influence politicians, warn them of possible effects of using new discoveries. Scientists and politicians think that it’s their responsibility for not using scientific developments to cause damage and destruction. There is a lot of work to be done in this direction.

13 (#20) Science and Technology_____________________________

♦ Modern technology is rapidly spreading all over the earth. Scientists, researchers, engineers and designers are eager to emulate the material achievements and living standards of the industrially advanced countries. One can hardly imagine our present day life without such trivial gadgets as can-openers, food processors, air conditioners or vacuum cleaners. Every office is equipped with a PC, an answer-phone, a fax machine and a photocopier. Every teenager is able to use a remote control unit, a video recorder, a camera or a Walkman.

I'm absolutely sure that all these things make our life more exciting, save a lot of time and help to avoid health problems. For example, most of my friends have a microwave in the kitchen. We use it almost every day without realizing how considerably it revolutionized the way food is cooked both at home and within food industry. Although it met with the disapproval of many top chefs, when invented, it is becoming an increasingly common sight in many restaurant kitchens. Its greatest advantage is a huge reduction of time needed to prepare a dish. Secondly, it's easy to clean and high temperatures minimize the risk of infection. It's also a great time-saver for those who don't wish to waste their time sweating over a hot cooker or use cancer causing fats when flying.

When Charles Babbage (1792-1871), a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he could hardly have imagined the situation we find ourselves today. In fact, the PCs are being used in almost every field today for the simple reason that they are more efficient than human beings, doing 500,000 sums in a fraction of a second. They can pay wages, reserve seats on planes, control sputniks in space, work out tomorrow's weather, play chess and compose music. They even help police fight crime, saving the detective from checking the information, identifying the fingerprints or making a photo robot. It's needless to say that speed there is very essential.

Moreover, scientists predict that virtual reality will soon be a part and parcel of life. This amazing thing allows us to experience another dimensions. It is not quite as immediate as the real world, but it is startling and experts say that in a few years every home will be using a VR set. I must say that it is already used in Japan to sell kitchens. Instead of renting huge displays, companies can do with one small

Ale(1930), Theatre(1937), and The Razor.s Edge(1944). Realistic portrayal of life, keen character observation, and interesting plots coupled with beautiful, expressive language, simple and lucid style, place Somerset Maugham on a level with the greatest English writers of the 20th century

♦ Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer.

He was born and raised near Vinci, Italy, the illegitimate son of a notary, Messer Piero, and a peasant woman, Caterina. He had no surname in the modern sense, "da Vinci" simply meaning "of Vinci". His full birth name was "Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci", meaning "Leonardo, son of (Mes)ser Piero from Vinci."

Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the "Renaissance man", a man whose seemingly infinite curiosity was equalled only by his powers of invention. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.

It is primarily as a painter that Leonardo was and is renowned. Two of his works, the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper occupy unique positions as the most famous, the most illustrated and most imitated portrait and religious painting of all time. Their fame is approached only by Michelangelo's Creation of Adam. Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also iconic.

As an engineer, Leonardo conceived ideas vastly ahead of his own time, conceptually inventing a helicopter, a tank, the use of concentrated solar power, a calculator, a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics, the double hull, and many others. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were feasible during his lifetime. Some of his smaller inventions such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire entered the world of manufacturing unheralded.

He greatly advanced the state of knowledge in the fields of anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and the study of water. Of his works, perhaps 15 paintings survive, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and notes.

♦ Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Domènech Marquis of Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), popularly known as Salvador Dalí, was a Spanish artist and one of the most important painters of the 20th

The British are the world.s greatest tea-drinkers. They drink the quarter of all the tea grown in the world each year. They like to have .a nice cup of tea. 6 or 8 times a day, sometimes even more. At midday everything is stopped for tea. Most offices and small shops are closed for an hour. Afternoon tea is taken at about 5 o.clock, but it can hardly be called a meal. It is a cup of tea and cake or biscuits. At the weekends afternoon tea is a special occasion. Friends and visitors

are often invited to have a chart over a cup of tea.

Lunch is a light meal and eaten at school or work. Lunch takes 30 . 40 minutes. Some offices have installed (устанавливать) a microwave oven for employees to use. Popular lunches are: a salad or sandwich, a baked potato, beans (фасоль) on toast. Snacks are very popular in Britain and many people frequently eat snacks between meals. Schools and workplaces may also sell snacks such as crisps, chocolate, sweets and biscuits. Instant snacks are the fastest-growing sector of the food market.

Dinner is usually the main meal of the day. It usually eaten at 7 o.clock and consists of two courses. The first course may be soup (though the English don.t like it very much). The main course will often be fish or meat, perhaps the traditional roast beef and a lot of vegetables. The next course will be something sweet and often cooked, such as fruit pie. Last of all may be cheese, often with biscuits.

