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Unit 20

I. Выпишите из Прил. 1 значения следующих слов, запомните их: surround (v), excite (v), mirror (v), effort (n), order (n), magnitude (n), reliable (a), fall (v), steady (a), transparent (a), bottom (n), deep (a).

П. Выпишите из Прил. 2 значения следующих терминов, запомните их:

optical fibre

capacity (n)

light-emitting diode

Ш. Сгруппируйте синонимы, переведите их:

effort (n), magnitude (n), steady (a), radiation (n), nearly (adv), develop (v), provide (v), begin (v), transparent (a), increase (v).

value (n), clear (a), start (v), emission (n), almost (adv), work out (v), give (v), attempt (n), stable (a), grow (v).

IV.Прочтите текст, дайте английский эквивалент представленных в скобках глаголов в соответствующей форме.

The first laser was (изобретать) in I960 by the American Theodore Meiman. A laser is a machine for making and concentrating light waves into a very intense beam. The letters LASER stand for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The light made by a laser is much more intense than ordinary light. With ordinary light, all light waves are of different lengths. With lasers, all the light waves are of the same length, and this (увеличивать) in intensity.

To understand what laser is, one has to (понять) how light is (генерировать). Light comes from the electrons, which surround the nucleus of every normal atom. When the atom is in its unexcited state the electrons which (окружать) the nucleus are in their normal energy levels. In a laser, the electrons are (возбуждать) to a high energy level. As the electrons fall back from their excited state to their normal state, they give off energy. This energy is given off as light, which can be (видеть).

The common (распространённый) laser is helium-neon laser. In the laser tube there is a mirror, and at the other end there is a partial mirror. The electrons (получать) energy from a power supply and (становиться) excited. They (отдавать) off energy as light. This light is (отражать) by the mirror at one end of the tube. It can only escape through the partial mirror at the other end of the tube.


  1. The modern interest in light-wave communication dates from the first demonstration of the laser in I960. This device, which can emit a nearly monochromatic beam of intense visible or infra-red radiation, opened up a region of the electromagnetic spectrum whose frequencies were 10000 times higher than the highest frequencies used for radio communication systems at that time. Since potential information-carrying capacity increases directly with frequency, communication engineers had made great efforts to develop systems of even higher frequency. From the early days of radio useful frequencies had increased by about five orders of magnitude, from about 100 kHz to about 10 GHz. Now the laser provides an increase of four more orders of magnitude to 100 terahertz (100 trillion cycles per second).

  2. The early lasers, however, were cumbersome and unreliable, the best of them failed after a few months of operation. Since 1960s there has been steady progress in making lasers compact, reliable and long lasting. Moreover, although for some applications lasers are still preferred, a simple and cheaper device, the high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED), has been developed and is adequate for many others. Alternatively, communication engineers began studying the possibility of transmitting light through glass fibres, the fibres ultimately developed for communication are so transparent that if the sea water were as clear as they are, one could easily see to the bottom of the deepest ocean.


VI. Задания к тексту.

Найдите в тексте интернациональные слова, переведите их, не обращаясь к словарю. Выпишите из текста многокомпонентные определительные словосочетания и переведите их.

Прочтите и переведите 1 абзац текста.

Прочтите 2 абзац текста, перечислите его основные положения



Выполните следующие задания.

I. В каждой строчке назовите слова, которые могут быть “сигналами” сказуемого:

could, never, must, since, as, should, was, already, is with, this, are, were, because, for, do, will, can, may, being, did, done, would, had, doing, does, shall, have.

П. В каждом столбикe укажите группы слов, которые могут быть сказуемыми.




was developed

these results


is being insulated

has been discovered


being heated

are moving


can be called

does not carry

should be done

Ш. Скажите, сколько слов входит в состав каждого сказуемого в следующих предложениях, переведите предложения.

1. Every wire carrying an electric current has a magnetic field. 2. Fast neutrons can penetrate any material. З. Various semiconductor devices have been developed. 4. The properties of this substance are being studied now. 5. Electrons are attracted by a positive charge and repelled by a negative charge. 6. In this case the substance does not lose its chemical properties.

1У. В следующих предложениях глагол-сказуемое в Present Indef. состоит из одного слова и не имеет формальных признаков. Для того, чтобы выявить такое сказуемое в предложении, нужно убедиться, что оно занимает 2-е место после подлежащего. Свидетельством этого является наличие слева от предполагаемого сказуемого подлежащего, выраженного существительным или местоимением во множественном числе. Прочтите предложения, найдите в них подлежащее и сказуемое, переведите предложения.

1. The electric generators supply us with .the vast amounts of energy. 2. Semiconductors conduct electricity better than insulators but not as well as metals. 3. Experiments on light beams with electric and magnetic fields show that light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. 4. The modern cathode ray tubes use a narrow beam of electrons produced by heating a filament.

