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Vocabulary

Match the words from the text to the correct definitions, as in the example. Use the context to help you.

The numbers in brackets refer to the paragraph in which the words appear.

moans (1) a) simply

muddle (2) b) complains

get on our nerves (3) c) remove risk of explosion

defuse (3) d) forget about

never mind (4) e) mess, confusion

plain (4) f) irritate us

Comprehension

Choose the correct answers from the choices given.

Anti-social behavior is frequent at work because

most people have difficult personalities;

we are confused by other people's behavior;

people react against behavior different from their own;

people object to others being inefficient.

The best way to deal with the problem is to:

change people's personalities;

avoid trouble by realizing why the annoy us;

breathe rhythmically;

scratch our heads when we are irritated by them.

The difficulty of Mr. Woolf s solution is that:

we are not tolerant enough to carry it out;

it is likely to get on our nerves;

it is unnatural to copy other people's breathing;

people may be annoyed if they notice we are copying them.

Writing:

  1. Write a short biographical account of a well-known person from any field (politics, literature, entertainment, sports or the arts), a grandparent, a former teacher, a friend

  2. What are the advantages of being an only child and of having brothers and sisters?

  3. What are the qualities you expect in a friend?

Grammar

The Noun

Ex. 1. Choose the correct form, the singular or the plural.

  1. The trousers you bought doesn’t/don’t fit you. They are/It is too short for you.

  2. Physics was/were my best subject at school. ~ Really? But I think mathematics is/are much easier than physics.

  3. Fortunately the news wasn’t/weren’t as bad as we had expected.

  4. The police want/wants to interview me about the robbery.

  5. Three days isn’t/aren’t long enough for a good holiday.

  6. Where does/do your family live? ~ All my family live/lives with me.

  7. Does/do the police know about the stolen money?

  8. Can I borrow your scissors? Mine isn’t/aren’t sharp enough.

  9. I’m going to take a taxi. Six miles is/are too far for me to walk.

  10. The danger of the forests fires is/are very serious for the environment.

  11. The fear of the murder and robbery has/have caused many people to leave big cities.

  12. The effects of that crime was/were very devastating for the city.

  13. Fifty dollars is/are too much to pay for these trousers.

  14. Mr Smith accompanied by his wife and daughter is/are arriving tonight.

  15. The doctor and his assistant have/has already finished their work today.

  16. The majority of the people believe/believes him to be innocent.

  17. Neither Bill nor Mary is/are going to the party tonight.

  18. When is/are the daily news on? ~ They are/It is on every hour on channel A.

Ex. 2. Say the following correctly.

  1. Neither Jane nor her parents was/were at home.

  2. Look! Two aircraft/aircrafts are flying in the sky.

  3. The mass media, TV and the press, have/has enormous power in any society.

  4. The police have /has weighed all the evidence and have/ has found the accused guilty.

  5. Your advice was/were very useful. I usually use your advice/advices when I’m in trouble/troubles.

  6. This book contains much/many useful information/informations.

  7. Money isn’t/aren’t everything in my life, but it is difficult to live without it/them.

  8. Fish/fishes travel long distances and different fish live/lives at different levels of water.

  9. Coffee/a coffee or tea/a tea, please? ~ Two tea/teas and a coffee/coffee, please.

  10. Could you help me carry my luggage/luggages?

  11. The fruits/fruit of nature belong to all mankind.

  12. Too much/many knowledge/knowledges makes the head bold.

  13. The jury is/are ready to give a verdict.

  14. The number of months in a year is/are twelve.

  15. A number of projects was/were suggested to improve the fuel-energy situation in this country.

  16. The United States have/has lost all the football matches this season.

  17. The wages of a professor is/are higher than that/those of a secretary.

  18. Where is/are my glasses? – They/it are/is on your desk.

  19. Neither my sister nor my friend is/are going to the South this summer.

  20. Reading literature, as well as talking and writing about it, is/are both an effective and cognitive process.

Ex. 3. Open the brackets using the correct forms.