The English like what they call .good plain food.. They must recognize what they are eating. Usually they like steak, roast beef, Yorkshire pudding, fish and chips.

#3 Earth Has Lost Two-thirds of Its Forests______________________

♦ Despite Earth Summits, television documentaries and all the public awareness of deforestation, woodlands are being cut down, burned and turned into farmland or scrub at an ever increasing rate with an area the size of England and Wales disappearing each year.

Two-thirds of the world's forests have been lost forever. In one generation we are facing the almost complete loss of natural forest.

The new figures are far worse than previously thought and the Asia Pacific region, where fires are raging in In donesia had lost 88 per cent of its forest cover even before the current disaster. Only two per cent of the world's forests are protected. At least 10 per cent of each forest type need to be saved to have any hope of preventing mass destruction of species that live there.

For some countries like the UK it is too late with 97 per cent already destroyed But even here woodland is still being lost.

The burning of forests, brush and pasture in the Amazon in 1997 was worse than ever. The government estimate for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon was 15,000 square kilometres a year, an area nearly as large as Wales - but that dates back as to 1994.

The disturbing figures are based on what scientists believe would have been world forest cover 8,000 years ago, before man started to clear them for agriculture. 81 million square kilometres existed 8,000 years ago, at the end of the last Ice Age, covering just over 60 per cent of the earth's land surface if ice-covered Greenland and Antarctica are excluded. Today that has fallen to just over 30 million square kilometres.

Apart from the extinction of species caused by the loss of forests, the local climate is altered. In the case of the Indonesian fires the smog problem is replaced by others when the rains come. Soil and ash are washed into rivers clogging them, killing the fish and causing flooding. In Brazil people regularly suffer flooding because there are no trees to soak up the water.

The forests are disappearing to provide pasture, plantations and cropland although sometimes the cleared land is .only to be used for a few years before its fertility collapses, and scrub invades, and the ranchers move on to new forest areas. This is what happened in Britain, which was mostly covered in forest, over the past 4,000 years.

Apart from wiping out literally millions of plant and animal species, the forest loss is altering local climates, hastening water run off and even

#5 A Time-bomb in the Earth's Atmosphere______________________

♦ Ground and satellite readings confirm a decline in global ozone: the stratospheric ozone shield that protects life from damaging ultraviolet radiation is being rapidly depleted. The depletion of the ozone layer is an immediate global environmental problem threatening the survival and development of humanity.

Industrial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), widely used as refrigerants in auto air-conditioning, halons, used as fire retardants, aerosol propellants and solvents, foam-blowing agents and others which destroy the ozone layer allow harmful ultraviolet rays to enter the atmosphere, damaging plant and animal life. These chemicals also contribute to global warming. Created and used by man for industrial and commercial purposes, the chemicals appear to be the sole cause for this destructive effect

Destruction of the ozone layer may be compared to the effect of a bomb that has been primed: its timing mechanism is counting off days, hours and minutes up to the "explosion", which could threaten all civilization with disaster. And the. cause of the disaster, if it happens, will not be atomic or hydrogen bombs or laser weapons - it will be nothing more exotic than the ordinary everyday deodorant can and refrigeration systems using CFCs.

When they were first synthesised over 60 years ago, these chemicals were the pride and joy of the chemists who invented them: they were harmless, non-toxic and cheap to produce. Now they are called "killers".

Each one percent drop in ozone is thought to allow a 2 to 3 percent rise in the ultraviolet light reaching Earth. Any large increase would be reason for serious concern. The light is destructive to DNA, the hereditary material, and to proteins.

The most dramatic evidence of damage to the global ozone shield appears each spring in the polar regions. The continent-wide hole over the Antarctica was first detected by British researches in 1982. A retrospective examination of satellite data reveals that the hole was virtually undetectable prior to 1979. In 1987, a 50 percent reduction in ozone was measured during October. In January 1989, a major international research effort confirmed that conditions similar but less severe than those found in the south polar atmosphere prevailed over the Arctic. The chemistry resembled that found over the Antarctica. As the Antarctic ozone hole dissipates each summer, great masses of

#18 Global Climate Change__________________________________

♦ Global interdependence is nowhere as clear and inescapable as in our shared environment* There is a universal recognition that the world's environment is under attack, the environment has been severely damaged. All human beings are directly affected.

The increase in human population and economic activity is producing a dramatic buildup in CO2 and other substances that trap the sun's heat inside the atmosphere, resulting in a sharp rise in the earth's temperature.

Of all the environmental problems, global climate change is in many ways the most threatening and intractable. The linkage between mankind's economic activities and climate change is quite clear nowadays. Climate change is closely connected with radical changes taking place in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The cpmbustion of fossil fuels is a principal source of heat-trapping carbon dioxide (CO2), which is accumulating in the atmosphere at an alarming rate. Carbon dioxide levels are now 25 per cent higher than they were in preindustrial times. Other heat-trapping gases, such as chlorof luorocarbons and methane, are also released into the atmosphere at a growing rate.