Выполните следующие задания.

I. Переведите следующие предложения, учитывая, что конструкции “there is”; “there are” переводятся словами “есть”, “имеется”, “существует”.

1. Since there are 92 elements in nature, there are 92 different types of atoms, 2. In a wire carrying a direct current there is a constant stream of electrons in one direction along the wire. 3. There are two types of current: alternating current and direct current. 4. There was a problem of negative feedback. 5. Since there is no electrostatic field near the cathode, the plate current through the tube is zero. 6. There are two basic types of feedback positive feedback and negative feedback.

II. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения глагола TO BE в сочетании с инфинитивом.

1. A voltage source is to supply current to the circuit. 2. When very small currents are to be measured, very delicate ammeters are used. 3. The fixed coils of a wattmeter are to be connected in series with the load. 4. Two data signals are to be transmitted over two channels. 5. The direct recombination of an electron and a hole is to be avoided. 6. The function of the primary winding is to receive energy. 7. The purpose of radio frequency amplifier is to amplify the received signal before detection. 8. Our purpose is to determine the effect of X-rays on the substance. 9. One way of obtaining hydrogen is to pass electricity through water. 10. The problem is to choose a suitable filter.

III. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на глаголы-сказуемые в страдательном залоге.

А. 1. In this paper the electrical characteristics of different materials are considered. 2. The connection between magnetism and electricity was first investigated in 1819. 3. A conductor that is carrying а current is: surrounded by a magnetic field. 4. Free electrons are not attached to any particular atom. 5. When a circuit is switched on current is flowing through it. When it is switched off the flow of current is stopped. 6. A switch is used in almost every piece of electrical apparatus. Materials having a low resistance are called conductors. 7. This method was referred to in an earlier paper. 8. This problem was dealt with in a number of papers. 9. Different semiconductor materials were much experimented upon. 10. New types of lasers are much written about. 11. The resistance of conductors is affected by temperature. 12. The resistance of a wire is influenced by several factors. 13. The capacity of electrolyte capacitors is influenced by temperature. 14. In a two-winding transformer the primary winding is followed by the secondary winding. 15 The electromagnetic telegraph was followed by the invention of telephone. 16. A general description will be followed by a description of the circuit elements.

B. 1. Bipolar transistors are easily fabricated and widely used. 2. Unipolar transistors are often referred to as field effect transistors. 3. The resistivity of semiconductors is greatly affected by light, heat and the presence of minute impurities. 4. When insulators are acted upon by large currents they begin to conduct. 5. Information storage is followed by information analysis. 6. The electrical characteristics of a vacuum tube are unaffected by the presence of residual gas.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на время и залог глаголов-сказуемых.

1. A great number of scientists were investigating the properties of semiconductors for many years. 2. When the circuit is open current is not passing. 3. These devices are coming increasingly popular and are being used more extensively. 4. Studies of photoelectric effect were being carried out in science centers throughout the world. 5. At present microelectronics is achieving considerable increase in system reliability.

Выполните следующие задания.

I. Определите функцию глагола ТО HAVE в следующих предложениях (самостоятельный, вспомогательный, модальный). Переведите предложения.

1. Signals have to be communicated from one circuit element to another in a very short time. 2. All the input pulses have to be of identical shape. 3. An impurity element has to be added to a pure semiconductor material to increase its conductivity. 4. Faradey had produced electricity through magnetism. This had never been done before. 5. Germanium diodes have been manufactured in large numbers. 6. Today radio has become a powerful means of progress. 7. When free electrons are introduced in an evacuated tube across which a voltage has been applied, they move very rapidly towards the positive terminal of the voltage. This motion is very rapid, since an evacuated tube has very few atoms to impede the progress of electrons.

II. Переведите следующие предложения, учитывая различные функции глагола ТО DO в качестве первого элемента сказуемого.

1. When did the history of the semiconductor diode begin? 2. How does noise affect information? 3. A stationary magnet does not produce electricity. 4. These waves do not reflect back from the upper atmosphere as ordinary waves do. 5. The semiconductors do find a very wide application in all branches of industry. 6. It has been stated earlier that today is only the beginning of the computer age. Now the computer technology does affect the whole of the community. 7. This type of receiver did have advantages. 8. Ionization does not change the chemical properties of an atom, but it does produce an electrical charge.

Выполните следующие задания.

I. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.

1. In the following chapter we shall learn how free electrons may be introduced into evacuated tube. 2. As you will see, the triode can produce some undesirable distortion of the tube characteristics. 3. Any insulator can conduct current if a high enough voltage is applied to it. 4. In this case a current could be used as a feedback signal. 5. The emitter may be heated either directly or indirectly. 6. All rectifiers must provide a one-way path for electric current; that is, conduction must take place in one direction only. 7. The rheostat terminals should be connected in series with the load. 8. We should distinguish between an e. m. f. and potential difference. 9. The antenna should be grounded by means of a switch. 10. It should be taken into consideration that most materials change the value of resistance when the temperature changes.

