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Text 9 more specialities in medicine

  1. Since World War II there has been an almost explosive increase of knowledge in the medical sciences as well as enormous advances in technology as applicable to medicine. These developments have led to more and more specialization. Expansion of knowledge both in depth and in range has encouraged the development of new forms of treatment that require high degrees of specialization, such as organ transplantation and exchange transfusion. The field of anesthesiology has grown increasingly complex as equipment and anesthetics have improved.

  2. New technologies have introduced microsurgery, laser beam surgery, and lens implantation (for cataract patients), all requiring the specialist's skill. Precision in diagnosis has markedly improved; advances in radiology, the use of ultrasound, computerized axial tomography (CAT scan), and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging are examples of the technology extension requiring expertise in the field of medicine.

  3. To provide more efficient service it is not uncommon for a specialist surgeon and a specialist physician to form a team working together in the field of, for example, heart disease. An advantage of this arrangement is that they can attract a highly trained group of muses, technologists, operating room technicians, and so on, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the service to the patient.

  4. Such specialization is expensive, however, and has required an increasingly large proportion of the health budget of institutions, a situation that eventually has its financial effect on the individual citizen. The question therefore arises as to their cost-effectiveness. Governments of developing countries have usually found, for instance, that it is more cost-efficient to provide more people with basic care.

Определите, является ли утверждение:

61. HEALTH BUDGET OF INSTITUTIONS IS INCREASINGLY SPENT ON SPECIALISATION.

1) ложным

2) истинным

3) в тексте нет информации

62. ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION REQUIRES HIGH DEGREES OF SPECIALISATION.

1) ложным

2) в тексте нет информации

3) истинным

63. A SURGEON AND A PHYSICIAN NEVER FORM A TEAM WORKING TOGETHER IN THE FIELD OF HEART DISEASE.

1) истинным

2) в тексте нет информации

3) ложным

64. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY HAS LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORE EFFECTIVE DRUGS.

1) в тексте нет информации

2) истиняым

3) ложным

Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

65. NEW TECHNOLOGIES EXTENDED THE NEED IN EXPERTISE IN THE FIELD OF MEDICINE.

1) 4

2) 2

3) 1

4) 3

66. BOTH INCREASE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE MEDICAL SCIENCES AND ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY.

1) 4

2) 2

3) 3

4) 1

67. ОТВЕТЬТЕ НА ВОПРОС:

WHY IS THE SPECIALIST'S SKILL IN MEDICINE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT NOWADAYS?

1) It is important because of the appearance of AIDS.

2) It is important because of the introduction of new technologies and equipment.

3) It is important because the number of patients is rapidly growing.

4) It is important because being a physician is a very hard job.

68. ОПРЕДЕЛИТЕ ОСНОВНУЮ ИДЕЮ ТЕКСТА

1) New technologies in medicine have greatly improved the efficiency of the service to the patient.

2) Specialization in medicine is very expensive.

3) Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is one of the newest technologies in the field of medicine.

4) It is more efficient to provide people with basic care than to treat them in health service institutions.

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