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  • Why are verbals treated as forms of the verb? (possess verbal features-aspect,voice,order)

  • What category is revealed through the opposition of finite and non-finite forms? (representation)

  • State whether the -ing form is participle 1 or gerund: 1)She felt the tears coming into her eyes. participle

2)He disappeared walking. gerund

3)He kept pressing for a private talk with me. gerund

4)I appreciate your coming on my defense. gerund

5)I heard my telephone ringing again. participle

  •  What are the principles of classifying sentences? (communicative, structural)

  • State whether the following sentences are a)one-member or two-member b)complete or elliptical c)extended or unextended: 1)The magpie flew off.

2)Drawing-room in Lord Windermere’s house.

3) “Is someone moving in?”-“Doubtful”.

4) Death! Murder!

5) He capitulated. Without the honours of war.

  •  What is the criterion for choosing kernel sentences?

  • What types of transformations do you know?

  • Explain the difference between John is easy to please and John is eager to please applying TM.

  •  How many tenses are there in English?

  • Why does the future tense present a problem?

  • See whether “shall” and “will” in the following sentences are modal or auxiliary: 1)Whoever comes to Rus brandishing a sword from the sword shall he perish.

2)I’m afraid I will have to leave.

3)Winter will come and it will snow.

4)None are so deaf as those who will not here.

5) I shall miss my train.

  •  What is distribution? The total set of linguiguistic contexts in which a unit can occur

  • What are the types of distribution? Complementary, contrastive, non-contr

  • How does the distributional model present the syntactic structure of the sentence? Sequence of classes of words

  • Present the syntactic structure of the following sentences by means of distributional symbols:

1)The little girl received a beautiful doll yesterday.

2)English verbs and adverbs usually combine well.

  •  What are the constituents of the proposition?

  • What types of semantic predicates (processes) do you know?

  • Identify each predicate in the following sentences as material, mental or relational:

1)Bees make honey. material

2)I prefer a ballet to opera. mental

3)Do you know the author’s name? mental

4)The abbey is now ruined. relational

5)He came in and smiled. material

  •  What are the main means of indicating the theme(given) and the rheme (new)of the utterance?

  • Point out the theme and the rheme in the following sentences and define the means of their expression:

1)It was seldom he was so confidential.

2)To Old Jolyon it seemed that his son had grown.

3)A haze hovered over the street.

4)Even he cannot answer that question.

5)There is a dog in the room.- The dog is in the room

  •  What secondary parts of the sentence (clause constituents) do you know?

  • Define the function of the underlined words and phrases:

1)This film ,of course ,is the best one. disjunct

2)Bill has saved us a place in the front row. Us –indir obj, a plca –dir obj

3)The flight to Tokyo took 21 hours. Predict complement

4)Despite his inexperience , he managed to cope with the task. adjunct

5) He painted his house green. Object compl

  •  What are the approaches to the category of voice in English?

  • Give possible interpretations of the voice forms:

1)The poor fellow gets punished almost every day.

2) She raced herself suddenly in the tall chair.

3)The man open the door and a woman entered.

4)The door opened and they K came in.

5)The door was opened by the butler and lady Nestwick came proudly in.

Give the preposition that presents the category of voice in the participle

  •  What types of morphemes do you know?

  • What is a zero morpheme?

  • Analyze the structure of the following words. Define the types of morphemes:

Workers, returned, unspoken, immovable, goods, greater, is meeting

  •  Is the article a part of speech or a word-morpheme? If it is a word-morpheme, what category does it express?

  • Comment upon the functions of the articles ,explain the absence of the article:

1)A woman is a much better traveling companion as a man.

2) I have not lost a moment.

3)Vaguely, he was conscious that the evening had not been the success he had anticipated.

  •  What lays is the foundation for the meaning of the category of number in English?

  • What are the means of expressing the category of number in English?

  • How is the article related to the category of number?

  • Define the number and means of its expression for the underlined nouns:

1)A month‘s wages are in that pocket.

2)Bad news travels fast.

3)Money is the root of all evil.

4)The grapes are sour.

5)Advice when needed is least heeded.

  •  What is the lexico-grammatical status of the elements of a stone-wall construction?

  • Comment on the grammatical status of the underlined words:

1)The wiser go their way with a decent grace.