П. Переведите следующие условные предложения.

A. 1. If we had used impurity atoms from the third column of the periodic table, such as boron, we would have had only p-type conductivity. 2. These waveguides would be practical if they were not so bulky. 3. If technological advances alone were the controlling factor, the electronic telephone would have been in service years ago. 4. Were the voltage increased, more electrons would be collected by the anode. 5. Should the temperature of the conductor increase, the resistance would be proportionally greater.

B. 1. If the electron beam leaving the electron gun were not deflected it would produce a luminous spot at the centre of the fluorescent screen. 2. Had separate pieces of p- and n-type material been placed in contact, the p- junction would have been produced. 3. The mean collector current is stabilized provided there is d. c. negative feedback. 4.Were an electron removed, a net positive charge would be left. 5. Should an electrically neutral atom attain an additional electron, the negative charges would predominate, resulting in a negative ion. 6. Had he taken into account the properties of the substance under investigation, he would have been careful when working with it.

III. Определите, чем являются слова с суффиксом -es в следующих предложениях а)глаголом-сказуемым в Present Indef. в 3 л. eд. числа; б) существительным во множественном числe. Пeреведите предложения.

1. The cloud of electrons forms in the space between cathode and plate. This cloud is called space charge. 2. At low plate voltages the negative space charge limits the flow of electrons. 3. A small variation of the signal voltage on the grid results la a large variation of the plate current through the tube. This means that amplification takes place. 4. This audio system consists of three voltage amplifiers.

IV. Укажите., в каких случаях слово с суффиксом -ed выполняет функцию а) сказуемого, б) определения. Переведите предложения.

1. The electrons emitted by the filament formed a cloud around it. 2. Passive circuit elements employed in electronic devices included resistors, capacitors and inductors. 3. About 1870 James Clerk Maxwell worked out a detailed theory which related electricity and magnetism. 4. Thomas Young showed that in certain circumstances two light beams canceled each other and produced darkness. This phenomenon, called interference, could only be explained by the wave theory of light. 5. At first electronic industry relied on the thermionic valve, invented by J. A. Fleming. 6. A heated filament within the tube released a flood of electrons that streamed across the vacuum within the tube. 7. An oscillator produced a continuous high-frequency current, which had a fixed frequency.


I. Переведите следующие предложения, учитывая. что “it” в функции формального подлежащего на русский язык не переводится.

A. 1. It is expected that this system can measure the speed of light. 2. It is known that the conductivity of all pure metals varies with temperature. 3. It is known that a light year is the distance that light will travel during one year. 4. It is cheaper to transmit a low current at a high voltage, rather than a high current at a low voltage. 5. It should be remembered that power losses always occur in the wires of all electric circuits. 6. It should be taken into consideration that most materials change the value of resistance when their temperature change. 7. It is possible to represent the current by a sinusoidal curve. 8. It seems that the most efficient semiconductors are silicon and germanium.

II. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на усилительную конструкцию it is ... that (who, which).

A. 1. It is Faraday who first suggested that electrolytic action might be used for measuring currents. 2. It is photoelectric properties of transistors that are widely used in TV set. 3. It is a cathode-ray tube, which is the heart of the TV receiver. 4. It is in the field of communication that the laser will find its most extensive application in the future. 5. It was the development of the electromagnetic dynamo, which was the most important step in the growth of electrical industry. 6. It is only by process known as stimulated emission that monochromatic and coherent light can be produced. 7. It is by measuring the amount of ionization that radiation is usually detected. 8. It is in the early 30's that electronic television was being developed. 9. It is the movement of electrons, which constitutes an electric current. 10. It was in 1896 that Popov transmitted his first radiogram. 11. It is in the nuclear reactor that isotopes are born.

III. Переведите следующие предложения, учитывая, что местоимение one в функции нормального подлежацего на русский язык не переводится.

A. 1. One must keep in mind that there is no such thing as a frictionless machine. 2. If one wants some information to be sent rapidly one sends it by radio. 3. One cannot imagine a modern rocket or a satellite without a variety of transistors. 4. One can easily solve a difficult problem using a computer.5. One should mention that transistors are used on a great scale in computers, communication, etc. 6. One must know that a high-frequency current radiates electromagnetic energy. 7. One must know that the light year is the distance that the light will travel during one year.

B. I. One can easily imagine how wide can be the use of a miniature radiotelephone. 2. One may say that the problem of antenna design is one of the most important problems in radio engineering. 3. Science is a continuing process and at no stage can one say that one's knowledge is complete and final. 4. One ought to know that the electric cell is a device that transforms chemical energy into electrical.

IV. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив в функции подлежащего.

