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I began work on this book with the knowledge that objectivist views of the mind have a very wide currency in the academic world. Among my principal aims has been to characterize that view, name it, point out that it is an opinion, not a fundamental truth, and raise the question of its validity, so that it can be discussed in the open and no longer be presupposed automatically as part of an unquestioned background.

Many scholars do indeed take it for granted without question that conceptual categories are defined solely by the shared essential properties of their members, that thought is the disembodied manipulation of abstract symbols, and that those symbols get their meaning solely by virtue of correspondences to things in the world. The view of reason as abstract, disembodied, and literal is well-established.

It is well-established partly because there are certain aspects of it that are correct. Some conceptual categories do have the structure of a classical category. Certain aspects of classical logic do seem to be used in reason. But it does not follow from that that the whole objectivist paradigm must be accepted. Another of my goals has been to provide an alternative to objectivist views that preserves what is right about objectivism, while permitting research into the nature of reason that goes beyond the limits that objectivism had placed on that research.

What I could not have guessed when I began this book is just how many researchers have found evidence of one sort or another that contradicts objectivist views. One of the most gratifying aspects of this research has been the discovery that there is a large body of evidence from many fields that supports a view of mind that is centered in the bodily and imaginative capacities of human beings.

During the course of the writing, I had an opportunity to lecture on these topics not only at universities throughout the United States, but in many other countries, particularly in Europe, Asia, and South America. Everywhere I have gone, I have encountered researchers whose findings


Afterword 587

are, in one way or another, inconsistent with the objectivist view of mind, but who had no idea that so many others had reached similar conclusions. Such meetings have been important to me. They are like meetings between long-lost relatives, eager to share news of the family. As long as this book is, I have barely begun to follow up all the leads I have been given. My initial aim was to bring together whatever results I could find that supported an experientialist view of mind. I have come to the conclusion that it would take many lifetimes to do that. I am stopping here with the knowledge that there are many others involved in the enterprise.

The ideas I have put forth are, thus, by no means uniquely my own. Most of them are shared by a diverse group of scholars whose research has led them to question traditional views of reason, categorization, and language, but who have not yet formed themselves into a community. It is important to develop such a sense of community, and I hope that this book can contribute to it.


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