2)Often she tormented herself on the rights and wrongs of her impulsive actions.

3)The slum area clearance project wasn’t supported by the committee.

4)If you managed to stay afloat during the recession

  •  What are the approaches to the category of case in English?

  • Define the relations expressed by the nouns in the genitive case:

1)Mr. Warburton’s smile of greetings froze on his face.

2)The letter dropped from Mr. Warburton’s hand.

3)It isn’t my handwriting. It’s Selina’s.

4)Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo let to his banishment to Saint Helena.

5)Mrs. Forestier was a very nice woman. Her voice was a woman’s voice.

  •  What are the general principles of classifying words into parts of speech? Semantic – meaning, formal – form, function

  • Which principle is leading in the English language and why? function

  • Consider the syntactic properties of the underlined words. State to what part of speech they belong:

1)To sound a man as to his intentions was peculiarly unpleasant to him. v

2)The sounds were neither symphony nor discordance. n

3)She was sitting at the table with two women friends of hers who came often to the house. n

4) We can house you and your friends if the hotels are full. v

5)But me no buts. n

  •  Can the perfect forms of the verb be treated within the categories of tense or aspect? What category do they represent? No, order

  • State the difference between the non-perfect and perfect forms:

1)Where do they put my key?-Where have I put my key?

2)I lost my watch.-I have lost my watch.

3)Do you know the John painted this portrait of Mary?-Do you know that John has painted this portrait of Mary?

  •  Why are analytical forms treated as contradictory units?

  • Decide whether the following word groups can be treated as analytical forms, prove your point of view:

will come, more beautiful, to my friend, is coming, is afraid

Phrase. Principles of classification

  • What syntactic relations can exist between the elements of a phrase? What are the means of their expression? (agreement, government, adjoinment, enclosure, prepositional/conjunctional connection)

  • What is the difference between endocentric and exocentric word-groups? (endocentric – the headword of the phrase can replace an entire phrase, exocentric – cannot)

  • What are the immediate constituents of the sentence? What is UC? (NP + VP, UI – ultimate constituencies – words)

  • Define the following word-groups as endocentric and exocentric:

Helen’s hat endocentric , Tom and Jerry endocentric, under the tree, the roof of the house endocentric, we play, typically English appearance endocentric, the letter written in pencil endocentric, reading a book, the city of Minsk endocentric

  • Analyze the following phrases according to the head word (noun, verbal, adjectival):

1)a man of intellect n 2)to live alone v 3)a very boring film n 4)easy to translate adj

  • Explain how the IC-model distinguishes the surface structures of the following sentences:

  1. The police shot the man in the red cap.

  2. The police shot the man in the right arm.

Predicativity. Primary and secondary predication

  • What is predication? (S+P)

  • What constructions with secondary predication do you now? (for-to-inf constr, gerundial constr, nominative absolute participial constr, objective participial constr)

  • Define the constructions with secondary predication in the following sentences:

1)Chris Martin has always kept his rock band rooted in song. objective participial constr

2)We awoke in an empty carriage, with pine woods passing the window. nominative absolute participial constr,

3)It was becoming less and less necessary for people to live in castles. for-to-inf constr

4)Charles II was able to act without Parliament punishing him. gerundial constr

  • Define the constructions with secondary predication in the following sentences. Replace the constructions with finite verbal clauses:

  1. As she got in, she heard the telephone ringing. objective participial constr

  2. I wish you to take an umbrella. to-inf constr

  3. He seemed to have forgotten that she was present. to-inf constr

  4. It is impossible for an outsider to judge of these things. for-to-inf constr

You don’t mind my saying all this to you? gerundial constr

Morphology and syntax as parts of grammar. Units of grammar, their functions and types of relations between them in language and speech

  • Complete the following statements choosing the suitable option:

  1. The smallest unit of grammar is the…

a)morpheme b)phrase c)sentence d)word

2) The main units of Morphology are…

a) grammeme and lexeme b) morpheme and word c) morph and allomorph

d) synthetic and analytical forms

3) The main units of Syntax are…

a) kernel sentences and transformation b) parts of speech and parts of the sentence

c) phrases and sentences d) immediate and ultimate constituents

4) Morphology primarily studies…relations of words.

a) syntagmatic b) paradigmatic c) syntactic d)synthetic

5) Syntax primarily studies…relations of words.