А. 1. To complete this experiment will not take much time. 2. To construct a system based on this principle was of great difficulty. 3. To use atomic energy for peaceful purposes is the task of our scientists. 4. To make a choice between these two alternatives is not an easy task. 5. To increase the temperature means to increase the activity of the electrons and atoms. 6. To use Ohm's law is necessary in studying many electrical phenomena.

B. 1. To obtain good performance of the given network is rather difficult under circumstances. 2. To build up a magnetic field requires the expenditure of a certain amount of energy. 3. To give a visible indication of the instantaneous position of the electron beam is the function of detecting screen. 4. To connect two plates with copper wire means to form a path for electron flow. 5. To give the automatic solution of the set of problems is the main task, of a computer. 6. To move from one astronomical body to another means to overcome gravitational forces.

V. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на Ving в функции подлежащего.

A. 1. Increasing the cross-section of the wire reduced its resistance. 2. Connecting condensers in parallel increases the amount of capacity in the circuit. 3. Measuring temperature is necessary in many experiments. 4. Measuring star distances was first effected as early as 1835. 5. Translating from one language to another has been accomplished by automatic computer. 6. Reversing the current direction in the coil causes the reverse of the magnet polarity.

B. 1. Loading a motor always results in a reduction in speed. 2. Increasing the physical size of the antenna is a very effective means for increasing the range. 3. Doubling the temperature of an emitter may increase electron emission by more than 10 000 000 times. 4. Overheating an engine is prevented by providing some cooling system. 5. Establishing relationship between the phenomena of the Universe is a major task of theory. 6. Heating the gas increases the speed of the molecules.

VI. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сложное подлежащее.

1. X-rays are known to be generated when electrons travelling at a high rate (or speed) strike a target of some heavy metal such as platinum or tungsten. 2. The new installation will be expected to provide new services and letter transmission than the older system. 3. The calculated and measured results are shown to be in reasonably good agreement. 4. Cosmic rays have been found to belong to two energy groups. 5. Large planets may be expected to have much more extensive atmosphere than that of the earth. 6. Previous to the discovery at the neutron, all atom nuclei were assumed to consist of protons and electrons. 7. In the electromagnetic theory of radiation the atom is supposed to be similar to the antenna of a radio transmitter, although much smaller and radiating a much higher frequency. 8. In the course of his theoretical investigations Maxwell discovered the pressure of light. He derived this effect from the electromagnetic theory, but as a matter of fact it can be shown to follow from any wave theory. 9. Since the time of the Greeks all matter was thought to be made up of atoms (“atom” is the Greek word for “indivisible”), although the Greeks had rather unscientific ideas about the exact nature of these tiny “indivisible” particles. 10. Advancement in electronic techniques appears to be endless. 11. The laser beam seems to have almost unlimited industrial possibilities. 12. Natural uranium has been proved to consist mainly of two isotopes. 13. Landing is certain to be the most difficult part of a flight to Venus, Mars and Mercury. 14. The instrument is not likely to be damaged, if all rules are followed. 15. The use of mercury in thermometers appears to have been first mentioned in the middle of the 17th century. 16. An unstable nucleus is one that is likely to break up into the nucleus or another element. 17. Circuits containing inductance in series are likely to have excessive voltage across some part of the circuit.

VII. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на подлежащее, выраженное придаточным предложением.

А. 1. That all natural substances are composed of electrons is very well known. 2. That the positive charge of electricity was concentrated in the nucleus of the atom was first suggested by Rutherford. 3. That to predict future is a most difficult task is a common knowledge. 4. That gases can be compressed is quite evident. 5. That a radio message from civilizations on some of the planets should reach the Earth is quite possible.

B. 1. That new technology may produce an adverse effect on the environment is sometimes difficult to foresee. 2. That the peculiar character of this process should be studied is very important. 3. That the sun is but a typical star is one of the most significant facts of modern astronomy. 4. That this fact is too important to be ignored does not require any futher proof.


A. 1. We expect these new devices to be widely used in various fields of science and technology. 2. We know an electron to be a negatively charged particle. 3. We know J. J. Thomson to have discovered the electron. 4. Marie Curie found the atomic weight of radium to be 226. 5. Democritus thought all substances to be made up of tiny particles or atoms, which could not be further divided. 6. Currents of great value make insulators conduct. 7. The transformer enables the voltage to be stepped down at the receiving end of the transmission line. 8. This force causes the electrons to be attracted to the cathode. 9. The application of integrated circuits allowed engineers to reduce the dimensions of electronic devices and increase their realibility. 10. New synthetic materials permitted the size of resistors, capacitors and transformers to be reduced. 11. The beam causes the air molecules to be ionized.

