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Barrons Publishing Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms 10th

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zombie

546

built-in ZIP compression feature of Windows. (ZIP files are not related in any way to Iomega Zip drives.)

zombie a computer infected by a VIRUS that makes it perform some action on behalf of the virus author, such as distributing SPAM or carrying out a distributed DENIAL-OF-SERVICE ATTACK, without the knowledge of the computer owner. See DDOS.

zool [sic] see XUL.

zoom

1. (in graphics editing) to magnify a small area of a document on the screen. The amount of zoom is usually expressed as a percentage and displayed in a status line. To zoom in is to increase the magnification; to zoom out is to return to normal view (Figure 309).

FIGURE 309. Zoom (definition 1)

2. (in photography) to change the focal length, and hence the magnification of the camera lens (Figure 310). OPTICAL ZOOM changes the spacing of lens elements to form a larger image, revealing more detail. DIGITAL ZOOM takes the existing pixels and spreads them farther apart (see RESAMPLE); the digitally enlarged image does not contain any more detail than it did before zooming. A lens marked “3× zoom” has a focal length that is 3 times as long at maximum as at minimum. See also

FOCAL LENGTH.

FIGURE 309. Zoom (definition 2)

z/OS the newest operating system in the OS/360 lineage for IBM MAINFRAME COMPUTERS, combining MVS with UNIX compatibility. This allows the newest Internet technology to be combined with long-estab- lished mainframe data processing systems. See MVS; OS/360; POSIX.

VISUAL DICTIONARY OF CHARACTERS AND SYMBOLS

Many symbols fall into more than one category. For the Greek alphabet, see page 6. For symbols used in diagrams, see ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT SYMBOLS and FLOWCHART.

Computer Keyboard Symbols

^circumflex, hat

~tilde

`grave accent, backquote

upright quotation mark, apostrophe ‘ left quotation mark

right quotation mark, apostrophe

double quotation mark

@at sign

#pound sign, crosshatch, octothorpe

$

dollar sign

%percent sign

& ampersand

+plus sign

minus sign, hyphen

_

underscore mark

=equal sign

*asterisk

/slash

\backslash

|

vertical bar, pipe

< >

less than/greater than or angle brackets

( )

parentheses, round brackets

[ ]

square brackets

{} braces, curly brackets

¬not sign (EBCDIC)

Note: In ASCII, is equivalent to ’ and ` is equivalent to ‘.

547

VISUAL DICTIONARY OF CHARACTERS AND SYMBOLS 548

“Emoticons” used in e-mail

:) smiling face (happiness, amusement)

:( frowning face (sadness, disappointment) -) tongue in cheek

;-) winking

=:-O scared or surprised

^.^; distressed (with drops of sweat)

Commercial and Scientific Symbols

@at, price each

# identifying number or pounds (weight) % percent (per hundred)

0/00 per mil (per thousand)

°degrees

liters (obsolete; use L instead)

Ωohms

μmicro- (millionths)

©copyright

$

dollars, pesos

¥yen

£ pounds (currency)

Euro sign

549 VISUAL DICTIONARY OF CHARACTERS AND SYMBOLS

English Punctuation Marks

. period

,comma

:colon

;semicolon

! exclamation mark

?question mark

-hyphen

en dash, minus sign

em dash

. . .

ellipsis dots

upright single quotation mark, apostrophe " upright double quotation mark

‘ left single quotation mark “ left double quotation mark

right single quotation mark, apostrophe

” right double quotation mark * asterisk (first footnote)

dagger (second footnote)

‡ double dagger (third footnote)

§section mark

¶ paragraph mark (pilcrow)

bullet (to mark list items)

Accents

áacute accent

double acute accent

àgrave accent

âcircumflex

äumlaut or dieresis

ãtilde

macron (long vowel mark)

breve (short vowel mark)

wedge (hachek)

çcedilla

VISUAL DICTIONARY OF CHARACTERS AND SYMBOLS 550

Other Foreign Characters

,,“ German quotation marks

«» French quotation marks (guillemets) ¿ Spanish inverted question mark

¡ Spanish inverted exclamation mark

ß German ss (estsett)