  1. Money (be) easy to spend, but it is difficult to save (it/them).

  2. Love (be) the reason for (much /many) happiness in the world.

  3. He arrived late. All of his belongings (be) in two small (suitcase).

  4. The (evidence) of the witnesses (be) very important for the accused person.

  5. Aerobics (do) you a lot of good. Sports (be) useful for everybody.

  6. Jeans (be) in fashion nowadays, (… …)? – Yes, (… … ).

  7. Most people (enjoy) Christmas. Majority (spend) a lot of money on Christmas presents.

  8. The police (look) for the (thief). £ 50,000 (be) stolen from the bank by a group of (robber).

  9. Her good (looks/look) always (get) her what she wants.

  10. The young couple (get) married next month.

  1. The doctor’s (advice) (be) to stop smoking immediately.

  1. Measles, which (be) a children’s disease, (be) dangerous for adults.

  2. Yesterday the audience (be) given free tickets to the next show.

  3. The economics I learnt at school (be) out of date now.

  4. Her death in a car accident (be) a great shock for everybody.

  5. (Fish) (be) easy to look after as pets. There (be) ten (fish) in my aquarium.

  6. Television news (give) you more (information) than radio news.

  7. The stairs to the second floor (be) over there.

  8. The (information) I got (be) very helpful.

  9. Three weeks (be) a long time to wait for an answer.

  10. The classical and light music (have) both (their/its) admirers.

  11. The red and the white rose (be) both beautiful.

  12. Half of my earnings (go) in tax.

  13. Two-thirds of our family’s income (be spent) on food.

Noun verb agreement

Rule 1. Two singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb.

Example: My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today.

Rule 2. Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb as in Rule 1.

Examples: Neither Juan nor Carmen is available.

Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations.

Rule 3. When I is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor, put it second and follow it with the singular verb am.

Example: Neither she nor I am going to the festival.

Rule 4. When a singular subject is connected by or or nor to a plural subject, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb.

Example: The serving bowl or the plates go on that shelf.

Rule 5. When a singular and plural subject are connected by either/or or neither/nor, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb.

Example: Neither Jenny nor the others are available.

Rule 6. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected by and.

Example: A car and a bike are my means of transportation.

Rule 7. Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by words such as along with, as well as, besides, or not. Ignore these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb.

Examples: The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly.

Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking.

Rule 8. The pronouns each, everyone, every one, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody are singular and require singular verbs. Do not be misled by what follows of.

Examples: Each of the girls sings well.

Every one of the cakes is gone.

NOTE: Everyone is one word when it means everybody. Every one is two words when the meaning is each one.

Rule 9.

With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth —look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb.

Examples: Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared.

Pie is the object of the preposition of.

Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared.

Pies is the object of the preposition.

One-third of the city is unemployed.

One-third of the people are unemployed.

NOTE: Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions.

All of the pie is gone. / All of the pies are gone.

Some of the pie is missing. / Some of the pies are missing.

None of the garbage was picked up. / None of the sentences were punctuated correctly.

Of all her books, none have sold as well as the first one.

Rule 10. The expression the number is followed by a singular verb while the expression a number is followed by a plural verb.

Examples: The number of people we need to hire is thirteen.

A number of people have written in about this subject.

Rule 11. When either and neither are subjects, they always take singular verbs.

Examples: Neither of them is available to speak right now.

Either of us is capable of doing the job.

Rule 12. The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there, the subject follows the verb.

Examples: There are four hurdles to jump.

There is a high hurdle to jump.

Rule 13. Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time.

Examples: Ten dollars is a high price to pay.

Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense.

Rule 14. Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So, if that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb.

Examples: Salma is the scientist who writes/write the reports.

The word in front of who is scientist, which is singular. Therefore, use the singular verb writes.

He is one of the men who does/do the work.

The word in front of who is men, which is plural. Therefore, use the plural verb do.

Rule 15. Collective nouns such as team and staff may be either singular or plural depending on their use in the sentence.

Examples: The staff is in a meeting.

Staff is acting as a unit here.

The staff are in disagreement about the findings.

The staff are acting as separate individuals in this example.

The sentence would read even better as:

The staff members are in disagreement about the findings

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