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Great Britain.doc
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Of the three parts which make up Great Britain England is the largest, the industrial and the most densely populated part of the United Kingdom. Over 46 million people of the population of the UK live in England. The greatest concentrations of people are in London, Birmingham and northwest industrial cities.

England is bounded on North by Scotland, on West by Bristol Channel, the Irish Sea, St. George’s Channel, on South by the English Channel, on East by the North Sea. The sea has a great effect on England’s climate. The climate is generally mild and temperate to the influence of the Gulf Streem. It is usually cool and humid. The weather is rather changeable. Rainfall is throughout the year. It’s never too hot or too cold in England.

The national emblem of England is Red Rose. The patron saint of the country is St. George. The national day is St. George’s Day which is celebrated on April, 23.

England is mostly a lowland country, but there are upland regions in the north (Cumberland Mountains) and the southwest (Cornwall Peninsula). The Pennines (the Pennine Chain) situated in the middle of England are called the Backbone of England.

Administratively England is divided into counties. Economically it is divided into 8 economic regions: North-East, North-West, Yorkshire, Lancashire, East Anglia, the Midlands, South-West, South-East.

Each part is different. The North-West or the Lake District with its lakes, mountains, valleys is favourite holiday area. The wool industry is centered in Leeds and Bradford, the cotton industry in Manchester, iron, steel industries, heavy machinery and shipbuilding industries in Newcastle.

The Midlands is the most industrial area with its chief city Birmingham. Everything is produced here from motor cars and railway engines to pins and buttons: machine tools, tubes, domestic metalware, rubber products, etc. So Birmingham is called the City of 1500 trades and the whole region around it is called “Black country”.

South-West, South-East are agricultural regions, known for their picturesque scenery and mild climate. The whole southern coast is dotted with sea – resorts. On the southern coast of England there are many large ports, among them: Southampton, Portsmouth, Plymouth. In Southern England are found some of the oldest British settlements and traces of ancient monuments such as Stonehenge, which is built of circles of heavy and large stones.

Topical vocabulary

to consist of – cостоять из

independent – независимый

island – остров

to separate – отделять

to be situated – располагаться

coast – побережье

patron saint – св. покровитель

to comprise – включать, содержать

peak – горная вершина

influence – влияние

lowland – низменность

highland (upland) – нагорье, горная местность

valley – долина

metalware – металлоконструкция

ancient – древний

to be bounded (on) – граничить с

congestion – скопление, масса

to pollute – загрязнять

trash – мусор

red double-decker – красный двухэтажный автобус

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