B. 1. Physicists consider regularity to be the most characteristic feature of crystalline solids. 2.Amplification enables alternating voltage to be increased in magnitude without changing the shape of the wave. 3. The negative field causes the emitted electrons to slow down as they move away from the cathode. 4. Several devices exist that permit microwave energy to be propagated in one direction only. 5. Skin effect tends to make the resistance increase with frequency. 6. An increase in the current that determines the control voltage will cause the d. c. output to increase. 7. Diffraction experiments show gamma rays to be electromagnetic waves having wavelengths shorter even than X-rays. 8. Pulse code modulation allows the voice signal to be coded into digital form. 9. The speed of the computer permits compex calculations to be performed in a fraction of a second. 10. By 1933 scientists knew 17 pure elements and over 53 alloys and compounds to be superconducting. They also knew the electrical and magnetic properties of alloys and compounds to be quite different from those of pure elements. 11. It is the gravitation that makes satellites move round the earth. 12. In order to illustrate more clearly how the power stage operates, let us consider a resistive 8ohm load.

II. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на дополнение, выраженное придаточным предложением с союзом whether.

1. It was interesting to find out whether the oxygen and nitrogen in the upper layers of the atmosphere are in the form of molecules or atoms. 2. The question arises whether a computer could be placed in a communication link. 3. The classification of amplifiers may be based upon whether or not vacuum tube elements are employed in the fundamental operation. 4. Since the discovery of the solar cycle, attempts have been made to see whether the intensity of the Sun's visible light varies throughout the cycle. 5. There was a discussion whether they should continue this work.

III. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на дополнение, выраженное бессоюзным придаточным предложением.

1. We believe the temperature of the water does not change. 2. In spite of many difficulties we think the optical computer is a realistic prospect. 3. Today we think nuclear energy is the prime source of heat energy. 4. This means there are some errors in our calculations.


Выполните следующие задания.

I. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив в функции обстоятельства.

1. The receiver must use a selective filter to minimize the effect of interference. 2. These data had to be checked twice to avoid any mistake. 3. To find the mass of the electron numerous experiments had to be made. 4. The satellite does not need any additional energy to move in its orbit. 5. To produce frequency modulation the frequency of an r.f oscillator must be varied in accordance with the amplitude of an audio signal. 6. A superheterodyne receiver is used to pick up the TV sound and video signals. 7. The problem of the origin of the Earth proved to be one of the most difficult problems of astronomy. Many theories have been put forward to explain the origin of the solar system. 8. As we have seen earlier, to cause thermonuclear reactions extremely high temperatures are required. 9. To produce amplitude modulation a nonlinear modulator circuit must be used. 10. To understand how the electron beam can be deflected by a magnetic field, you must consider that the stream of electrons travelling in one direction constitutes an electric (d. c.) current.

II. Переведите следующие предложения.

1. X-rays are usually produced by bombarding a metal target with a beam of high voltage electrons. 2. Waves between 10 and 100 miles in length can be used for melting metals without flame. 3. Before studying alternating currents and voltages consideration should be given to some of the properties of a sine wave. 4. After having been modulated the signal was radiated through space. 5. By tuning a radio set to the definite frequency one can hear the necessary radio station. 6. Scanning is accomplished by deflecting electron beams. 7. There is little we can say about the propagation of radio waves without specifying their wave length of frequency. 8. By keeping the amplitude constant, frequency modulation eliminates (устраняет) static and electrical interference.

III. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на различные формы причастии в функции обстоятельства.

A. 1. The power spectra were computed using the described technique. 2. Connecting the two terminals of a battery we get a closed circuit. 3. Using inductors at radio frequencies we have to consider some factors which affect their performance. 4. Having experimented with electricity and magnetism Gilbert wrote a book on magnetism. 5. Having invented the lightning conductor, Franklin continued working on the problem of atmospheric electricity. 6. Having been tested in action, the new device was recommended to mass production. 7. Having been obtained and checked the equations are used as shown above. 8. Having been translated into many languages, the book became known all over the world.

B. I. The digital FM discriminator was constructed using sine-wave modulation. 2. Using the cross section defined by the equation one obtains results differing radically from those already considered. 3. Having connected the antenna one can tune the receiver to the carrier frequency. 4. Having been connected, the cells formed a battery. 5. Having been warmed to 0°C ice began to melt.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сочетание “союз + Ving/Ved”.

A. 1. When passing along a wire the electric current produces heating and magnetic effect. 2. When heated, the molecules move more intensely. 3. When amplified radio signals can be heard more distinctly from greater distances. 4. While working to isolate polonium, the Curies discovered a second radioactive element, calling it “radium”. 5. Metals do not melt until heated to a definite temperature. 6. When calculating the weight of a body we have to multiply its spacific gravity by its volume. 7. When travelling radio waves do not lose their strength 8. When releasing the nuclear energy in a gram of helium it is possible to produce 190,000 kilowatt-hours of electric energy.

V. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на независимый причастный оборот.

