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International maritime organizations

The number of transport vessels has grown and is still growing now very rapidly. By the end of the 20th century the total tonnage of the world's cargo vessels is estimated to be about 500 million tons. To avoid any perils and accidents at sea it became necessary to coordinate their activities.

After the Second World War the Organization of the Uni­ted Nations was faced with this problem. It worked out a spe­cial convention for creating such an organization which was named the Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO) (now this organisation is called IMO). The Convention was approved by many countries and came into force in 1958. Nowadays more than 100 countries are the members- of this Or­ganization.

IMO performs now many functions through its Committees. The main of them are: the Committee of Safety at Sea, the Com­mittee for protecting the sea environment, the Juridical Com­mittee and the Committee for technical cooperation. Each of these committies works out special regulations which are further dis­cussed completed and approved at the Assemblies or Conferen­ces and then, on ratification by the majority of the IMO’s mem­bers, become a compulsory law. Such documents as International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, International Convention on Preventing Pollution at Sea, International Regu­lations for Safety of Life at Sea and others are well known to all the mariners and shall be strictly obeyed in practical na­vigation.

All these regulations impose liability on shipping compa­nies, the vessels and their crews for non-compliance or viola­tion of the rules.

Much attention is now paid to preventing pollution at sea, as its consequences may threaten the vitally important problems of the mankind. The coast and coastal waters polluted with oil or poisonous substances may become uninhabitable or harmful not only for man but for fish, birds, animals, and other living creatures as well as for vegetation.

Under Convention the countries, members of IMO, undertake to see to the effective execution of the rules. To control the strict observance of the Regulations special organizations have been established. The staff of these organizations has been established» The staff of these organizations is entitled to investigate the cause of pollution, to inspect the equipment aboard vessels and to impose a penalty for the violation of the Regulations.

II. NOTES:

  1. to evolve -развиваться, вызывать

  2. to impose -налагать

  3. liability -ответственность

  4. non-observance -несоблюдение

  5. uninhabitable - непригодный для жилья

6. strict adherence - строгое соблюдение

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

  1. What organization was forced to solve a great number of problems?

  2. When do the IMO’s regulations become a compulsory law?

  3. On whom is the liability imposed for strict observance of these regulations?

Oral presentation 3

SEA ROUTES

Sea route is the route from one port to another through open parts of the ocean or sea, and also through natural and artificial narrownesses (straits, canals, rivers, lakes). Main factors, which influence on sea routes formation are аs follows: weather, climate, depth and width of canal's fairways, navigational dangers and regions which have restrictions and are prohibited for merchant ships. Sea routes are subdivided into regional, international and coastal. Regional sea routes are formed in the limits of one continent for provision of transport communications. Marine merchant navigation is arran­ged in two basic forms: tramp (irregular) and linear (regular). Tramp navigation is arranged for Cargo delivery on various sea routes from time to time when necessary. There is no strict schedule. Points of loading and unloading are established in accordance with the voyage assignments per each passage. Linear navigation foresees system Organisation of cargo and passenger lines on definite sea route directions between ports of loading and unloading on fixed schedule. In dependence of the Cargo and passenger volume there may be one or several vessels to work. Coastal sea routes lie between the ports of one and the same state and may be realized between the ports of the same sea or be separated by several oceans, for example, between St. Petersburg and Vladivostok.

II. NOTES:

artificial - искусственный

subdivide - подразделять

schedule - расписание

for provision of - для обеспечения

assignment - задание, назначение

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

  1. What factors influence on sea route formation?

  2. What types of routes do you know?

  3. What is the difference between tramp and linear navigation, if there is any?

  4. What Shipping Companies do you know?

  5. What restrictions and prohibitions for merchant vessels do you know?

Oral presentation 4

SEA PROTESTS

In every case of an evident or suspected damage to cargo during the voyage, the captain of the ship is to note a Sea protest within 24 hours of arrival and before breaking bulk. The Sea Protest is made before a notary public or the consul, or before other local authorities. On noting the sea Protest the Master of the ship is to call in a surveyor to hold a survey on hatches. The Master of the ship also acquaints the receivers of the cargo with this fact in writing. In this case the receivers may appoint a surveyor if they wish.

The hatches should be opened and checked in the presence of the surveyor to prove that they had been properly battened down and covered before the voyage. If the sueveyor’s report states that the hatches were properly covered and secured and the cargo was properly dunnaged and stowed, the ship is discharged from responsibility for the damage.

At court the sworn testimony of the Master and other witnesses should be substantiated by the entries in the logbook. For this purpose extracts from the logbook should be taken and produced. The Harbour Master should make an official announcemenht for the information of all concerned about the Sea Protest declared.