a) syntagmatic b) paradigmatic c) syntactic d)synthetic

The category of aspect

  • What is the general grammatical meaning of the category of Aspect? (the character of the action)

  • What forces is this category revealed? ( through which forms) (does – is doing)

  • Compare the meaning of the verb in the common and the continuous aspect

  1. He read a book that evening. – He was reading a book that evening.

  2. The soup tastes delicious. – She is tasting the soup.

  3. The boy kicked the ball. – The boy was kicking the ball.

  4. The child is naughty. -You are being naughty!

Sentence as the main unit of syntax

  • Complete the following statement:

The common feature of the phrase and the sentence is that they both perform the function of…

  1. Nomination b) Communication

  • Comment on the following statements :

  1. The sentence and the clause are units of language. T

  2. The sentence and the clause are units of speech. T

  3. The sentence consists of clauses. T

  4. The clause consists of sentences. F

  • Match the type of the sentence structure with the aspects of sentence related to:


Aspect of the sentence

  1. Syntactic structure c

  1. Content of the sentence as a language unit

  1. Semantic structure a

  1. Content of the sentence as speech unit

  1. Communicative structure b

  1. Form of the sentence as a language unit

The category of mood

  • What are the main mood meanings? How can you account for different approaches to the category of mood in English? (reality, unreality, imperative)

  • Which forms are used to express problematic and unreal actions? (problematic – Subj 1, Suppositional, unreal – Conditional, Subj 2)

  • Define the mood meaning of the verb-form in the following sentences:

  1. I knew it. (indicative, real)

  2. I wish I knew it. (subj 2, unreal)

  3. I insist he read this book. (problematic, subj 1)

  4. Read this book. (imperative, order)

  5. Should you read this book, tell me of your impressions. (suppositional, problematic)

The semantic structure of the sentence. Types of arguments

  • What are the components of the semantic structure of the sentence? (processes, applicants, attributes, circumstances)

  • Define the types of arguments (participants) in the following sentences:

  1. Cara makes wonderful pasta. (cara – agent, pasta – effected participant)

  2. The book offers its readers an…kind of freedom. (the book – force, its readers – recipient, kind of freedom –affected participant)

  3. The monarch loved the display of imperial pomp. (The monarch – senser, the display - phenomenon)

  4. John stopped the car at once. (john – agent , car – affected)

  5. They carve these figures out of wood. (they – agent, figures – affected)

  6. Mary wrote the letter with a pen. (mary – agent, letter – effected)

  7. Phill knows the answer. (phill – senser, answer – phenomenon)

  8. The storm has ruined many houses. (storm – force, houses – effected)

Communicative structure of the sentence. Functional sentence perspective

  • Complete the sentences suing the variable options:

  1. As a unit of communication, the sentence is divided into…

  1. The Subject and the Predicate

  2. The Process and the Participants

  3. The Theme and the Rheme

  1. The starting point of communication is the… . Usually, it carries the… information.

  1. Rheme

  2. Theme

  3. Given

  4. New

  1. Choose the part of the sentence expressing new information:

His own garden and his greenhouse he adored.

  1. b)

  1. Choose the best answer to the following questions:

  1. When did your mother publish this book? d

  2. What did your mother do fifty years ago? b

  3. Did your aunt publish this book long ago? a

  4. Was this book written fifty years ago? c

  1. It was my mother who published this book 50 years ago.

  2. Over 50 years ago, my mother published this book.

  3. Over 50 years ago, this book was published.

  4. My mother published this book over 50 years ago.

Grammatical meaning and grammatical form

  • Is there always direct (one-to-one) correspondence between grammatical meaning and grammatical form in English? (no)

  • Comment on the possible grammatical and lexico-grammatical meanings rendered by -s and -ing affixes, supply examples.