A. 1. The temperature of an object being raised, the velocity of electrons increases. 2. A current flowing through a conductor, a magnetic field is set up. 3. A magnetic field surrounds a current-carrying wire, its strength decreasing as the distance from the wire surface increases. 4. A sensitive radio receiver having been built, the electric oscillations could be detected successfully. 5. The speed of light being extremely great, we cannot measure it by ordinary methods. 6. The temperature being increased, the resistivity of the semiconductor decreases. 7. Hydrogen consists of discrete particles, called molecules, each one made up of 2 hydrogen atoms. 8. In this case electrons move toward the positive terminal, the holes moving toward the negative terminal. 9. Hydrogen is the simplest substance, atoms of other elements having a more complex structure. 10. The grid being positively charged, it attracts electrons and increases their flow from the filament to the plate. 11. There are several kinds of electric current each having its special field of application.

VI. Переведите следующие предложения.

1. Since the packing density of a memory device can be very high, many such devices can be fitted onto one chip. 2. As the temperature increases, the movement of the molecules becomes quicker. 3. Physics is the most fundamental of the experimental sciences, as it is the most precise and mathematical. 4. Although to the electrical engineer there is no basic difference between sound and vision impulses, the problems at recording the latter were quite formidable. 5. Once the reaction started it proceeded till completion. 6. The reaction proceeded until all the heat was released. 7. The word “helium” comes from the Greek word “sun” because that element was discovered in the sun before it was discovered on .the earth.


I. Переведите следующие многокомпонентные словосочетания (цепочки):

design methods, device operation, inductance coil, coil inductance, grounded cathode amplifier, space charge, general purpose computer, basic amplifier circuit, (the) simple first order linear difference equation, voice and video signals, microwave radio-relay systems, communication engineers.

II. Найдите“цепочки” в следующих предложениях, переведите их. Переведите предложения.

1. It is stated that the grid-anode capacitance in the tetrode is very small. 2. In order to reduce noise due to heating, it is necessary to keep down the radio receiver temperature. 3. One has to study fundamentals of solid state electronics to understand the principles of semiconductor device operation. 4. It is a solid-state switch that has become a natural application of transistor. 5. In a light-wave communication system messages are coded into pulses of light transmitted through hair-thin glass fibres. 6. Colour television receivers contain complex circuitry often in the form of IC modules. 7. The aim of this paper is to present the basic principles of picture transmission and reception, using block-diagrams to describe the functions of the circuits. 8. In vacuum-tube days, active circuit elements were expensive, bulky and short-lived. 9. The amount of voltage amplification depends primarily on the amplification factor and the value of plate-load resistor. 10. The first ruby laser was demonstrated in I960. Since that time laser action has been observed in a variety of substances. Recently a solid-state injection laser has been invented.

III. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на причастия в функции определения.

1. In order to obtain a useful radiated signal, information must be superimposed (накладывать) on the radio waves. In the continuous-wave (c-w) transmitters used for radiotelegraphy, the desired information is added by interrupting (прерывание) the radio-frequency oscillations in accordance with a telegraphic code. 2. Radio transmitters generate r-f energy at a definite frequency and convey this energy to the transmitting antenna for radiation. 3. The total number of electrons emitted by the cathode of a diode is always the same at a given operating temperature. 4. The term space charts is applied to the cloud of electrons formed in the interelectrode space between cathode and plate. Since it is made up of negatively charged electrons, this cloud has a repelling effect on the electrons being emitted from the cathode. 5. A diode is a two-element electron tube that consists of a cathode, serving as an electron emitter, and an anode or plate acting as an electron collector. 6. Some results obtained by the application of this technique are presented here. 7. The results referred to were published in the last issue of this journal. 8. Inert gases are the substances unaffected by oxygen. 9. An on-off electronic switch followed by a filter can be represented, as in Fig. 1 referred to was the most representative forum in this field of science. 6. Recent discoveries in all sciences have been assisted by the developments in modern research techniques dealt with in the last section of this book. 7. The resultant signal is amplified and detected, so producing d. c. output related to the amount of noise being received. 6. A reproduction of a picture being transmitted is formed on the screen of the receiver. 9. The detector consists of a matched filter with a few non-linear elements added.

IV. Переведите следующие предложeния.

1. Methods of generating electromagnetic waves were obtained by Hertz. 2. Such an oscillator is not an effective arrangement for producing electromagnetic waves. 3. One of the ways of getting high-frequency steady state oscillations is to use vacuum valves. 4. Techniques for coding the video signals have been widely reported in the literature. 5. A radio transmitter is a device for producing radio frequency that is controlled by the transmitted intelligence. 6. The capacity for doing work is called the kinetic energy of a moving body.

