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английский самолетостроение экзамен вопр

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1.What is aircraft?

The word aircraft is defined as any weight-carrying device capable of being supported by the buoyancy of the air such as lighter-than-air aircraft or by the dynamic action of the air, such as heavier-than-air aircraft

2. what kind of aircraft is wildly used?

Military aircraft is widly used. Mil acft are classified as bombers, fighter-bombers and attack acft, fighters, interceptors, observation acft, reconnaissance acft, special electronic installation acft, cargo acft, tankers, trainers and helicopters. Bmrs are acft designed for bombing en tgts. Ftr-bmrs and atk acft are designed to search out, atk and destroy en land and sea tgts, using conventional or special wpns. Obsn acft are designed to observe and report tac info concerning composition and dspo of en forces and supplies in an active combat area.

3. What is the principal structual units of the aircraft? Каковы основные структурные единицы самолета?

The principal structural units of an acft consist of the fuselage, wings, flight control surfaces and undercarriage or landing gear. The fus is the main structure of an acft which houses the crew, and sometimes the armament and the power plant. The wing is a framework composed chiefly of spars and ribs covered with metal. The spars are the main structural members of the wing, extending from the fus to the tip.

4. what is the construction of the aircraft wing? Какова конструкция крыла самолета?

The wings are designed to develop the major portion of the lift of a HTA acft. Wing const is similar in most modern acft. The wing is a framework composed chiefly of spars and ribs covered with metal.

5. what groups are flight control surfaces divided into? Какие группы являются поверхностями управления полетом, разделенными на?

The flight control surfaces may be divided into three groups usually referred to as the primary group, secondary group and auxiliary group. The primary gp includes the ailerons, elevators and rudder. Included in the secd gp are the trim tabs and spring tabs. Wing flaps are used to give the acft extra lift and are hinged to the trailing or leading edge of the wing.

6. what units are included in thr auxiliary gp of flight control surface? Какие единицы включены в вспомогательную gp поверхности управления полетом?

Wing flaps are used to give the acft extra lift and are hinged to the trailing or leading edge of the wing.Spoilers are for the purpose of decreasing wing lift. Speed brakes are hinged surs used for slowing down the speed of an acft and attached to the wings. Slats are movable control surs attached to the leading edges of the wings.

7. what purpose are the wing flaps and spoilers esed for? Для чего предназначены крылышки и спойлеры?

Wing flaps are used to give the acft extra lift and are hinged to the trailing or leading edge of the wing.Spoilers are for the purpose of decreasing wing lift. They are long narrow surs, hinged at their leading edges to the upper sur of the wings.

8. what are speed brakes?what purpouse are ued for? Что такое скоростные тормоза? Для чего нужна пурпура?

Speed brakes are hinged surs used for slowing down the speed of an acft and attached to the wings. On some acft they are hinged to the lower sur of the fus. Slats are movable control surs attached to the leading edges of the wings. When the slat is extended forward, a slot is created between the slat and the leading edge. At low airspeeds this increases lift and improves handling chars.

9. what does the landing gear consist of? Из чего состоит шасси?

The landing gear or undercarriage of an acft consists of main and auxiliary units. The main landing gear contains two landing gear units, one under each side of the fus or one under each wing. A typical landing gear consists of three retractable landing gear assemblies. Each main landing gear is equipped with a conventional air-oil shock strut, a wheel brake assembly, and a wheel and tire assembly.

10. where are the main and auxiliary units located Где расположены основные и вспомогательные подразделения

The aux unit is located either under the tail or the nose of the acft. Each main landing gear is equipped with a conventional air-oil shock strut, a wheel brake assembly, and a wheel and tire assembly. The nose landing gear is equipped with a conventional air-oil shock strut, a shimmy damper, and a wheel and tire assembly.

11. what is helicopter? Что такое вертолет?

Helicopters are rotary-wing aircraft able to take off and land vertically, to move in any direction, or remain stationary i They can climb to an altitude of 10,000 feet and carry a load amounting to 40 tons.n the air. The word helicopter comes from the Greek words meaning "helical wing" or "rotating wing"

12. what are tte principal structural elements of the helicopter? Каковы основные структурные A helicopter consists of the airframe and propulsion system. The airframe includes a fuselage and undercarriage. The fuselage is the principal structure of the helicopter and houses the pilot's cabin for a crew of two or three, and cargo compartment designed to carry a squad of equipped infantrymen or different cargo. The tail boom is a structural element of the fuselage connecting the tail rotor to the cargo compartment. Stabilizers and tail support are also fixed to it. Undercarriage with main and nose landing gears and tail support and propulsion system - major structural elements of the helicopter - are attached to the fuselage as well.элементы вертолета?

13. why must a pilot know how high a plane is flying? Почему пилот знает, насколько высок самолет?

Many factors determine the amount of lift available in helicopter operation. the pilot has control of two of these. One is the pitch angle of the rotor blades; the other is the power delivered to the rotor. By controlling the pitch angle of the rotor blades, the pilot can establish the vertical flight of the helicopter. By manipulating the engine speed, the pilot maintains the desired amount of lift of the aircraft regardless of the increase or decrease in blade pitch.

14. when is a radar altimeter used? Когда используется радиолокационный высотомер?

The cyclic pitch control is similar to the control stick of a conventional aircraft. It acts through a mechanical linkage to cause the pitch of each main rotor blade to change during a cycle of rotation. The rapidly rotating rotor blades create a disk area that can be tilted in any direction with respect to the supporting rotor mast. Horizontal flight is controlled by changing the direction of tilt of the rotor disk to produce a force in the desired direction.

Управление циклическим шагом аналогично управляющему ключу обычного самолета. Он действует через механическую связь, чтобы заставить шаг каждой лопасти основного ротора меняться в течение цикла вращения. Быстро вращающиеся лопасти ротора создают область диска, которая может быть наклонена в любом направлении относительно опорной роторной мачты. Горизонтальный полет контролируется изменением направления наклона диска ротора для создания силы в нужном направлении.

15. what roal signs for pilots do you know Какие значки для пилотов вы знаете

Today, cockpit video displays, navigation rdos, sensors, on-board computers, ground-mapping rdr, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems, inertial navigation sets, integrated tactical ECM devices, and programmable armt con sets are std equip aboard modern acft such as USAF's F-15E. These enable the ftr plt strike a tgt with precision. In many cases, they can employ certain types of ordnance without having to fly over a heavily defended tgt.

16. what are the four forces acting upon the aircraft Каковы четыре силы, действующие на самолет

the four forces acting upon an aircraft in flight: weight, lift, drag and thrust. The downward force of weight must be overcome by an upward acting aerodynamic force called lift.

17. what is a dirigiable Что такое дирижабль

A dirigible, also known as an airship, is a type of buoyant engine powered craft with a steering mechanism. The dirigible is different from a weather balloon, as balloons have no steering systems or power and are unmanned. Dirigibles are also distinguishable from aircraft because of their specialized long bodies. The airship is filled with a light gas such as helium, which provides lift. Unlike an airplane, a dirigible also has no wings, but merely tail fins.

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