The research carried out by Russian scientists in Antarctica jointly with French collegues has revealed the strong correlation between high concentration of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere and warm interglacial climate regimes. What is especially alarming in these Russian-French findings is that current levels of both of these heat-trapping gases are higher than they have ever been in the past 160,000 years and are rising.

If these temperature increases occur, marked changes in weather patterns and costly and severe social and economic dislocations will result.

The full consequences of global warming are not completely understood. While there might be some benign consequences in some limited parts of the world, it is clear that most regions, particular coastal areas, would be visited by catastrophe. Few nations will be able to adapt rapidly enough to escape major economic and ecological disruption.

Countries in temperate latitudes could see the climatic bands associated with their current forests migrating northward faster than the forests could follow. The frequency of extremely hot days, as would

CONTENTS

Schooling in Great Britain and in Russia 1

Your Family 3

The area you live in 7

Personality 9

Holidays 11

Traveling 13

Seasons and Weather 15

Traffic 17

Health and Medical Care 19

Wonders of the Modern World 24

English Food 25

The Writer and Painter, the Musician 27

Science and Technology 30

Earth Has Lost Two-thirds of Its Forests 33

A Time-bomb in the Earth's Atmosphere 35

Global Climate Change 37

DISCUSSION TOPICS

2007 © Faz

www.PXTY.info

the frequency and intensity of destructive tropical storms. Currently fertile areas could be-pome arid as precipitation patterns change. This has profound implications for agriculture and water resource management. Models predict that the best grain-growing regions in both the USA and Russia will become much drier as global wanning progresses. Developing countries would suffer the most severe consequences since they possess fewer resources to adapt to change. There is clearly the capacity to adjust if the climatic change is slight, but continuing rapid, radical change would have consequences far beyond the abilities of the nations of the world to undertake the adaptive strategies. On the contrary, there is a necessity to make every effort to maintain the climate balance we now have.

With a continuation of the current rates of release of CO2 and an equal effect from increases in other greenhouse gases, a temperate rise of 1.5-4.5 °C by the third quarter of the 20th century can be expected. A significant acceleration in sea-level rise is also possible. Over the last hundred years, as temperatures have risen 0.5 °C, sea level has risen approximately 10 cm. But the rate of sea-level rise is also accelerating and is currently 2.1 cm per decade.

No one nation can solve these problems on its own, because averse environmental trends spill over all national boundaries.

The countries of Europe and America, Asia and Africa have an urgent duty to join together, face their challenge.

The time to act is now.

As a first priority, energy consumption, particularly fossil fuel combustion, must be curtailed.

The people of the earth share life on one planet. Only by acting together we can meet the common dangers that face us all. Bold steps must be taken to stop the environmental degradation.

ozone-deficient air have spread as far as New Zealand, Australia, and southern Argentina and Chile, resulting in significantly higher radiation exposure for the populations of these nations. In addition, ozone levels over midlatitudes of the northern hemisphere are decreasing. The average levels of ozone in the midlatitudes of the northern hemisphere appear to have decreased by about three per cent.

High concentrations of chlorine and bromine occur where ozone depletion is the most severe. Some scientists conclude that the sudden onset of the ozone hole was triggered when chlorine levels exceeded two parts for billion. This is an example of how sensitive the earth's atmosphere is to man-made chemical effects.

Even if the production and use ,of ozone-depleting substances is stopped immediately, the chemicals already released will continue to accelerate ozone depletion for ten years. It will require nearly three centuries for the ozone hole to fully heal.

The increased ground-level intensity of ultraviolet radiation that accompanies stratospheric ozone depletion is linked in a way to increases in skin cancer, cataracts and change in the immune system in humans.

We do know enough now to recognise that the continued release of CFCs, halons and other chemicals put all of the earth's human and natural environment at risk. The threat to plant and animal life has direct consequences for humans. Commercially important fish and shrimp species, for example, have been shown to suffer mortality rates when exposed to increases in ultraviolet radiation. These findings are truly alarming.

Ecologists call for a complete, worldwide phaseout of CFCs and halons, for restrictions on other related gases that contribute to ozone depletion.

How can the transition to a total phaseout be managed? To begin with, approximately one-third of CFCs presently in use can be substituted by CFCs which decay more rapidly and present less threat to the atmosphere; one-third of CFCs can be contained and reused through recycling processes; and one-third of present uses can be phased out by the introduction of non-CFC technologies.

damaging sea fisheries and reefs as salt is washed rapidly off the land. Forest burning also produces much of the extra carbon dioxide which is pouring into the atmosphere, threatening global

warming.

The destruction of forests is a worldwide phenomenon and Europe and particularly

the UK are among the worst offenders.

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) wants ten per cent of each different type of forest, in each country, around the globe to be given permanent protection.

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