V. Переведите следующие предложeния, обращая внимание на инфинитив в функции определения.

A. I. There are two important requirements to be observed (наблюдать) here. 2. The materials to be used in the present-day tubes are described in this chapter. 3. Emitters to be made of this metal will be used in large transmitting tubes. 4. An image to be televised is formed in the television camera. 5. The model of the atom to be discussed belongs to Niels Bohr. 6. The data to be presented in this paper are for a p-n-p junction transistor. 7. The problem to be solved now consists in finding the receiving filter characteristics. 8. Now we shall discuss the system of units to be employed later in our discussion. 9. Crooks was the first to recognize the cathode rays as negatively charged particles.

B. 1. The specific circuits to be discussed provide bandwidth of the order of 0.05 cycles at the frequency of 30 cycles. 2. The equivalent circuit to be used in the following analysis is given below. 3. A problem to be solved by a digital computer must be expressed in mathematical terms. 4. The properties of the new cable to be used on the transmission lines will enable the transmission of electric currents up to 10,000 volts and more. 5. The data to be transmitted are presented to the transmitter in the form of a sequence of binary digits. 6. Parameters to be measured in a control experiment include density and temperature of the charged particles in the plasma. 7. An additional factor to be considered is the cost of the maintenance (содержание) of the cooling system. 8. A Danish astronomer named Roemer was the first to measure the speed of light.

VI. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на бессоюзные придаточные определительные предложения.

A. 1. It is known that a light year is the distance light will travel during one year. 2. The main subject the scientists studied at that time was the general theory of oscillations. 3.After many experiments the device Popov constructed began receiving electromagnetic waves at a long distance. 4. The scanning device we have just mentioned generates an electric current. 5. Amplification is one of the functions triodes can fulfil in radio systems. 6. The programmist is the connecting link between the computer and the problem it has to solve.

B.1. In a magnetic circuit we have to consider the length of the circuit, its cross-section, and the specific quality of the material the circuit is made of. 2. The choice of a variable condenser depends on the range of frequencies it is necessary to cover. 3. All three types of microphones can produce high fidelity recordings in the conditions they are best suited to. 4. A piece of p-type semiconductor we use in our experiment is connected to a battery.

Список наиболее употребительной общенаучной лексики


according to - в соответствии с, согласно accurately - точно act - действовать adopt - принимать advantage - преимущество aircraft - самолет alloy - сплав allow - позволять, разрешать, допускать amount - количество amount - величина angle - угол application - применение arrange - располагать, устраивать artificial - искусственный attract - притягивать


basic - основной beam  - луч, пучок behave - действовать behaviour - поведение bottom - дно brain - мозг breakdown - провал, авария brightness - яркость broadcast v - вещать                n - вещание bulb - баллон, колба (электрического прибора)


cancel - уничтожать capable - способный carry - нести carry out - выполнять, осуществлять case - случай cause v. вызывать заставлять n причина change n изменение v изменять cheap дешевый circumstance обстоятельство cloud облако coat v покрывать coating покрытие compare сравнивать complete v завершать а завершенный законченный complicate усложнять comprise включать conceive изобретать condition условие connect соединять consider рассматривать cosiderable значительный consist (of) состоять из constitute составлять consumer потребитель contain содержать continue продолжать cool а холодный cool v охлаждать conventional обычный convert преобразовывать copper медь create создавать curvature кривизна correspond соответствовать


deal with иметь дело с, рас (dealt, dealt) сматривать decrease уменьшать deep глубокий degree степень demand n требование v требовать density плотность depend зависеть design n конструкция v конструировать проектировать determine определять develop развивать разрабатывать device устройство прибор devise изобретать difference разница direction направление disavantage недостаток distant далекий


effort усилие efficient эффективный enable позволять давать возможность engine мотор двигатель enormous огромный emit испускать employ применять использовать equipment оборудование essential существенный важный estimation оценка exactly точно exept кроме за исключением excite возбуждать exploration исследование explain объяснять extent степень


fade затухать fail v терпеть неудачу отказывать не (перед инфинитивом) faithful верный, точный fall (fell, fallen) падать fast быстрый feed (fed, fed) питать flame пламя flicker мерцать flow n поток v течь follow следовать (за) for ибо, так как, для force n сила v вынуждать, заставлять fraction доля fragile хрупкий, непрочный frequent частый


gap промежуток glass стекло glow n свечение v светиться growth рост


handle обрабатывать heat n тепло v нагревать height высота hole дырка, отверстие


image изображение immense огромный immune устойчивый impact влияние impurity примесь include включать initial начальный instant момент insulate изолировать interference интерференция involve вовлекать, затрагивать, включать


join соединять


land приземляться last длиться launch запускать layer слой heavyside layer ионосфера lead (led, led) вести leave (left, left) оставлять level уровень link связь, соединение, звено lose (lost, lost) терять loss потеря


magnitude величина mainly главным образом matter материя, вещество mean a средний v значить, означать means n средство by means of посредством measure измерять measurement измерение medium средний melt плавиться mercury ртуть message сообщение mix смешивать mixture смесь mount монтировать move двигаться multiply умножать


