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Oral topic №11

The role of information for managing a business. It’s very difficult to overestimate the role of information. Information can be considered as the raw material used in producing each and every decision taken in an organization. In carrying out marketing analysis, planning, implementation and control, marketing managers need information at almost every turn. They need information about customers, competitors, dealers, and other forces in the marketplace.

The notion of the MIS, its components and goals. Intelligence gathering: Snooping on Competitors. The Marketing Information System (MIS) consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely and accurate information to marketing decision makers. The MIS begins and ends with marketing managers. First, these managers have to assess their information needs. Next, the needed information is developed from internal company records, marketing intelligence activities, and the marketing research process. Finally the MIS distributes information to managers is the right form and the right time to help them in marketing planning, implementation, and control.

The definition of Marketing Research. To obtain the information, the company will need formal marketing research.

We define marketing research as a function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information – information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; to generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; to monitor marketing performance; and to improve understanding of the marketing process.

The four steps in the marketing research process.

The marketing research consists of 4 steps:

1. Defining the problem and research objectives

2. Developing a plan for collecting the information needed

3. Implementing the research plan

4. Interpretation and reporting

The research approaches.

There are 3 main research approaches: the observational research, survey research and an experimental approach.

Contact methods. Contact methods of collecting information are by mail, telephone, or personal interview.

Sampling plan. Marketing researchers usually draw conclusions about large groups of consumers by studying a small sample of the total consumer population. Designing the sample calls for 3 decisions:

• Who is to be surveyed? ( what sampling unit?)

• How many people should be surveyed? (what sample size?)

• How should be people in the sample be chosen? (what sampling procedure?)

Research instruments. In collecting primary data, marketing researches have a choice of 2 main research instruments – the questionnaire and mechanical devices.

Oral topic №12

The four major promotional tools.

Promotional tools:

1. Advertisement

2. Public relations

3. Promotion

4. Personal selling

History of Advertising. Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. History tells us that Out-of-home advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising.

Forms of advertising.

• Television advertising/ Music in advertising

• Infomercials

• Radio advertising

• Online advertising

• Covert advertising

• Press advertising

• Billboard advertising

• Street advertising (3D pavement advertising)

• Celebrity branding

Advertising techniques. The basis of all techniques is appeal. There are 2 kinds of appeals: the factual appeal and the emotional appeal.

The goal of the advertisement is to give some useful information about the product.

Advertisement must employ some techniques to ensure that this appeal is effectively communicated to the audience.

1. The 1 technique is the use of slogans. A slogan is a short phrase and also easy to remember.

2. The next technique is testimonials. Testimonials are advertisements that have people – sometimes famous, sometimes not – tell us that they use and like a certain product, and that we will like it too.

3. And the last technique is repetition. Repetition means to run ad again and again.

Debatable sides of advertising (controversy, ethics, etc.)

Researchers found that briefly displaying words and images so quickly that people do not even consciously notice does nevertheless change their thinking. They found it was particularly effective with negative images and words which could alter a person’s mood. So, in general, the subliminal ads are promotional messages, the recipient is not aware of, such as those played at very low volume or flashed on a screen for less than a second. Its effectiveness is not supported by scientific evidence. Subliminal advertising is not permitted on TV in the UK.

* Negative words may have more of a rapid impact. “Kill your speed” should be more noticeable than “Slow down”.

Role of advertising

To my mind at present it's almost everywhere: we see or hear a lot of advertisements on the TV sets, in the underground, on billboards, in newspapers and in the public transport. Today it's almost impossible to imagine our lives without advertisements. The main aim of advertisers is to attract your attention and then to make you buy this or that product whether you like it or not. Advertising is important. It is a favorable representation of product to make consumers, customers and general public aware of the product. It lets the potential buyers, general public and end users to be aware and familiar with the brands, their goods and services.

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