Ææ AE digraph

Œœ OE digraph

Åå A with circle (Scandinavian)

Ø ø O with slash (Scandinavian) x Barred L (Polish)

·

I i I ı Dotted and dotless I (Turkish)

Arithmetic and Algebra

=equals

does not equal

, is approximately equal to

>is greater than

is greater than or equal to

<is less than

is less than or equal to

+addition

subtraction

×, ·

multiplication

÷, /

division

 

square root

n

nth root

!factorial

|x |

absolute value of x

infinity

is proportional to

x change in x

integral

partial derivative

551 VISUAL DICTIONARY OF CHARACTERS AND SYMBOLS

x, (x)

x

p, ¬p, ~ p p ^ q, p & q

p ^ q p q

p q, p q p q, p q p q

{a, b, c}

Ø

\

Mathematical Logic

universal quantifier (“for all x...”) existential quantifier (“there exists an x...”) negation (“not p”)

conjunction (“p and q”) disjunction (“p or q”)

exclusive-or (“p or q but not both”) implication (“if p then q”) equivalence (“p if and only if q”) from p one can derive q

Set Theory

set whose members are a, b, and c empty set

set union (elements in one or both of two sets) set intersection (elements shared by two sets) set subtraction (elements in one set and not the other)

is an element of is a subset of

is a subset of or equals

COUNTRY CODES FOR

TOP-LEVEL DOMAINS

.ac

Ascension Island

.cg

Congo, Republic of

.ad

Andorra

.ch

Switzerland

.ae

United Arab Emirates

 

(Confœderatio

.af

Afghanistan

 

Helvetica)

.ag

Antigua and Barbuda

.ci

Cote d’Ivoire

.ai

Anguilla

.ck

Cook Islands

.al

Albania

.cl

Chile

.am

Armenia

.cm

Cameroon

.an

Netherlands Antilles

.cn

China

.ao

Angola

.co

Colombia

.aq

Antarctica

.cr

Costa Rica

.ar

Argentina

.cu

Cuba

.as

American Samoa

.cv

Cape Verde

.at

Austria

.cx

Christmas Island

.au

Australia

.cy

Cyprus

.aw

Aruba

.cz

Czech Republic

.az

Azerbaijan

.de

Germany (Deutschland)

.ba

Bosnia and Herzegovina

.dj

Djibouti

.bb

Barbados

.dk

Denmark

.bd

Bangladesh

.dm

Dominica

.be

Belgium

.do

Dominican Republic

.bf

Burkina Faso

.dz

Algeria

.bg

Bulgaria

.ec

Ecuador

.bh

Bahrain

.ee

Estonia

.bi

Burundi

.eg

Egypt

.bj

Benin

.eh

Western Sahara

.bm

Bermuda

.er

Eritrea

.bn

Brunei Darussalam

.es

Spain (España)

.bo

Bolivia

.et

Ethiopia

.br

Brazil

.fi

Finland

.bs

Bahamas

.fj

Fiji

.bt

Bhutan

.fk

Falkland Islands

.bv

Bouvet Island

 

(Malvinas)

.bw

Botswana

.fm

Micronesia

.by

Belarus

.fo

Faroe Islands

.bz

Belize

.fr

France

.ca

Canada

.ga

Gabon

.cc

Cocos Islands

.gd

Grenada

.cd

Congo

.ge

Georgia

.cf

Central African

.gf

French Guiana

 

Republic

.gg

Guernsey

552

553

COUNTRY CODES FOR TOP-LEVEL DOMAINS

.gh

Ghana

.la

Laos

.gi

Gibraltar

.lb

Lebanon

.gl

Greenland

.lc

Saint Lucia

.gm

Gambia

.li

Liechtenstein

.gn

Guinea

.lk

Sri Lanka

.gp

Guadeloupe

.lr

Liberia

.gq

Equatorial Guinea

.ls

Lesotho

.gr

Greece

.lt

Lithuania

.gs

South Georgia and the

.lu

Luxembourg

 

South Sandwich Islands

.lv

Latvia

.gt

Guatemala

.ly

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

.gu

Guam

.ma

Morocco

.gw

Guinea-Bissau

.mc

Monaco

.gy

Guyana

.md

Moldova

.hk

Hong Kong

.mg

Madagascar

.hm

Heard and McDonald

.mh

Marshall Islands

 