  • Comment on the following examples:

Boy- boys, child- children, man-men

Word order

  • What are the main functions of word-order in English? (grammatical, communicatibe, emphatic)

  • Comment upon the word-order in the following sentences. Define the kind of inversion:

  1. I’m enjoying this. – So am I. ( partial, communicative)

  2. Had he gone to her aid, he would only have got himself cough. (partial, gr)

  3. Should we go? (partial, gr)

  4. But never, never could he have anticipated that evening. (partial, emphatic)

  5. On the pavement, walking towards me, was Sheila. (full, communicative)

  • Choose the suitable option to complete the statement:

In the following sentence the inverted word order is…

  1. Grammatical b) Communicative c) Emphatic

  1. There, 4 miles apart, stand 2 monuments. b

  2. Only once was William Rufus frightened enough. c

  3. Should the ash survive, Nick aims to coppice the trees every 7 years. a

Types of relations between grammatical units in language and speech

  • What 2 types of relations exist between grammatical units in language and speech? Paradigmatic (outside uttrances), syntagmatic (in sentences)

  • What is a paradigm? (the system of all grammemes (played, smiled,brought) and lexemes (play,plays,playing) of a class)

  • Which relations are observed in the following sequence of elements?

The students had gathered before the lecture started. (syntagmatic)

The lecturer wasn’t late.

  • Provide additional elements to the following units to demonstrate the other type of substitutes:


Had gathered-



Complex sentence. Structural classification of complex sentences

  • What are the criteria for classifying complex sentences? (categorical – noun, adj, adverbial, functional – subject, complement, object)

  • Complete the following statement about the complex sentence:

In a complex sentence, the principal… clause is independent on the dependent … cue.

  • Choose the suitable option to complete the statement:

The following complex sentence contains a(n) … subordinate clause

  1. Object b) Subject c) Predicative d) attributive

  1. King Edward 7 was determined that his children would enjoy a happy life. a

  2. They are not what you might think. c

  3. I can’t remember a time when I wasn’t dancing. d

  4. What impressed me most was their sincerity. b

  • Define the structural types of the following complex sentences:

  1. The heart that once truly loved never forgets. a

  2. What can’t be cured must be endured. b

  3. Since you refuse to cooperate, I will take legal advice. c

  1. Inclusive type

  2. A sentence with pronominal correlation

  3. A sentence with an optional subordinate clause

  1. Everything I did that evening took a long time.

  2. It appeared as if nobody had heard of him.

  3. No sooner had he closed his eyes than he fell asleep.

  4. What I want to know is when you are going to get married.

  5. She tightened her lips as though she were trying to control herlself.

Synthetic means of form-building

  • What synthetic means of form-building do you know? (suffixation, sound-interchange, suppletivity)

  • What are the peculiarities of English affixation? (not too many suffixes, but they are homonymous within and across parts of speech, there’s abundance of zero morphemes)

  • Define the means of form-building:

Good-better (suppletivity) , i-we (suppletivity), this-these (sound-interchange), easy-easier (suffixation), foot-feet (suppletivity), loose-lost(sound-interchange+affixation)

  • Define the meaning of the homonymous affixes:

News, ours, man’s needs, reads, teacher, greater

The Adjective. The category of degrees of comparison.

  • What are the characteristic features of statives (adlinks)? Why do present a problem? (lexico-grammatical meaning of state, the wor-building suffix a, left-hand combinability with link verbs, the syntactical function of the subject complement/predicative)

  • Comment on the properties of the underlined words. To what part of speech do they belong?

  1. Don’t stay in the cold. (noun)

  2. Where is the car key? (adj)

  3. Don’t be afraid to ask questions. (adj - adlink)

  4. In the country of the blind, the one-eyed man is king. (substantivized adj)

  5. At one hundred feet, the water turned a deep blue. (noun)

Syntactic structure of the clause (simple sentence). The model of the members of the sentence

  • Complete the following statements of the sentence with suitable options:

  1. Adjunct

  2. Attribute

  3. Complement

  4. Conjunct

  5. Disjunct

  6. Object

  7. Predicate

  8. Subject

  1. The principle members of the syntactic structure of the clause are… g,h

  2. The obligatory secondary members of the syntactic structure of the clause are… c,a,f

  • Identify the underlined secondary parts of the sentence:

The shell in my hand is deserted. A little crab ran away, and left me his shell.