II. NOTES:

Sea protest –морской протест

To lodge a sea protest – подавать морской протест

To go to law – подать в суд

To hold a survey on – производить осморт

To appoint – назначать

To give evidence - давать показания

To sworn testimony –показания под присягой

To substantiate – подкреплять доказательствами

III. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

  1. Under what circumstances is the Master of the ship to lodge a sea protest?

  2. What are the main points that should be takenb into consideration while drawing up a sea protest?

  3. Within how many hours is the Master of the ship to note a sea protesr?

  4. Who signs the sea protest?

  5. What data are usually mentioned in the sea protest?

  6. Why is the true copy of the logbook required?

  7. Why is the Master to call in a survey on board ship?

  8. For what purpose should the hatches be opened and checked?

  9. What official document is the surveyor to issue?

  10. Why is a copy of the surveyor’s report be retained by the Master of the ship?

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS

Read the following letters and translate them

  1. Dear Sirs,

In compliance with my Owner’s instructions and in order to achieve the payment of all accounts within the shortest limits of time and also for our files you are kindly requested to hand me over the vouchers covering all expences sustained by my vessel in your port for the acceptance prior to the ship’s sailing.

A copy of each such document should be attached for my perusal as well. AShould your goodselves be unable for any reason fully to comply with the above please inform me writing what the additional expenses and amounts are.

Thank you in advance.

Yours faithfully

Master of the m/v ….

  1. Dear Sirs,

In compliance with the established custom in your port I would kindly request you to employ for our account tallymen of local Company to keep the tally.

Yourth faithfully, ……

Dear Sirs,

Please make arrangements with the stevedoring Company for overtime works from….. till midnight …. th and … th inst in holds Nos….

Extra cost of stevedores and extra expenses to be for the ship’s account (to be equally shared between the Consignees and Shipowner).

Yours faithfully, ….

  1. Dear Sirs,

I wish to bring to your attention the fact that the rate at which the cargo is being discharged is very slow and my vessel is already on demurrage.

Please make necessary arrangements for a quiker discharging and inform all concerned.

Yours faithfully, …

  1. Dear Sirs

Please note that the covers of packed steel sheets loaded in No … lower hold aft part are rusted and most of the bands broken. The Mate’s receipt for this particular lot will be claused accordingly. The cover of steel package no … is very badly damaged and the contents exposed.

Kindly have the cover renewed and inform the authorities concerned.

Yours faithfully, …

  1. Dear Sirs,

I have to draw your attention to the fact that as a result of negligent and careless handling of the cargo by stevedores some damage was caused to the cargo during discharging.

Contrary to the correct practice of discharging from corners of a hold, bags had been stowed on slings, in corners and then dragged along the floor all the way through until lifted. Most bags turned out to be considerably torn and dirted, their contents partly spilled.

In view of the above I have to attribute all losses incurred hereupon to the stevedoring company of which please take due note.

Yours faithfully, …

  1. Dear Sirs,

I have to draw your attention to the fact that owing to the negligent and careless handling of the cargo by stevedores much damage has been caused to the goods. Due to improper slining several boxes dropped from the slings and were totally broken.

As a result of inadmissible use of hooks a number of bags of cargo were badly torn and considerable leakage and loss ensued.

In the circumstances I have to make an official statement to the effect that my m/v “…” has brought the cargo in good order and condition and that I shall bear no responsibility for any claims in connection with the above mentioned damage which was caused to the goods in the course of such inefficient discharging.

At the same time I hold the Stevedoring Company … responsible for the damage caused and for all the consequences which may arise therefrom, of which I kindly request you to advise the said Stevedoring Company, Consignees and all concerned.

Yours faithfully, …

  1. Dear Sirs,

The following damage has been caused to my ship by the stevedores for which I hold them fully responsible.

  1. Hold No 2. Lower hold after part ladder platform damaged, three ladder rungs bent.

  2. Hold No 3. Lower hold pipe guards damaged.

  3. Hold No 4. Hand railings bent 2 metres.

  4. On the main deck, railing in way of hold No 1 damaged for a length of about 3 metres.

Kindlyhave the damage repaired before the completion of discharging.

Yours faithfully, …

  1. Deare Sirs,

Please be advised that on completion of discharging the m/v “… “ the shortage of … sets of … under B/L No … has been found.

This is to declare that the cargo … was delivered in full cvompliance with the quantity shown in the B/L and the shortage took place owing to the miscalculation of your tallymen.

Under present circumstances please arrange rechecking of the said cargo inside the warehouse and also during the delivery of it to the consignees.

Please inform me and the shipowner of the result of rechecking and accordingly rectify the outturn-report.

Yours faithfully, …

  1. Port of …

To Notary/ Consul

“ …” ….. 2012

I … Master of the ship … of … Register, Official No … and … Gross Register Tons, which sailed from … on the … 2012 bound for … and arrived at …(port) … on the … day of … and fearing that notwithstanding all measures of good seamanship taken by me and my crew some loss or damage might be caused to the said ship or her appurtence of cargo or some other property on board by reason of…

I hereby note my protest against any claims by all persons or person whom it shall or may concern, and declare that all and every damage and loss sustained by the said ship and/or cargo, or some other property on board in consequence of the accident aforesaid, are and shall be borne by those who, according to the laws and customs of the sea shall bear the consequences thereof, the same having occurred as above-stated not by or through the want of care of myself or my crew.

I reserve the right to extend the same at time and place convenient.

Master of the “…”

Signed…

Witnesses:

  1. … Second mate

  2. … First Assistant Engineer

  3. … Able seaman

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