Islands

.mk

Macedonia (former

.hn

Honduras

 

Yugoslav Republic)

.hr

Croatia/Hrvatska

.ml

Mali

.ht

Haiti

.mm

Myanmar

.hu

Hungary

.mn

Mongolia

.id

Indonesia

.mo

Macau

.ie

Ireland

.mp

Northern Mariana

.il

Israel

 

Islands

.im

Isle of Man

.mq

Martinique

.in

India

.mr

Mauritania

.io

British Indian Ocean

.ms

Montserrat

 

Territory

.mt

Malta

.iq

Iraq

.mu

Mauritius

.ir

Iran

.mv

Maldives

.is

Iceland

.mw

Malawi

.it

Italy

.mx

Mexico

.je

Jersey

.my

Malaysia

.jm

Jamaica

.mz

Mozambique

.jo

Jordan

.na

Namibia

.jp

Japan

.nc

New Caledonia

.ke

Kenya

.ne

Niger

.kg

Kyrgyzstan

.nf

Norfolk Island

.kh

Cambodia (Kampuchea)

.ng

Nigeria

.ki

Kiribati

.ni

Nicaragua

.km

Comoros

.nl

Netherlands

.kn

Saint Kitts and Nevis

.no

Norway

.kp

North Korea

.np

Nepal

.kr

South Korea

.nr

Nauru

.kw

Kuwait

.nu

Niue

.ky

Cayman Islands

.nz

New Zealand

.kz

Kazakhstan

.om

Oman

COUNTRY CODES FOR TOP-LEVEL DOMAINS

554

.pa

Panama

.tf

French Southern

 

.pe

Peru

 

Territories

 

.pf

French Polynesia

.tg

Togo

 

.pg

Papua New Guinea

.th

Thailand

 

.ph

Philippines

.tj

Tajikistan

 

.pk

Pakistan

.tk

Tokelau

 

.pl

Poland

.tm

Turkmenistan

 

.pm

St. Pierre and Miquelon

.tn

Tunisia

 

.pn

Pitcairn Island

.to

Tonga

 

.pr

Puerto Rico

.tp

East Timor

 

.ps

Palestinian Territories

.tr

Turkey

 

.pt

Portugal

.tt

Trinidad and Tobago

 

.pw

Palau

.tv

Tuvalu

 

.py

Paraguay

.tw

Taiwan

 

.qa

Qatar

.tz

Tanzania

 

.re

Reunion Island

.ua

Ukraine

 

.ro

Romania

.ug

Uganda

 

.ru

Russian Federation

.uk

United Kingdom

 

.rw

Rwanda

.um

U.S. Minor Outlying

 

.sa

Saudi Arabia

 

Islands

 

.sb

Solomon Islands

.us

United States

 

.sc

Seychelles

.uy

Uruguay

 

.sd

Sudan

.uz

Uzbekistan

 

.se

Sweden

.va

Holy See

 

.sg

Singapore

 

(Vatican City State)

 

.sh

St. Helena

.vc

Saint Vincent and

 

.si

Slovenia

 

the Grenadines

 

.sj

Svalbard and Jan Mayen

.ve

Venezuela

 

 

Islands

.vg

Virgin Islands (British)

.sk

Slovak Republic

.vi

Virgin Islands (U.S.)

 

.sl

Sierra Leone

.vn

Vietnam

 

.sm

San Marino

.vu

Vanuatu

 

.sn

Senegal

.wf

Wallis and Futuna

 

.so

Somalia

 

Islands

 

.sr

Suriname

.ws

Western Samoa

 

.st

Sao Tome and Principe

.ye

Yemen

 

.sv

El Salvador

.yt

Mayotte

 

.sy

Syrian Arab Republic

.yu

Yugoslavia

 

.sz

Swaziland

.za

South Africa

 

.tc

Turks and Caicos Islands

.zm

Zambia

 

.td

Chad (Tchad)

.zw

Zimbabwe

 

For explanation, and for international top-level domains such as .com, see TLD.

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