1 2 3 4

  1. Direct object 4

  2. Indirect object 3

  3. Predicate complement 2

  4. Subject complement 1

  • Choose a clause with an Object Complement:

  1. Did he hope to find a better home, a better mode of living?

  2. Parliament abolished the monarchy and declared England a republic.

  3. The books remained unread.

Main grammatical notions. Grammatical meaning and grammatical form. Grammatical categories. Method of opposition

  • What is a grammatical category? How is it revealed? (gr category is a unity of gr meaning and gr form, revealed through the opposition of gr forms representing the particular meaning of the category )

  • Define the type of the opposition (privative, equipollent, gradual) and the grammatical category revealed:

  1. Took – was taking (privative, aspect)

  2. Big – bigger – the biggest (gradual, degree of comparison)

  3. Child – children (privative, number)

  4. We-us (equipollent, case)

  5. Have written-had written (equipollent, tense)

  6. Asking-being asked (privative, voice)

  7. Man’s-men’s (equipollent, number)

  8. Come-will come (privative, posteriority)

  9. Came-would come (equipollent, posteriority)

  10. Good-better-best (gradual, degree of comparison)

Compound sentence. Semantic relations between the clauses

  • Are the clauses of a compound sentence independent of each other? (yes)

  • What logical relations exist between the clauses of a compound sentence? (copulative, disjunctive, adversative, causative and consecutive)

  • Define the kind of logical relation between the clauses of the compound sentences and the means of their structural dependence:

  1. I must have told him about it 60 times at least, and still he doesn’t bring it. (copulative)

  2. The grass was drenching wet, so he descended to the road. (causative and consecutive)

  3. There was no news, nevertheless she went on hoping. (adversative)

  4. He didn’t tell me, neither did he seem offended. (copulative)

  5. The night was dark, for the stars now were vanished before the full moon. (causative and consecutive)

Notional and functional classes of words

  • Complete the following statement choosing the suitable option:

  1. Morphological classification consider adverbs together with…

  1. Nouns, verbs, adjectives

  2. Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections

as … parts of speech.

  1. Declinable

  2. Indeclinable

  • According to Charles Fries, prepositions, together with…

1)articles 2)conjunctions 3)interjections

belong to group of…

a)clause introducers b)specifiers c)linkers (interpos. words)

  • Mark the following statements about formal words as true or false:

1) They have no lexical meaning F

2) They have obligatory combinability T

3) Their syntactic function is that of linking or specifying T


  • Match the phrases with the means of expressing the syntactic relations between the phrase constituents:

  1. These leaders b a) adjoinment

  2. Very large a b) agreement

  3. A family warriors c c) government

  4. Was later found e d) conjunctional connection

  5. To help him f e) enclosure

  6. Time and effort d f) prepositional connection

  • Mark the following statements about syntactic relations within a phrase (T/F):

  1. Agreement and government are characteristic of synthetic languages. T/F?? (inflexional langiages)

  2. Adjoinment and prepositional/ conjunctional connection are typical of analytical languages. T

  3. Enclosure is a typically English means of expressing syntactic relations in a phrase. T

  4. Agreement and government are widely used to connect phrase constituents in Modern English. F

  • Point out the elements that carry new information in the following sentences and define the means of their expression:

  1. It was only at this point that I realized I was getting special treatment.

  2. One year the long rains failed.

  3. Much later, a letter came out of the blue.

  4. Even now, I can hardly believe it is true.

  5. There’s a dog in the room. – The dog is in the room.

  • Choose the opposition that reveals the category of Voice in the Participle:

  1. Selling-sold b) selling-having sold c) selling-being sold

  • Choose the opposition that reveals the category of Voice in the Infinitive:

  1. To make-to be making b) to make-to be made c) to make-to have made

  • Do perfect form of the verb belong to the category of tense? (no, order)

  • What verbal category is revealed through the opposition (non-perfect - perfect)? (order)

  • Match the following questions and answers and comment on your choice:

  1. What did you do after university? b a) I’ve worked as a teacher.

  2. Have you any experience with teenagers? a b) I worked as a teacher.

  3. Do you know our city well? d c) I lived there for 10 years.

  4. Is Vienna your home city? c d) I’ve lived here for 25 years

  • Choose clause with a prepositional object:

  1. Edward offered his crown to his cousin Duke William of Normandy.

  2. Red power, however, lay with the Army and Oliver Cromwell.

  3. Many people go to midnight mass in church on Christmas Eve.

  • Choose a clause with an Object Complement:

  1. Did he hope to find a better home, a better mode of living?

  2. Parliament abolished the monarchy and declared England a republic?

  3. The books remained unread.

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