narrow узкий noise шум


object предмет, объект observer наблюдатель obtain получать occur происходить operate работать order порядок


pair пара part часть particule частица particular особый path путь (прохождения электронов) отрезок цепи pattern модель, диаграмма penetrate проникать perfect совершенный perform выполнять (операцию) функционировать permit позволять pick up принимать picture изображение piece кусок point точка produce производить propagate распространяться property свойство propose предлагать provide обеспечивать


quality качество quantity количество


range диапазон rapid быстрый ray луч reach достигать reason причина reduce уменьшать reflect отражать relative относительный release отпускать освобождать reliable надежный rely on полагаться на remove устранять repel отталкивать replace заменять represent представлять require требовать revers a обратный v изменить направление на обратное respectively соответственно restrict ограничить revolve вращаться ring кольцо rotate вращаться


seal впаивать sensitive чувствительный separate a отделять v отдельный sequence последовательность set 1 набор, ряд 2 прибор several несколько scatter рассеяние рассеивать scientific научный screen экран shape форма sharp резкий silicon кремний similar похожий similarly одинаково аналогично slice пластина solid твердый сплошной space пространство speed скорость split расщеплять spot пятно spread распространяться steady устойчивый step up (down) повышать понижать strength сила strike (struck, struck) ударять store n запас память v запасать substance вещество successive успешный suggest предлагать предполагать supply n снабжение, питание v снабжать, питать surface поверхность surround окружать steady устойчивый


target цель, мишень therefore следовательно tiny крошечный transparent прозрачный travel двигаться tune v настраивать


value величина vary изменяться vast огромный velocity скорость


widen расширять wind (wound), (wound) v нама- тывать wire провод

Список наиболее употребительных терминов

(радиоэлектроника, вычислительная техника, связь)


actuate v приводить в движение активизировать aerial антенна alternativing current пере- менный ток amplifier усилитель arithmetic unit арифметическое

устройство armature якорь audio frequency звуковая частота


base база beam луч, пучок излучать binary number двоичное число buzz сигнал зуммера buzzer зуммер


capacity емкость carrier носитель заряда несущая частота cathode ray tube электронно- лучевая трубка cell элемент central processing unit цен- тральный процессор channel канал charge заряд заряжать charge carrier носитель заряда chip кристалл, микросхема circuit цепь integrated circuit интеграль- ная схема time base circuit схема временной развертки coil катушка collector коллектор conductor проводник connect соединение connect in series последователь- ное соединение connect in parallel параллель- ное соединение continuous wave незатухающая волна control управление управлять control unit блок управления core сердечник current ток cycle цикл, период


dash тире decimal number десятичное число deflector plate отклоняющая пластина diode диод direcr current постоянный ток display n дисплей v показывать dot точка


earphones наушники echo location обнаружение эхо-сигнала elecrion gun электронная пушка electromotive force электро- движущая сила emitter эмиттер


fiber волокно field поле field-effect transistor полевой транзистор filament нить накала, катод frame кадр frequency частота


gain усиление grid сетка электронной лампы ground wave земная волна


hardware аппаратура, аппаратное обеспечение headphones наушники


impulse noise импульсный шум induce индуцировать input ввод, вход insulator изолятор


junction переход junction transistor плоскостной транзистор


key ключ


light-emitting diode свето- излучающий диод limiter ограничитель line линия строка load нагрузка loudspeaker громкоговоритель


magnetic field магнитное поле memory память memory cell ячейка памяти modulation модуляция


noise шум number число numeral value численная величина


optical fibre оптическое волокно oscillation колебание ooscillator генератор колебаний ouput выход производительность


packet пакет peripheral внешнее устройство picture tube кинескоп plate пластина, анод power station электростанция power supply источник питания pulse code modulation импуль- сно-кодовая модуляция


radio blackout глубокое замирание- range диапазон receiver приемник record player проигрыватель rectifier выпрямитель resistance сопротивление round-trip time время прохождения сигнала в прямом и обратном направлении revolution вращение, оборот


scan n развертка v сканировать scanner устройство сканирования scanning развертка сканирования scene сцена (множество предметов, объект изображения) semiconductor полупроводник sender передатчик shaft вал software программное обеспе чение secondary winding вторичная обмотка sonar гидролокатор sky wave ионосферная (радио) волна source источник space wave прямая (радио) волна storage память solid state полупроводниковый store n запас память v хранить, накапливать superconductivity сверхпро водимость surge выброс (тока) switch n переключатель v переключать switch on включать off выключать


target цель, мишень terminal зажим, клемма transmit передавать transmitter передатчик transmission передача transistor транзистор tube электронная лампа turn виток поворачивать


unit единица измерения узел, блок, устройство


valve электронная лампа


winding обмотка wavelength длина волны wave волна

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